Escampadora de fems

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Una escampadora de fems moderna

Una escampadora de fems és una màquina agrícola que es fa servir per distribuir fems sobre un camp com a fertilitzant del sòl. Una escampadora de fems moderna consisteix en un remolc que va darrere del tractor amb un mecanisme rotatori dirigit per la presa de força del tractor. A Amèrica del nord també són comuns els escampadors de fems muntats en un camió.

Operació[modifica | modifica el codi]

Els primers escampadors de fems eren moguts per cavalls o grups de cavalls. Actualment hi ha també petites escampadores de fems que es poden accionar per un tractor de jardineria o per un vehicle tot terreny. Recentment també s'han desenvolupat noves versions d'escampadores, per exemple, accionades hidràulicament.

Història[modifica | modifica el codi]

La primera escampadora automàtica plenament operativa va ser dissenyada per Joseph Kemp l'any 1875 qui va fundar l'empresa J.S. Kemp Manufacturing Co. a l'estat de Nova York als Estats Units. El 1906 va vendre el seu disseny a l'empresa International Harvester[1][2][3]


Joseph Oppenheim de Maria Stein, Ohio va ser l'inventor del sistema d'estendre els fems àmpliament (widespreading manure spreader)[4]

Oppenheim, era un mestre d'escola en un poble i el preocupave que els nois de l'escola sovint deixaven d'assitir a classe perquè feien la feina d'escampar i carregar fems manualment,[5] i per això, inventà aquest sistema d'escampar fems automàticament.[6] El 18 d'octubre de 1899, Oppenheim començà a produir la maquinària amb el seu sistema que va anomenar comercialment "New Idea".[7]

Notes[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. http://books.google.com/books?id=dJlJAM_hJD0C&pg=PA300&lpg=PA300&dq=J.S.+Kemp+Manufacturing+Co&source=bl&ots=temT_m-9mg&sig=oNurYdNGbTPF0tGlKIqncJDq4nU&hl=en&ei=7WN2Tab2EM2ftgexyt2qBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=J.S.%20Kemp%20Manufacturing%20Co&f=false
  2. http://www.archive.org/stream/historyofblackha02hart/historyofblackha02hart_djvu.txt
  3. http://books.google.com/books?id=5Q8wAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA142&lpg=PA142&dq=J.S.+Kemp+Manufacturing+Co&source=bl&ots=NFHV8n7cUi&sig=9UvbD-EIqN6dxkud4TS2Aq7Hw2c&hl=en&ei=7WN2Tab2EM2ftgexyt2qBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CCYQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=J.S.%20Kemp%20Manufacturing%20Co&f=false
  4. U.S. Patent Office, Patent No. 648,519, Manure Distributor and Spreader for Joseph Oppenheim, Maria Stein, Ohio, Filed February 17, 1900. None of the contemporary books, local newspaper articles, magazines, trade publications, or company pamphlets cited herein indicate that any person other than Oppenheim invented or helped invent the spreader. In “Memories of New Idea,” Mercer County Chronicle, August 4, 1988, Sophia Synck Bomholt says that her grandfather, Joseph Oppenheim, invented the spreader and her father, Henry Synck, “engineered” it.
  5. “100th Anniversary, A Century of Excellence, New Idea 1899-1999,” Pamphlet, AGCO Corporation, 1999, p.3
  6. Wells, “The New Idea Spreader Company … Part 1”; Birt, “New Idea: Its Start…” p.18; U.S. Patent Office, Patent No. 648,519, Manure Distributor and Spreader for Joseph Oppenheim, Maria Stein, Ohio, Filed February 17, 1900.”
  7. Birt, “New Idea: Its Start…” p.18. For photographs of Oppenheim’s “widespread” new idea see: “New Idea Celebrates 100th Anniversary,” Mercer County Chronicle, September 2–8, 1999, p.9; See also: “100th Anniversary, A Century of Excellence, New Idea 1899-1999” Pamphlet, AGCO Corporation, pp. 1,3 and 4; See also: AVCO Dealer News, Vol. 15, No. 10, Coldwater, Ohio, October 1969, P.4

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • U.S. Patent Office, Patent No. 648,519, Manure Distributor and Spreader for Joseph Oppenheim, Maria Stein, Ohio, Filed February 17, 1900.
  • ”The New Idea Spreader Company.” Nevin O.Winter, Litt. D., History of Northwest Ohio,” vol. 3, p. 1672, The Lewis Publishing Company, Chicago & New York, 1917
  • "Henry Synck," Nevin O. Winter, Litt.D., History of Northwest Ohio, vol. 2 p. 874, The Lewis Publishing Company, Chicago & New York, 1917.
  • Tharran E. Gaines, "100 Years of New Ideas," FieldHAND, Spring 1999, p.8.
  • Brian Wayne Wells, "The New Idea Spreader Company of Coldwater, Ohio (Part 1 of 2 Parts)," Belt/Pulley Magazine, Vol.11, No. 5, September/October 1998, http://wellssouth.com/blog/?p=83 (accessed Nov. 8, 2010)
  • Brian Wayne Wells, "The New Idea Spreader Company (Part 2 of 2 Parts)" Belt/Pulley Magazine, Vol.11, No.6, November/December 1998, http://wellssouth.com/blog/?p=83 (accessed Nov. 8, 2010),
  • Scope Broadened by Aviation Corp.,”New York Times, October 30, 1945
  • Cindy Birt, "New Idea: Its Start and the First 75 Years," The Celina, Ohio Daily Standard, May 16, 1974, p. 18.
  • "New Idea Founder Inducted in Agricultural Hall of Fame," Mercer County Chronicle, September 4, 1969, page 1.
  • "Memories of New Idea," Mercer County Chronicle, August 4, 1988, Sophia Synck Bomholt.
  • "New Idea Celebrates 100th Anniversary," Mercer County Chronicle, September 2–8, 1999, p.9
  • AVCO Dealer News Vol. 15, No.10, October 1969, p. 5.
  • Ohio Agricultural Council, 4th Annual Ohio Agricultural Hall of Fame, August 27, 1969. Program page 7
  • "100th Anniversary, A Century of Excellence, New Idea 1899-1999" Pamphlet, AGCO Corporation, pp. 1,3 and 4;
  • ^ Smith Mfg. Co. "Great Western" farm equipment line



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