Francis Ysidro Edgeworth

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Francis Ysidro Edgeworth
Edgeworth.jpeg
Naixement 8 de febrer de 1845
Mort 13 de febrer de 1926 (als 81 anys)
Camp Filosofia, economia política
Universitat Trinity College, Dublin
Balliol College, Oxford
Influències de Jeremy Bentham
Signatura Signatura

Francis Ysidro Edgeworth (Edgeworthstown, 8 de febrer de 1845Oxford, 13 de febrer de 1926) va ser un filòsof i economista polític irlandès que va fer contribucions importants a l'estadística.

Biografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

Edgeworth va néixer a Edgeworthstown, Comtat de Longford, Irlanda. Va ser educat per tutors a casa seva fins que va entrar a la universitat. El seu pare era Francis Beaufort Edgeworth que es va fugar amb una noia catalana adolescent, nascuda a Organyà, Rosa Florentina Eroles que va trobar al British Museum. Per això es diu Ysidro[1]

Edgeworth va ser una figura influent en el desenvolupament de l'economia neoclàssica i va ser el primer a aplicar certes tècniques matemàtiques per a prendre decisions individuals en economia. Desenvolupà la teoria de la utilitat introduint la corba d'indiferència i el famós Edgeworth box, que ara és familiar entre els estudiants de microeconomia. També és l'autor de la Conjectura d'Edgeworth sobre l'equilibri econòmic i en estadística de les Sèries Edgeworth.

S'han atribuït erròniament algunes aportacions a Marshall quan en realitat eren d'Edgeworth. Amb la denominada Conjectura d'Edgeworth, fou un dels precursors de la Teoria dels Jocs i la idea que l'economia pot arribar a un estat d'equilibri si tots els adults (sans) estan tots amb feina va ser font d'interessants polèmiques molt fructíferes (Font: "Keynes vs Hayek" p.16)

Editor del "Economic Journal. El 1911 Keynes el succeeix com a editor.

El seu llibre més original en economia és Mathematical Psychics: An Essay on the Application of Mathematics to the Moral Sciences, publicat el 1881 que és molt difícil d'interpretar. Alfred Marshall el comentà a Mathematical Psychics:[2]

Publicacions de Francis Ysidro Edgeworth[modifica | modifica el codi]

Col·leccions[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • F. Y. Edgeworth (1925) Papers relating to political economy 3 vols. Available online at Gallica
  • Philip Mirowski (ed.)(1994). Edgeworth's Writings on Chance, Economic Hazard, and Statistics, Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Charles R. McCann Jr. (ed.)(1966) F.Y. Edgeworth: Writings in Probability, Statistics and Economics, 3 vols. Cheltenham, Glos.: Elgar.
  • Peter Newman (ed.) (2003) F.Y. Edgeworth : Mathematical psychics, and further papers on political economy Oxford University Press.

