Geri i Freki

De Viquipèdia
Dreceres ràpides: navegació, cerca
The god Odin enthroned and flanked by the wolves Geri and Freki and the ravens Huginn and Muninn as illustrated (1882) by Carl Emil Doepler.

En la mitologia nòrdica, Geri i Freki (en nòrdic antic, ambdós significaven "el voraç" o "el cobdiciós") són dos llops que es diu que acompanyaven el déu Odin. S'hi fa referència a l'Edda poètica, una col·lecció de poesia èpica recopilada durant el segle XIII que prové de fonts anteriors tradicionals, a l'Edda prosaica, escrita el segle XIII per Snorri Sturluson, i en la poesia dels escalds (poetes-guerrers víkings que pertanyien a la cort de los reis escandinaus). La parella ha estat comparada a figures similiars trobades en la mitologia grega, la mitologia romana i la mitologia vèdica, i es pot relacionar amb les creences dels pobles germànics sobre bandes de guerrers-llop, els Ulfhednar.

Etimologia[modifica | modifica el codi]

The names Geri and Freki have been interpreted as meaning either "the greedy one" or "the ravenous one".[1] The name Geri can be traced back to the Proto-Germanic adjective *geraz, attested in Burgundian girs, Old Norse gerr and Old High German ger or giri, all of which mean "greedy".[2] The name Freki can be traced back to the Proto-Germanic adjective *frekaz, attested in Gothic faihu-friks "covetous, avaricious", Old Norse frekr "greedy", Old English frec "desirous, greedy, gluttonous, audacious" and Old High German freh "greedy".[3] John Lindow interprets both Old Norse names as nominalized adjectives.[4] Bruce Lincoln further traces Geri back to a Proto-Indo-European stem *gher-, which is the same as that found in Garmr, a name referring to the hound closely associated with the events of Ragnarök.[5]

Testimonis[modifica | modifica el codi]

En el poema Grímnismál de l'Edda poètica, el déu Odin (disfressat com Grímnir) proporciona informació al jove Agnarr sobre els acompanyants d'Odín. A Agnarr se li diu que Odin alimenta Geri i Freki mentre que el déu només consumeix vi:

Benjamin Thorpe translation:
Geri and Freki the war-wont sates,
the triumphant sire of hosts;
but on wine only the famed in arms,
Odn, ever lives.[6]
Henry Adams Bellows translation:
Freki and Geri does Heerfather feed,
The far-famed fighter of old:
But on wine alone does the weapon-decked god,
Othin, forever live.[7]

The pair is also alluded to via the kenning "Viðrir's (Odin's) hounds" in Helgakviða Hundingsbana I, verse 13, where it is related that they roam the field "greedy for the corpses of those who have fallen in battle".[8]

Benjamin Thorpe translation:
The warriors went to the trysting place of swords,
which they had appointed at Logafiöll.
Broken was Frodi's peace between the foes:
Vidrir's hounds went about the isle slaughter-greedy.[9]
Henry Adams Bellows translation:
The warriors forth to the battle went,
The field they chose at Logafjoll;
Frothi's peace midst foes they broke,
Through the isle went hungrily Vithrir's hounds.[10]

In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning (chapter 38), the enthroned figure of High explains that Odin gives all of the food on his table to his wolves Geri and Freki and that Odin requires no food, for wine is to him both meat and drink. High then quotes the above mentioned stanza from the poem Grímnismál in support.[11] In chapter 75 of the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál a list of names for wargs and wolves is provided that includes both Geri and Freki.[12]

En el llibre Gylfaginning de l'Edda prosaica (capítol 38), la figura entronitzada tron de Alta explica que Odin dóna tots els menjar de la seva taula als seus llops Geri i Freki i que Odin que no necessita aliments, el vi és per a ell la seva carn i la seva beguda. ((High a continuació, cita l'estrofa esmentada en el poema'Grímnismál en suport.[11] En el capítol 75 de la Prosa Edda'libroSkáldskaparmál es dóna una llista de noms per wargs i llops on hi figuren Geri i Freki[12] ))

