Anguilla japonica

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Anguilla japonica
Anguilla japonica 1856.jpg
Classificació científica
Regne: Animalia
Fílum: Chordata
Classe: Actinopterygii
Subclasse: Neopterygii
Ordre: Anguilliformes
Subordre: Anguilloidei
Família: Anguillidae
Gènere: Anguilla
(Schrank, 1798)[1]
Espècie: A. japonica
Nom binomial
Anguilla japonica
(Temminck & Schlegel, 1846)[2]
Sinònims
  • Anguilla remifera (Jordan & Evermann, 1902)[3]

Anguilla japonica és una espècie de peix pertanyent a la família dels anguíl·lids.[4]

Descripció[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Pot arribar a fer 150 cm de llargària màxima (normalment, en fa 40) i 1.889 g de pes.
  • Nombre de vèrtebres: 114-118.[5][6][7][8]

Alimentació[modifica | modifica el codi]

Menja crustacis, insectes i peixos.[9]

Reproducció[modifica | modifica el codi]

Hom creu que la zona de fresa d'aquesta espècie es troba a l'oest de les illes Mariannes.[5][10]

Hàbitat[modifica | modifica el codi]

És un peix d'aigua dolça, salabrosa i marina; demersal; catàdrom i de clima subtropical (4°C-27°C; 42°N-22°N, 73°E-168°E) que viu entre 1-400 m de fondària.[5][11][12][13]

Distribució geogràfica[modifica | modifica el codi]

Es troba a Àsia: des del Japó fins al mar de la Xina Oriental, Taiwan, Corea, la Xina i el nord de les illes Filipines. Ha estat introduïda a Cambodja i Guam.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41]

Ús comercial[modifica | modifica el codi]

És venuda fresca, fumada, en conserva i congelada per a ésser cuinada al vapor, rostida a la graella o al forn.[42] A més, és emprada en la medicina tradicional xinesa.[43]

Observacions[modifica | modifica el codi]

És inofensiva per als humans.[5]