Treballs individuals[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • "Mr. Mathew Arnold on Bishop Butler's Doctrine of Self-Love", 1876, Mind
  • New and Old Methods of Ethics, 1877.
  • "The Hedonical Calculus", 1879, Mind
  • Mathematical Psychics: An essay on the application of mathematics to the moral sciences, 1881.
  • "Mr. Leslie Stephen on Utilitarianism", 1882, Mind
  • "The Law of Error", 1883, Phil Mag
  • "The Method of Least Squares", 1883, Phil Mag
  • "The Physical Basis of Probability", 1883, Phil Mag
  • "On the Method of Ascertaining a Change in the Value of Gold", 1883, JRSS
  • "Review of Jevons's Investigations", 1884, Academy
  • "The Rationale of Exchange", 1884, JRSS
  • "The Philosophy of Chance", 1884, Mind
  • "On the Reduction of Observations", 1884, Phil Mag
  • "A Priori Probabilities", 1884, Phil Mag
  • "Chance and Law", 1884, Hermathena
  • "Methods of Statistics", 1885, Jubilee Volume of RSS.
  • "The Calculus of Probabilities Applied to Psychic Research, I & II", 1885, 1886, Proceedings of Society for Psychic Research
  • "On Methods of Ascertaining Variations in the Rate of Births, Deaths and Marriages", 1885, JRSS
  • "Progressive Means", 1886, JRSS
  • "The Law of Error and the Elimination of Chance", 1886 Phil Mag
  • "On the Determination of the Modulus of Errors", 1886, Phil Mag
  • "Problems in Probabilities", 1886, Phil Mag
  • "Review of Sidgwick's Scope and Method", 1886, Academy
  • "Review of Jevons's Journals", 1886, Academy
  • "Four Reports by the committee investigating best method of ascertaining and measuring variations in the monetary standard", 1887, Reports of the BAAS (Parts I & 3; Part 2)
  • "Observations and Statistics: An essay on the theory of errors of observation and the first principles of statistics", 1887, Transactions of Cambridge Society.
  • Metretike, or the method of measuring probability and utility, 1887.
  • "On Observations Relating to Several Quantities", 1887, Hermathena
  • "The Law of Error", 1887, Nature
  • "The Choice of Means", 1887, Phil Mag
  • "On Discordant Observations", 1887, Phil Mag
  • "The Empirical Proof of the Law of Error", 1887, Phil Mag
  • "On a New Method of Reducing Observations Relating to Several Quantities", 1888, Phil Mag
  • "New Methods of Measuring Variation in General Prices, 1888, JRSS
  • "The Statistics of Examinations", 1888, JRSS
  • "The Value of Authority Tested by Experiment", 1888, Mind
  • "Mathematical Theory of Banking", 1888, JRSS
  • "On the Application of Mathematics to Political Economy: Address of the President of Section F of the British Association for the Advancement of Science", 1889, JRSS
  • "The Mathematical Theory of Political Economy: Review of Walras's Elements", 1889, Nature
  • "Review of Wicksteed's Alphabet", 1889, Academy
  • "Review of Bohm-Bawerk's Kapital und Kapitalismus", 1889, Academy
  • "Review of Bertrand's Calcul des Probabilites", 1889, J of Education
  • "Points at which Mathematical Reasoning is Applicable to Political Economy", 1889, Nature
  • "Appreciation of Gold", 1889, QJE
  • "The Element of Chance in Competitive Examinations", 1890, JRSS
  • "Economic Science and Statistics", 1889, Nature
  • "Review of Marshall's Principles", 1890, Nature
  • "Review of Jevons's Pure Logic", 1890, Academy
  • "Review of Walras's Elements", 1890, Academy
  • "Review of Bohm-Bawerk's Capital and Interest", 1890, Academy
  • "La Théorie mathématique de l'offre et de la demande et le côut de production", 1891, Revue d'Economie Politique
  • "Osservazioni sulla teoria matematica dell' economica politica", 1891, GdE (trans. "On the Determinateness of Economic Equilibrium")
  • "Ancora a proposito della teoria del baratto", 1891, GdE
  • "Review of Ricardo's Principles", 1891, J of Education
  • "Review of Keynes's Scope and Method", 1891, EJ
  • "An Introductory Lecture on Political Economy", 1891, EJ
  • "Review of Sidgwick's Elements of Politics", 1891, EJ
  • "Review of Second Edition of Marshall's Principles", 1891, EJ
  • "Mathematical Investigations in the Theory of Value and Prices," Connecticut Academy, 1892.
  • "Correlated Averages", 1892, Philos Magazine
