Eleutheronema tetradactylum

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Eleutheronema tetradactylum
Eleutheronema tetradactylum Thomas.jpg
Classificació científica
Regne: Animalia
Fílum: Chordata
Classe: Osteichthyes
(Huxley, 1880)
Subclasse: Actinopterygii
Infraclasse: Actinopteri
Ordre: Perciformes
Subordre: Percoidei
Família: Polynemidae
Gènere: Eleutheronema
(Bleeker, 1862)[1][2]
Espècie: E. tetradactylum
Nom binomial
Eleutheronema tetradactylum
(Shaw, 1804) [3]
Sinònims
  • Eleutheronema tetradactyla (Shaw, 1804)
  • Eleutheronema tetradactylus (Shaw, 1804)
  • Eleuthronema tetradactylum (Shaw, 1804)
  • Polynemus coecus (Macleay, 1878)
  • Polynemus teria (Francis Buchanan-Hamilton

Eleutheronema tetradactylum és una espècie de peix pertanyent a la família dels polinèmids [4] present des del golf Pèrsic fins a Papua Nova Guinea[5] i el nord d'Austràlia.[6][7][8] És reemplaçat per Eleutheronema rhadinum a l'Àsia Oriental (el Japó, la Xina i el Vietnam).[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] És un peix d'aigua dolça (entra als rius durant l'hivern),[39][40] salabrosa i marina; pelàgic-nerític; amfídrom[41] i de clima tropical (32°N-26°S, 47°E-154°E),[42] el qual viu entre 0-23 m de fondària[43] sobre fons fangosos i costaners. Els juvenils viuen als estuaris.[9] Pot arribar a fer 200 cm de llargària (normalment, en fa 50) i 145 kg de pes. Té 9 espines i 13-15 radis tous a l'aleta dorsal i 3 espines i 14-16 radis tous a l'anal. Té 4 filaments pectorals. Té les membranes de les aletes de color groc.[9][44][45][46] És hermafrodita.[9][47] Les larves (entre 7 i 30 mm) es nodreixen sobretot de copèpodes i de Mysida i, també, de larves de gambes. Els juvenils (entre 31 i 60 mm) mengen gambes i Mysida.[48] Els exemplars adults s'alimenten de gambes, peixos (Mugilidae, Engraulidae i Sciaenidae) i, de tant en tant, poliquets.[9][49][50] A Austràlia és depredat per la barramunda catàdroma (Lates calcarifer), Centropomidae, d'altres polinèmids, el cocodril marí (Crocodylus porosus), taurons i rajades.[51] És inofensiu per als humans i es comercialitza fresc, congelat, assecat o en salaó.[9]