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. Schrank, F. von P., 1798. Fauna Boica. Durchgedachte Geschichte der in Baieren einheimischen und zahmen Thiere. Nürnberg. Fauna Boica v. 1: i-xii + 1-720.
  2. Temminck, C. J. & H. Schlegel, 1846. Pisces, Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14: 173-269.
  3. Catalogue of Life (anglès)
  4. The Taxonomicon (anglès)
  5. 5,0 5,1 5,2 5,3 FishBase (anglès)
  6. Smith, D.G., 1999. Anguillidae. Freshwater eels. P. 1630-1636. A: K.E. Carpenter i V.H. Niem (eds.). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the WCP. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Roma.
  7. Nichols, J.T., 1943. The freshwater fishes of China. Natural history of Central Asia: Volum IX. The American Museum of Natural History, Nova York, Estats Units, 322 p.
  8. Okamura, A., Y. Yamada, S. Tanaka, N. Horie, T. Utoh, N. Mikawa, A. Akazawa i H.P. Oka, 2002. Atmospheric depression as the final trigger for the seaward migration of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 234:281-288.
  9. Man, S.H. and I.J. Hodgkiss 1981 Hong Kong freshwater fishes. Urban Council, Wishing Printing Company, Hong Kong, 75 p.
  10. Tsukamoto, K., 1992. Discovery of the spawning area for Japanese eel. Nature 356:789-791.
  11. Riede, K., 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Alemanya. 329 p.
  12. Shao, K.-T. i P.L. Lim, 1991. Fishes of freshwater and estuary. Encyclopedia of field guide in Taiwan. Recreation Press, Co., Ltd., Taipei. vol. 31. 240 p. (en xinès).
  13. Baensch, H.A. i R. Riehl, 1995. Aquarien Atlas. Band 4. Mergus Verlag GmbH, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde, Melle, Alemanya. 864 p.
  14. FishBase (anglès)
  15. Chen, C.-H., 2004. Checklist of the fishes of Penghu. FRI Special Publication. Núm. 4. 175 p.
  16. Chiba, K., Y. Taki, K. Sakai i Y. Oozeki, 1989. Present status of aquatic organisms introduced into Japan. P. 63-70. A: S.S. De Silva (ed.). Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Spec. Publ. Asian Fish. Soc. 3, 154 p.
  17. Conlu, P.V., 1986. Guide to Philippine flora and fauna. Fishes. Vol. IX. Natural Resources Management Center, Quezon City. 495 p.
  18. Eldredge, L.G., 1994. Freshwater fishes. P. 73-84. A: L.G. Eldredge, Perspectives in aquatic exotic species management in the Pacific Islands. Vol. 1. Introductions of commercially significant aquatic organisms to the Pacific Islands. South Pacific Commission, Nova Caledònia.
  19. Ganaden, S.R. i F. Lavapie-Gonzales, 1999. Common and local names of marine fishes of the Philippines. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Filipines. 385 p.
  20. Guan R., X. Wang i G. Ke, 1994. Age and growth of eels Anguilla japonica in a Chinese river. J. Fish Biol. 45(4):653-660.
  21. Huang, Z., 2001. Marine species and their distribution in China's seas. p. 404-463. Vertebrata. Smithsonian Institution, Florida, Estats Units. 598 p.
  22. Hwang, H.C., P.C. Yueh i S.F. Yu, 1982. The freshwater fishes of China in colored illustrations. Vol. 1 Shanghai Sciences and Technology Press, Xangai, la Xina. 173 p.
  23. Kim, I.-S., 1997. Illustrated encyclopedia of fauna and flora of Korea. Vol. 37. Freshwater fishes. Ministry of Education: 1-629.
  24. Kim, I.S., Y. Choi, C.L. Lee, Y.J. Lee, B.J. Kim i J.H. Kim, 2005. Illustrated book of Korean fishes. Kyo-Hak Pub Co. Seül, Corea del Sud. 615 p.
  25. Kottelat, M., 2001. Freshwater fishes of northern Vietnam. A preliminary check-list of the fishes known or expected to occur in northern Vietnam with comments on systematics and nomenclature. Environment and Social Development Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region. El Banc Mundial. Freshwater Fish. Vietnam (BOOK), juny: i-iii + 1-123 + 1-18.
  26. Kuang, Y., 1991. Anguilliformes. P. 52-65. A: J.-H. Pan, L. Zhong, C.-Y. Zheng, H.-L. Wu i J.-H. Liu (eds). 1991. The freshwater fishes of Guangdong Province. Guangdong Science and Technology Press, Guangzhou. 589 p.
  27. Kuo, S.-R. i K.-T. Shao, 1999. Species composition of fish in the coastal zones of the Tsengwen estuary, with descriptions of five new records from Taiwan. Zool. Stud. 38(4):391-404.
  28. Kuo, S.-R., H.-J. Lin i K.-T. Shao, 1999. Fish assemblages in the mangrove creeks of northern and southern Taiwan. Estuaries 22(4):1004-1015.
  29. Ma, X., X. Bangxi, W. Yindong i W. Mingxue, 2003. Intentionally introduced and transferred fishes in China's inland waters. Asian Fish. Sci. 16(3&4):279-290.
  30. Man, S.H. i I.J. Hodgkiss, 1981. Hong Kong freshwater fishes. Urban Council, Wishing Printing Company, Hong Kong, 75 p.
  31. Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno i T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tòquio, Japó. 437 p.
  32. Matsui, I., 1957. On the records of a leptocephalus and catadromous eels of Anguilla japonica in the waters around Japan with a presumption of their spawning places. J. Shimonoseki Coll. Fish. 7(1):151-.167, plates.
  33. Nagata, Y. i Y. Nakata, 1988. Distribution of six species of bitterlings in a creek in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Jap. J. Ichthyol. 35(3):320-331.
  34. Nguyen, H.P. i N.T. Nguyen, 1994. Checklist of marine fishes in Vietnam. Vol. 2. Osteichthyes, from Elopiformes to Mugiliformes. Science and Technics Publishing House, Vietnam.
  35. Ni, I.-H. i K.-Y. Kwok, 1999 Marine fish fauna in Hong Kong waters. Zool. Stud. 38(2):130-152.
  36. Okiyama, M., 1988. An atlas of the early stage fishes in Japan. Tokai University Press, Tòquio, Japó. 1157 p.
  37. Ozawa, T., F. Kakizoe, O. Tabeta, T. Maeda i Y. Yuwaki, 1991. Japanese eel leptocephali from three cruises in the western North Pacific. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 57(10):1877-1881.
  38. Tseng, M.-C., W.-N. Tzeng i S.-C. Lee, 2003. Historical decline in the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in Northern Taiwan inferred from temporal genetic variations. Zool. Stud. 42(4):556-563.
  39. Tsukamoto, K., A. Umezawa i T. Ozawa, 1992. Age and growth of Anguilla japonica leptocephali collected in western North Pacific in July 1990. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 58(3):457-459.
  40. Uonokai, T. Nakajima i K. Ohara (eds.), 2005. Activities of Uonokai (Fish survey group): Fish distribution in the watershed of Lake Biwa. Shiga, el Japó: Lake Biwa Museum. 233 p.
  41. Yamada, U., S. Shirai, T. Irie, M. Tokimura, S. Deng, Y. Zheng, C. Li, Y.U. Kim i Y.S. Kim, 1995. Names and Illustrations of fishes from the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Overseas Fishery Cooperation Foundation, Tòquio, Japó.
  42. Frimodt, C., 1995. Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, Anglaterra. 215 p.
  43. Tang, W.-C., 1987. Chinese medicinal materials from the sea. Abstracts of Chinese Medicine 1(4):571-600.

Bibliografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Anònim, 2001. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution - Division of Fishes.
  • Anònim, 2002. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West, NY 10024-5192, Estats Units.
  • Breder, C.M. i D.E. Rosen, 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, Nova Jersey, Estats Units. 941 p.
  • Chan, D.K.O. i N.Y.S. Woo, 1978. The respiratory metabolism of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica: effects of ambient oxygen, temperature, season, body weight, and hypophysectomy. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 35:160-168.
  • Garibaldi, L., 1996. List of animal species used in aquaculture. FAO Fish. Circ. 914. 38 p.
  • Gibbons, S., 1999. Collect fish on stamps. Stanley Gibbons Ltd., Londres i Ringwood. 418 p.
  • Kotlyar, A.N., 1984. Dictionary of names of marine fishes on the six languages. All Union Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, Moscou. 288 p.
  • Lee, N.S., J. Kobayashi i T. Miyazaki, 1999. Gill filament necrosis in farmed Japanese eels, Anguilla japonica (Temminck & Schlegel), infected with Herpesvirus anguillae. J. Fish Dis. 22:457-463.
  • Liao, I.C. i S.L. Chang, 1999. Technique improvements in duced maturation and spawning of pond-reared broodstock of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. J. Taiwan Fish. Res. 7(1&2):53-64.
  • McDowall, R.M., 1988. Diadromy in fishes: migrations between freshwater and marine environments. Croom Helm, Londres.
  • Nishikawa, S., K. Amaoka i T. Karasawa, 1971. On the chromosomes of two species of eels (Anguilla) Chromosome Info. Ser. 12:27-28.
  • Okamura, A., Y. Yamada, S. Tanaka, N. Horie, T. Utoh, N. Mikawa, A. Akazawa i H.P. Oka, 2002. Atmospheric depression as the final trigger for the seaward migration of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 234:281-288.
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea i W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21): 243 p.
  • Vasil'ev, V.P., 1980. Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish. J. Ichthyol. 20(3): 1-38.
  • Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao i C.F. Lai (eds.), 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.
  • Yoshinaka, R., K. Sato, H. Anbe, M. Sato i Y. Shimizu, 1988. Distribution of collagen in body muscle of fishes with different swimming modes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 89B(1):147-151.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]