  • "The Law of Error and Correlated Averages", 1892, Philos Magazine.
  • "Recent Attempts to Evaluate the Amount of Coin Circulating in a Country", 1892, EJ
  • "Review of Marshall's Economics of Industry", 1892, Nature
  • "Review of Cantillon's Essai", 1892, EJ
  • "Review of Palgrave's Dictionary", 1892, EJ
  • "Review of Bohm-Bawerk's Positive Theory of Capital", 1892, EJ
  • "Review of Smart's Introduction to the Theory of Value", 1892, EJ
  • "Review of Dusing's Das Geschlechtverhaltniss", 1892, EJ
  • "Review of Benson's Capital, Labor and Trade", 1892, EJ
  • "Review of Smart's Women's Wages", 1893
  • "Review of Bonar's Philosophy", 1893, Mind
  • "Review of Walsh's Bimetallism", 1893, EJ
  • "Review of Fisher's Mathematical Investigations", 1893, EJ
  • "Professor Böhm-Bawerk on the Ultimate Standard of Value", 1894, EJ
  • "One More Word on the Ultimate Standard of Value", 1894, EJ
  • "Review of Wiser's Natural Value", 1894, EJ
  • "Theory of International Values: Parts I, II and III", 1894, EJ
  • "Recent Writings on Index Numbers", 1894, EJ
  • "The Measurement of Utility by Money", 1894, EJ
  • "Asymmetric Correlation between Social Phenomenon", 1894, JRSS
  • Entries: "Average", "Census", "Cournot", "Curves", "Demand Curves", Difficulty of Attainment", "Distance in Time", "Error", 1894, in Palgrave, editor, Dictionary of Political Economy, Vol. 1.
  • "Review of the Webbs' History of Trade Unionism", 1894, EJ
  • "Review of Third Edition of Marshall's Principles", 1895, EJ
  • "Mr. Pierson on the Scarcity of Gold", 1895, EJ
  • "Thoughts on Monetary Reform", 1895, EJ
  • "The Stationary State in Japan", 1895, EJ
  • "A Defense of Index-Numbers", 1896, EJ
  • "Statistics on Unprogressive Communities", 1896, JRSS
  • "The Asymmetrical Probability Curve (Abstract)", 1894, Proceedings of Royal Society
  • "The Asymmetrical Probability Curve", 1896, Phil Mag
  • "The Compound law of Error", 1896, Phil Mag
  • Entries: "Gossen", "Index Numbers", "Intrinsic Value", "Jenkin", "Jennings", "Least Squares" and "Mathematical Method", 1896, in Palgrave, editor, Dictionary of Political Economy, Vol. 2.
  • "Review of Price's Money", 1896, EJ
  • "Review of Nicholson's Strikes and Social Problems", 1896, EJ
  • "Review of Pierson's Leerboek, Vol. 1", 1896, EJ
  • "Review of Pierson's Leerkook, Vol. 2", 1897, EJ
  • "Review of Bastable, Theory of International Trade", 1897, EJ
  • "Review of Grazani's Istituzioni", 1897, EJ
  • "La teoria pura del monopolio", 1897, GdE, (trans."The Pure Theory of Monopoly")
  • "The Pure Theory of Taxation: Parts I, II and III", 1897, EJ
  • "Miscellaneous Applications of the Calculus of Probabilities", Parts 1, 2, 3, 1897, 1898, JRSS
  • "Review of Cournot's Recherches", 1898, EJ
  • "Professor Graziani on the Mathematical Theory of Monopoly", 1898, EJ
  • "Review of Darwin's Bimetallism", 1898, EJ
  • "On the Representation of Statistics by Mathematical Formulae", Part 1 (1898), Parts 2, 3, 4 (1899)
  • "On a Point in the Theory of International Trade", 1899, EJ
  • "Review of Davidson, Bargain Theory of Wages", 1899, EJ
  • "Professor Seligman on the Mathematical Method in Political Economy", 1899, EJ
  • Entries: "Pareto", "Pareto's Law", "Probability", Supply Curve" and "Utility", 1899, in Palgrave, editor, Dictionary of Political Economy, Vol. 3
  • "Answers to Questions by Local Taxation Commission", 1899, Reprint of Royal Commission for Local Taxation
  • "The Incidence of Urban Rates, Parts I, II and III" 1900, EJ
  • "Defence of Mr. Harrison's Calculation of the Rupee Circulation", 1900, EJ
  • "Review of J.B. Clark's Theory of Distribution", 1900, EJ
  • "Review of Smart's Taxation of Land-Values", 1900, EJ
  • "Review of Bastable, Theory of International Trade (3rd edition)", 1897, EJ
  • "Review of Bonar and Hollander, Letters of Ricardo", 1900, EJ
  • "Mr. Walsh on the Measurement of General Exchange Value", 1901, EJ
  • "Disputed Points in the Theory of International Trade", 1901, EJ
  • "Review of Gide's Cooperation", 1902, EJ
  • "Review of Wells's Anticipations", 1902, EJ
  • "Methods of Representing Statistics of Wages and Other Groups Not *"Fulfilling the Normal Law of Error", with A.L. Bowley, 1902, JRSS
