Alosa pseudoharengus

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Alosa pseudoharengus
Alosa pseudoharengus.jpg
Alosa pseudoharengus (NY).jpg
Classificació científica
Regne: Animalia
Fílum: Chordata
Classe: Actinopterygii
Ordre: Clupeiformes
Família: Clupeidae
Gènere: Alosa
Linck, 1790 [1]
Espècie: A. pseudoharengus
Nom binomial
Alosa pseudoharengus
Wilson, 1811[2][3]
Sinònims

Clupea megalops (Rafinesque, 1818)
Clupea parvula (Mitchill, 1814)
Clupea pseudoharengus (Wilson, 1811)
Clupea vernalis (Mitchill, 1815)
Clupea virescens (DeKay, 1842)
Meletta venosa (Valenciennes, 1847)
Pomolobus pseudoharengus (Wilson, 1811)[2]

El gasparell o Alosa pseudoharengus és una espècie de peix de la família dels clupeids i de l'ordre dels clupeïformes present a la costa atlàntica des del Golf de Sant Llorenç i Nova Escòcia fins a Carolina del Nord, incloent-hi els rius. Ha estat introduït als Grans Llacs d'Amèrica del Nord (Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan i Superior).[4] Es comercialitza fresc, assecat, en salaó, fumat i congelat per a ésser fregit.[5]

Els mascles poden assolir 40 cm de llargària total i 200 g de pes.[6][4]

Ecologia[modifica | modifica el codi]

Els adults mengen peixets i gambes, i els exemplars immadurs es nodreixen de diatomees, copèpodes i ostràcodes mentre són als rius.[4] És depredat per Anguilla anguilla, Lophius americanus, Lota lota, Stizostedion vitreum, Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Salvelinus namaycush, Cynoscion regalis, Morone saxatilis, Sander vitreus, Pomatomus saltator, Acanthocyclops vernalis, Dicyclops thomasi, Petromyzon marinus i Squalus acanthias.[7] És parasitat per cestodes, trematodes, copèpodes i acantocèfals.[4] Pot arribar a viure fins als 9 anys.[8] Es veu amenaçat per la sobrepesca, la contaminació de l'aigua i la construcció de dics que no poden remuntar en llurs migracions.[9]

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. Linck H. F. 1790. Versuch einer Eintheilung der Fische nach den Zähnen. Mag. Neueste Phys. Naturgesch. v. 6 (núm. 3). 28-38.
  2. 2,0 2,1 BioLib (anglès)
  3. Wilson, A. 1811. The Cyclopedic; or, universal dictionary of arts, sciences, and letters. Rees' Cyclopedia v. 9: Núm. pagnation.
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 4,3 FishBase (anglès)
  5. Frimodt, C. 1995. Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, Anglaterra. 215 p.
  6. Robins, C.R. i G.C. Ray 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Estats Units. 354 p.
  7. FishBase (anglès)
  8. Altman, P.L. i D.S. Dittmer 1962. Growth, including reproduction and morphological development. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.
  9. Bigelow, H.B., M.G. Bradbury, J.R. Dymond, J.R. Greeley, S.F. Hildebrand, G.W. Mead, R.R. Miller, L.R. Rivas, W.L. Schroeder, R.D. Suttkus i V.D. Vladykov 1963. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Part three. New Haven, Sears Found. Mar. Res., Yale Univ.

Bibliografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Bailey, K.M. i E.D. Houde 1989. Predation on eggs and larvae of marine fishes and the recruitment problem. Adv. Mar. Biol. 25:1-83.
  • Bentzen, P., W.C. Leggett i G.G. Brown 1993. Genetic relationships among the shads (Alosa) revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis. J. Fish Biol. 43:909-917.
  • Bigelow, H.B. i W.C. Schroeder 1953. Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. Fish. Bull. 53:1-577.
  • Brandt, S.B., J.J. Magnuson i L.B. Crowder 1980. Thermal habitat partitioning by fishes in Lake Michigan. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37(10):1557-1564.
  • Breder, C.M. i D.E. Rosen 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, Nova Jersey. 941 p.
  • Brown, E.H. Jr. 1972. Population biology of alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, in Lake Michigan, 1949-1970. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29:477-500.
  • Buckel, J.A. i D.O. Conover 1997. Movements, feeding periods, and daily ration of piscivorous young-of-the-year bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, in the Hudson River stuary. Fish. Bull. 95:665-679.
  • Cianci, J.M. 1969. Larval development of the alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus Wilson, and the glut herring, Alosa aestivalis Mitchill. University of Connecticut. 62 p.
  • Coker, G.A., C.B. Portt i C.K. Minns 2001. Morphological and ecological characteristics of Canadian freshwater fishes. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Núm. 2554. 89p.
  • Edsall, T.A. 1964. Feeding by three species of fishes on the eggs of spawning alewives. Copeia 1964(1):226-227.
  • Eschmeyer, William N.: Genera of Recent Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. iii + 697. ISBN 0-940228-23-8. Any 1990.
  • Eschmeyer, William N., ed. 1998. Catalog of Fishes. Special Publication of the Center for Biodiversity Research and Information, núm. 1, vol. 1-3. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. 2905. ISBN 0-940228-47-5.
  • Fratt, T.W., D.W. Coble, F. Copes i R.E. Bruesewitz 1997. Diet of burbot in Green Bay and Western Lake Michigan with comparison to other waters. J. Great Lakes Res. 23(1):1-10.
  • Grabe, S.A. 1996. Feeding chronology and habits of Alosa spp. (Clupeidae) juveniles from the lower Hudson River estuary, New York. Environ. Biol. Fish. 47:321-326.
  • Helfman, G., B. Collette i D. Facey: The Diversity of Fishes. Blackwell Science, Malden, Massachusetts, Estats Units, 1997. ISBN 1-4051-2494-6.
  • Hildebrand, S.F. 1964. Family Clupeidae. p. 257-454. A H.B. Bigelow et al. (eds.) Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Mem. Sears Fdn. Mar. Res., New Haven, (1-3):1-630.
  • Jessop, B.M. 1990. Stock-recruitment relationships of alewives and blueback herring returning to the Mactaquac Dam, Saint John River, New Brunswick. North Am. J. Fish. Manage. 10:19-32.
  • Jude, D.J., F.J. Tesar, S.F. Deboe i T.J. Miller 1987. Diet and selection of major prey species by Lake Michigan salmonids, 1973-1982. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 116(5):677-691.
  • Kissil, G.W. 1974. Spawning of the anadromous alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus, in Bride Lake, Connecticut. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 103(2):312-317.
  • Knight, R.L. i B. Vondracek 1993. Changes in prey fish populations in western lake Erie, 1969-1988, as related to walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, predation. Can. J. Fish. Aquat Sci. 50 : 1289-1298.
  • Madenjian, C.P., J.D. Holuszko i T.J. Desorcie 2003. Growth and condition of alewives in Lake Michigan, 1984-2001. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 132(6):1104-1116.
  • Mansueti, A.J. i J.D. Hardy 1967. Development of fishes of the Chesapeake Bay region. An atlas of egg, larval and juvenile stages. Part. 1. Port City Press, Baltimore. 202 p.
  • Mayers, L.J. i L. Roberts 1969. Chromosomal homogeneity of five populations of alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus. Copeia 1969(2):313-317.
  • McComish, T.S. 1985. A 1984 diet evaluation for salmonids from Indiana waters of Lake Michigan. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 95:188.
  • Mills, E.L., R. O'Gorman, E.F. Roseman, C. Adams i R.W. Owens 1995. Planktivory by alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) on microcrustacean zooplankton and dreissenid (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) veligers in southern Lake Ontario. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52:925-935.
  • Moyle, P. i J. Cech.: Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology, 4a. edició, Upper Saddle River, Nova Jersey, Estats Units: Prentice-Hall. 2000. ISBN 0-13-011282-8.
  • Nelson, J.S. 2006: Fishes of the world. Quarta edició. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, Nova Jersey, Estats Units. 601 p. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.
  • Norden, C.R. 1967. Age, growth and fecundity of the alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson), in Lake Michigan. Proc. Conf. Great Lakes Res. 10:70-78.
  • O'Gorman, R., R.A. Bergstedt i T.H. Eckert 1987. Prey fish dynamics and salmonine predator growth in Lake Ontario, 1978-84. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44 (Suppl. 2):390-403.
  • Scott, W.B. i M.G. Scott 1988. Atlantic fishes of Canada. Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 219: 731 p.
  • Smith, H.M. 1907. The fishes of North Carolina. N.C. Geol. Econ. Surv. 2. 453 p.
  • Stone, H.H. i G.R. Daborn 1987. Diet of alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus and blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis (Pisces: Clupeidae) in Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, a turbid, macrotidal estuary. Environ. Biol. Fish. 19(1):55-67.
  • Tin, H.T. 1982. Family Clupeidae, herrings. p. 64-73. A N.A. Auer (ed.) Identification of larval fishes of the Great Lakes basin with emphasis on the Lake Michigan drainage. Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Special Publ. 82-3, 744 p.
  • Tyus, H.M. 1974. Movements and spawning of anadromous alewifes, Alosa pseudoharengus (Wilson) at Lake Mattamuskeet, North Carolina. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 103(2):392-395.
  • Wheeler, A.: The World Encyclopedia of Fishes, 2a. edició, Londres: Macdonald. 1985. ISBN 0-356-10715-9.
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 1 - Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303.
  • Wolfert, D.R. 1966. Food of young-of the-year walleyes in Lake Erie. Fish. Bull. 65(2):489-494.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]