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. Bleeker P., 1862. Sixième memoire sur la faune ichthyologique de l'île de Batjan. Versl. Akad. Amsterdam v. 14. 99-112.
  2. uBio (anglès)
  3. Shaw, G., 1804. General zoology or systematic natural history ... V. 5 (pt 1): i-v + 1-25, Pls. 93-132, 43+, 65+, 6+, 74+ and (pt 2): i-vi + 251-463, Pls. 132-182, 158+. General zoology or systematic natural history ... Pisces
  4. The Taxonomicon (anglès)
  5. Kailola, P.J., 1987. The fishes of Papua New Guinea: a revised and annotated checklist. Vol. II Scorpaenidae to Callionymidae. Research Bulletin Núm. 41, Research Section, Dept. of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Papua Nova Guinea.
  6. Whitley, G.P., 1948. A list of the fishes of Western Australia. West. Aust. Fish. Dep. Fish Bull. 2:35 p.
  7. Hoese, D.F., D.J. Bray, J.R. Paxton i G.R. Allen, 2006. Fishes. A Beasley, O.L. i A. Wells (eds.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volum 35. ABRS & CSIRO Publishing: Australia Part 1, pp. xxiv 1-670; Part 2, pp. xxi 671-1472; Part 3, pp. xxi 1473-2178.
  8. Blaber, S.J.M., J.W. Young i M.C. Dunning, 1985. Community structure and zoogeographic affinities of the coastal fishes of the Dampier region of north-western Australia. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 36: 247-266.
  9. 9,0 9,1 9,2 9,3 9,4 9,5 FishBase (anglès)
  10. Ahmed, M., 1991. A model to determine benefits obtainable from the management of riverine fisheries of Bangladesh. ICLARM Tech. Rep. 28, 133 p.
  11. Assadi, H. i R. Dehghani P., 1997. Atlas of the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman fishes. Iranian Fisheries Research and Training Organization, l'Iran.
  12. De Bruin, G.H.P., B.C. Russell i A. Bogusch, 1995. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The marine fishery resources of Sri Lanka. Roma, FAO. 400 p.
  13. Department of Fisheries Malaysia, 2009. Valid local name of Malaysian marine fishes. Department of Fisheries Malaysia. Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry. 180 p.
  14. Feltes, R.M., 2001. Polynemidae. Threadfins. P. 3090-3116. A: K.E. Carpenter i V.H. Niem (eds.). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). FAO, Roma.
  15. Ganaden, S.R. i F. Lavapie-Gonzales, 1999. Common and local names of marine fishes of the Philippines. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Filipines. 385 p.
  16. Herre, A.W.C.T., 1953. Check list of Philippine fishes. Res. Rep. U.S. Fish Wild. Serv., (20): 977 p.
  17. Herre, A.W.C.T. i A.F. Umali, 1948. English and local common names of Philippine fishes. U. S. Dept. of Interior and Fish and Wildl. Serv. Circular Núm. 14, U. S. Gov't Printing Office, Washington. 128 p.
  18. Huang, Z., 2001. Marine species and their distribution in China's seas. p. 404-463. Vertebrata. Smithsonian Institution, Florida, Estats Units. 598 p
  19. Kapoor, D., R. Dayal i A.G. Ponniah, 2002. Fish biodiversity of India. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources Lucknow, Índia. 775 p.
  20. Kim, I.S., Y. Choi, C.L. Lee, Y.J. Lee, B.J. Kim i J.H. Kim, 2005. Illustrated book of Korean fishes. Kyo-Hak Pub Co. Seül, Corea del Sud. 615 p.
  21. Kottelat, M. i A.J. Whitten, 1996. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi: additions and corrections. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 8 p.
  22. Kuo, S.-R. i K.-T. Shao, 1999. Species composition of fish in the coastal zones of the Tsengwen estuary, with descriptions of five new records from Taiwan. Zool. Stud. 38(4):391-404.
  23. Kuo, S.-R., H.-J. Lin i K.-T. Shao, 1999. Fish assemblages in the mangrove creeks of northern and southern Taiwan. Estuaries 22(4):1004-1015.
  24. Mohsin, A.K.M. i M.A. Ambak, 1996. Marine fishes and fisheries of Malaysia and neighbouring countries. University of Pertanian Malaysia Press, Serdang, Malàisia. 744 p.
  25. Mohsin, A.K.M., M.A. Ambak i M.N.A. Salam, 1993. Malay, English, and scientific names of the fishes of Malaysia. Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malàisia, Occasional Publication Núm. 11.
  26. Monkolprasit, S., S. Sontirat, S. Vimollohakarn i T. Songsirikul, 1997. Checklist of Fishes in Thailand. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Bangkok, Tailàndia. 353 p.
  27. Nasir, N.A., 2000. The food and feeding relationships of the fish communities in the inshore waters of Khor Al-Zubair, northwest Arabian Gulf. Cybium 24(1):89-99.
  28. Nguyen, H.P. i N.T. Nguyen, 1994. Checklist of marine fishes in Vietnam. Vol. 2. Osteichthyes, from Elopiformes to Mugiliformes. Science and Technics Publishing House, Vietnam.