  • "The Law of Error", 1902, Encycl Britannica
  • "Review of Cannan's History of Theories of Production", 1903, EJ
  • "Review of Bortkiewicz's Anwendungen and Pareto's Anwendungen", 1903, EJ
  • "Review of Bastable's Public Finance", 1903, EJ
  • "Review of Bastable's Cartels et Trusts", 1903, EJ
  • "Review of Pigou's Riddle of the Tarriff", 1904, EJ
  • "Review of Nicholson's Elements", 1904, EJ
  • "Review of Bowley's National Progress", 1904, EJ
  • "Review of Plunkett's Ireland", 1904, EJ
  • "Review of Northon's Loan Credit", 1904, EJ
  • "Review of Graziani's Istituzione", 1904, EJ
  • "Review of Dietzel's Vergeltungzolle", 1904, EJ
  • "Preface", 1904, in J.R. MacDonald, editor, Women in the Printing Trades.
  • "The Theory of Distribution", 1904, QJE
  • "The Law of Error", 1905, Transactions of Cambridge Society
  • "Review of Nicholson's History of English Corn Laws", 1905, EJ
  • "Review of Cunynghame's Geometrical Political Economy", 1905, EJ
  • "Review of Carver's Theory of Distribution", 1905, EJ
  • "Review of Taussig's Present Position", 1905, EJ
  • "Review of Henry Sidgwick: A memoir", 1906, EJ
  • "The Generalised Law of Error, or Law of Great Numbers", 1906, JRSS
  • "Recent Schemes for Rating Urban Land Values", 1906, EJ
  • "On the Representation of Statistical Frequency by a Series", 1907, JRSS
  • "Statistical Observations on Wasps and Bees", 1907, Biometrika
  • "Review of de Foville's Monnaie and Guyot's Science economique", 1907, EJ
  • "Appreciations of Mathematical Theories", Parts I & II (1907), Parts III & IV (1908), EJ
  • "On the Probable Errors of Frequency Constants", I, II & III (1908), Add. (1909), JRSS
  • "Review of Andreades's Lecture on the Census", 1908, EJ
  • "Review of Rea's Free Trade", 1908, EJ
  • "Review of Withers's Meaning of Money", 1909, EJ
  • "Review of Mitchell's Gold Prices", 1909, EJ
  • "Review of Jevons's Investigations", 1909, EJ
  • "Application du calcul des probabilités à la Statistique", 1909, Bulletin de l'Institut international de statistique
  • "On the Use of the Differential Calculus in Economics to Determine Conditions of Maximum Advantage", 1909, Scientia
  • "Applications of Probabilities to Economics, Parts I & II", 1910, EJ.
  • "The Subjective Element in the First Principles of Taxation", 1910, QJE
  • "Review of John Stuart Mill's Principles", 1910, EJ
  • "Review of Colson's Cours", 1910, EJ
  • "Review of J. Maurice Clark's Local Freight Discriminations", 1910, EJ
  • "Review of Hammond's Railway Rate Theories", 1911, EJ
  • "Probability and Expectation", 1911, Encycl Britannica
  • "Monopoly and Differential Prices", 1911, EJ
  • "Contributions to the Theory of Railway Rates", Part I & II (1911), Part III (1912), Part IV (1913), EJ
  • "Review of Moore's Laws of Wages", 1912, EJ
  • "Review of Pigou's Wealth and Welfare", 1913, EJ
  • "On the Use of the Theory of Probabilities in Statistics Relating to Society", 1913, J of RSS
  • "A Variant Proof of the Distribution of Velocities in a Molecular Chaos", 1913, PhilMag
  • "On the Use of Analytical Geometry to Represent Certain Kinds of Statistics", Parts I-V, 1914, J of RSS
  • "Recent Contributions to Mathematical Economics, I & II", 1915, EJ
  • On the Relations of Political Economy to War, 1915.
  • The Cost of War and ways of reducing it suggested by economic theory, 1915.
  • "Economists on War: Review of Sombart, etc.", 1915, EJ
  • "Review of Pigou's Economy and Finance of War", 1916, EJ
  • "Review of Preziosi's La Germania alla Conquista dell' Italia", 1916, EJ
  • "British Incomes and Property", 1916, EJ
  • "On the Mathematical Representation of Statistical Data", Part I (1916), Parts II-IV (1917), J of RSS
  • "Review of Gill's National Power and Prosperity", 1917, EJ
  • "Review of Lehfeldt's Economics in Light of War", 1917, EJ
  • "Some German Economic Writings about the War", 1917, EJ
  • "After-War Problems: Review of Dawson at al.", 1917, EJ
  • "Review of Westergaard's Scope and Methods of Statistics", 1917, JRSS
  • "Review of Anderson's Value of Money", 1918, EJ
  • "Review of Moulton and Phillips on Money and Banking", 1918, EJ