  29. Nguyen, N.T. i V.Q. Nguyen, 2006. Biodiversity and living resources of the coral reef fishes in Vietnam marine waters. Science and Technology Publishing House, Hanoi.
  30. Ni, I.-H. i K.-Y. Kwok, 1999 Marine fish fauna in Hong Kong waters. Zool. Stud. 38(2):130-152.
  31. Rainboth, W.J., 1996. Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO Species Identification Field Guide for Fishery Purposes. FAO, Roma, 265 p.
  32. Randall, J.E., 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 439 p.
  33. Randall, J.E. i K.K.P. Lim (eds.), 2000. A checklist of the fishes of the Mar de la South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. (8):569-667.
  34. Rao, K.V.R., 1995. Pisces. p. 483-506. A: Fauna of Chilka Lake. Wetland Ecosystem Series 1. Zool. Surv. Índia. 673 p.
  35. Rau, N. i A. Rau, 1980. Commercial marine fishes of the Central Philippines (bony fish). German Agency for Technical Cooperation, Alemanya. 623 pp.
  36. Shao, K.-T., J.-P. Chen, P.-H. Kao i C.-Y. Wu, 1993. Fish fauna and their geographical distribution along the western coast of Taiwan. Acata Zoologica Taiwanica 4(2): 113-140.
  37. Shen, S.C. (ed.), 1993. Fishes of Taiwan. Department of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei. 960 p.
  38. Talwar, P.K. i A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Volum 2. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
  39. Yamada, U., S. Shirai, T. Irie, M. Tokimura, S. Deng, Y. Zheng, C. Li, Y.U. Kim i Y.S. Kim, 1995. Names and Illustrations of fishes from the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Overseas Fishery Cooperation Foundation, Tòquio, Japó (xi + 288 pp.).
  40. Menon, A.G.K. i M. Babun Rao, 1984.
  41. Riede, K., 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Alemanya. 329 p.
  42. Motomura, H., 2004. Threadfins of the world (Family Polynemidae).
  43. Kailola, P.J., M.J. Williams, P.C. Stewart, R.E. Reichelt, A. McNee i C. Grieve, 1993. Australian fisheries resources. Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra, Austràlia. 422 p.
  44. Grant, E.M., 1978. Guide to fishes. Quarta edició. Dept. of Harbours and Marine, Queensland. 768 p.
  45. Menon, A.G.K. i M. Babun Rao, 1984. Polynemidae. A: W. Fischer i G. Bianchi (eds.). FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 3. FAO, Roma.
  46. Motomura, H., Y. Iwatsuki, S. Kimura i T. Yoshino, 2002. Revision of the Indo-West Pacific polynemid fish genus Eleutheronema (Teleostei: Perciformes). Ichthyol. Res. 49(1):47-61.
  47. Kowtal, G.V., 1972. Observations on the breeding and larval development of Chilka 'Sahal' Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw). Indian J. Fish. 19:70-75.
  48. Motomura, H., 2004. Threadfins of the world (Family Polynemidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of polynemid species known to date. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. Núm. 3. Roma, FAO, 117 p.
  49. Malhotra, J.C., 1953. The food and the feeding habits of the so-called Indian Salmon, Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw). J. Zoll. Soc. India 5:139-152.
  50. Salini, J.P., D.T. Brewer i S.J.M. Blaber, 1998. Dietary studies on the predatory fishes of the Norman River estuary, with particular reference to penaeid prawns. Estuar. Coast. Shelf-Sci. 46(6):837-847.
  51. FishBase (anglès)

Bibliografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Anònim, 2001. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution - Division of Fishes.
  • Anònim, 2002. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West, NY 10024-5192, Estats Units.
  • Eschmeyer, William N., 1990: Catalog of the Genera of Recent Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. iii + 697. ISBN 0-940228-23-8.
  • Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 1998. Catalog of fishes. Publicació especial de la California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 3 vols. 2905 p.
  • Motomura, H., 2004. Family Polynemidae (Rafinesque, 1815) threadfins. Calif. Acad. Sci. Annotated Checklists of Fishes (32):18.
  • Rahman, A., K. Nayak, K. Khuda-Bukhsh i A.R. Khuda-Bukhsh, 1995. Somatic karyotypes of six species of teleosts (Pisces). Environ. Ecol. 13(1):151-154.
  • Ricker, W.E., 1973. Russian-English dictionary for students of fisheries and aquatic biology. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa.
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea i W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.
  • Wheeler, A., 1977. Das grosse Buch der Fische. Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co. Stuttgart. 356 p.
  • Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao i C.F. Lai (eds.), 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]

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