  • "Review of Loria's Economic Causes of War", 1918, EJ
  • "Review of Arias's Principii", 1918, EJ
  • "Review of Smith-Gordon, Rural Reconstruction of Ireland and Russell's National Being", 1918, EJ
  • "On the Value of a Mean as Calculated from a Sample", 1918, EJ
  • "An Astronomer on the Law of Error", 1918, PhilMag
  • Currency and Finance in Time of War, 1918.
  • "The Doctrine of Index-Numbers According to Prof. Wesley Mitchell", 1918, EJ
  • "Psychical Research and Statistical Method", 1919, JRSS
  • "Methods of Graduating Taxes on Income and Capital", 1919, EJ
  • "Review of Cannan's Money", 1919, EJ
  • "Review of Andreades's Historia", 1919, EJ
  • "Review of Lehfeldt's Gold Prices", 1919, EJ
  • A Levy on Capital for the Discharge of the Debt, 1919.
  • "Mathematical Formulae and the National Commission on Income Tax", 1920, EJ
  • "On the Application of Probabilities to the Movement of Gas Molecules", Part I (1920), Part II (1922), Phil Mag
  • "Entomological Statistics", 1920, Metron
  • "Review of Gustav Cassel's Theory of Social Economy", 1920, EJ
  • "Review of Bowley's Change in Distribution of National Income", 1920, JRSS
  • "Review of the Webbs' History of Trade Unionism", 1920, EJ
  • "Molecular Statistics", Part I (1921), Part II (1922), JRSS
  • "On the Genesis of the Law of Eror", 1921, PhilMag
  • "The Philosophy of Chance", 1922, Mind
  • "The Mathematical Economics of Professor Amoroso", 1922, EJ
  • "Equal Pay to Men and Women for Equal Work", 1922, EJ
  • "Review of Keynes's Treatise on Probability", 1922, JRSS
  • "Review of Pigou's Political Economy of War", 1922, EJ
  • "Statistics of Examinations", 1923, JRSS
  • "On the Use of Medians for Reducing Observations Relating to Several Quantities", 1923, Phil Mag
  • "Mr. Correa Walsh on the Calculation of Index Numbers", 1923, JRSS
  • "Index Numbers According to Mr. Walsh", 1923, EJ
  • Women's Wages in Relation to Economic Welfare, 1923, EJ
  • "Review of Marshall's Money, Credit and Commerce", 1923, EJ
  • "Review of The Labour Party's Aim", 1923, EJ
  • "Review of Bowley's Mathematical Groundwork", 1924, EJ
  • "Review of Fisher's Economic Position of the Married Woman", 1924, EJ
  • "Untried Methods of Representing Frequency", 1924, JRSS
  • Papers Relating to Political Economy, 3 volumes, 1925.
  • "The Plurality of Index-Numbers", 1925, EJ
  • "The Element of Probability in Index-Numbers", 1925, JRSS
  • "The Revised Doctrine of Marginal Social Product", 1925, EJ
  • "Review of J.M. Clark's Overhead Costs", 1925, EJ.
  • "mathematical method in political economy," 1926, Palgrave's Dictionary of Political Economy, reprinted in 1987, The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 3.
  • "Mr Rhode's Curve and the Method of Adjustment", 1926, JRSS

Notes[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. Francis Ysidro Edgeworth at cepa.newschool.edu
  2. «Alfred Marshall (1881) "Review of Edgeworth's Mathematical Psychics"». Cepa.newschool.edu. [Consulta: 2010-06-20].

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Lluis Barbe. Francis Ysidro Edgeworth: A Portrait With Family and Friends (Edward Elgar Publishing; 2010) 328 pages; Draws on previously untapped materials fo a full biography
  • P J FitzPatrick, "Leading British statisticians of the nineteenth century, Journal of the American Statistical Association 55 (1960), 38-70.
  • M G Kendall, "Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, 1845-1926," Biometrika 55 (1968), 269-275.
  • Newman, Peter (1987). "Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 2, pp. 84–98.
  • _____. (2001). "Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro (1845–1926)," International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp. 4170–4175. Abstract.
  • Spiegel, Henry William. The Growth of Economic Thought. Ed. Durham & London. Duke University Press, 1991.
  • Stigler, Stephen M. * (1987). "Edgeworth as statistician," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 2, pp. 98–98.
  • Nicholas Wapshott." Keynes vs Hayek. El choque que definió la economía moderna". Ed. Deusto (Grup Planeta) Barcelona, febrer de 2013.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]