In skaldic poetry Geri and Freki are used as common nouns for "wolf" in chapter 58 of Skáldskaparmál (quoted in works by the skalds Þjóðólfr of Hvinir and Egill Skallagrímsson) and Geri is again used as a common noun for "wolf" in chapter 64 of the Prose Edda book Háttatal.[13] Geri is referenced in kennings for "blood" in chapter 58 of Skáldskaparmál ("Geri's ales" in a work by the skald Þórðr Sjáreksson) and in for "carrion" in chapter 60 ("Geri's morsel" in a work by the skald Einarr Skúlason).[14] Freki is also used in a kenning for "carrion" ("Freki's meal") in a work by Þórðr Sjáreksson in chapter 58 of Skáldskaparmál.[15]

Archaeological record[modifica | modifica el codi]

If the rider on horseback on the image on the Böksta Runestone has been correctly identified as Odin, then Geri and Freki are shown taking part in hunting an elk or moose.[16]

Theories[modifica | modifica el codi]

A Vendel era bronze plate found on Öland, Suècia depicting a wolf-pelt warrior drawing a sword beside a dancing figure.

Freki is also a name applied to the monstrous wolf Fenrir in the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá. Folklorist John Lindow sees irony in the fact that Odin feeds one Freki at his dinner table and another—Fenrir—with his flesh during the events of Ragnarök.[17]

Freki és un nom aplicat també al mostruòs llop Fenrir en el poema Voluspa de l'Edda poètica. El folklorista John Lindow veu un punt irònic en el fet que Odin alimenti un Freki a la seva taula i un altre Fenrir amb la seva carn mentre té lloc el Ragnarok.[17]

Historian Michael Spiedel connects Geri and Freki with archaeological finds depicting figures wearing wolf-pelts and frequently found wolf-related names among the Germanic peoples, including Wulfhroc ("Wolf-Frock"), Wolfhetan ("Wolf-Hide"), Isangrim ("Grey-Mask"), Scrutolf ("Garb-Wolf") and Wolfgang ("Wolf-Gait"), Wolfdregil ("Wolf-Runner"), and Vulfolaic ("Wolf-Dancer") and myths regarding wolf warriors from Norse mythology (such as the Úlfhéðnar). Spiegel believes this to point to the pan-Germanic wolf-warrior band cult centered around Odin that waned away after Christianization.[18]

L'historiador Michael Spiedel relaciona Geri i Freki amb les troballes arqueològiques on s'han trobat figures que portaven pells de llop i amb freqüència es troben noms relacionats amb els llops en els pobles germànics, com Wulfhroc (), Wolfhetan (), Isagrim (Màscara gris). Scrutolf () i Wolfgang (), Wolfdregil (), i Vulfolaic (.....) i mites en relació a guerrers llop procedents de la mitologia nòrdica (Com els Ulfhednar). Spiegel creu que això apunta a un culte de grup del guerrer-llop pangermànic centrat a l'entorn d'Odin que es va anar esbaint després de la cristianització.

Scholars have also noted Indo-European parallels to the wolves Geri and Freki as companions of a divinity. 19th century scholar Jacob Grimm observed a connection between this aspect of Odin's character and the Greek Apollo, to whom both the wolf and the raven are sacred.[19] Philologist Maurice Bloomfield further connected the pair with the two dogs of Yama in Vedic Mythology, and saw them as a Germanic counterpart to a more general and widespread Indo-European "Cerberus"-theme.[20] Michael Speidel finds similar parallels in the Vedic Rudra and the Roman Mars. Elaborating on the connection between wolves and figures of great power, he writes: "This is why Geri and Freki, the wolves at Woden's side, also glowered on the throne of the Anglo-Saxon kings. Wolf-warriors, like Geri and Freki, were not mere animals but mythical beings: as Woden's followers they bodied forth his might, and so did wolf-warriors."[18]

Els estudiosos també s'han adonat dels paral·lelismes protoindoeuropeus amb els llops Geri i Freki com a companys d'una divinitat. L'estudiós del segle XIX Jacob Grimm va observar connexions entre aquest aspecte del caràcter d'Odin i el grec Apol·lo, per ambdós el llop i el corb eren sagrats.[19] El filòleg Maurice Bloomfield a més va relacionar la parella amb els dos gossos de Yama a la mitologia vèdica, i els veia com un equivalent germànic a un tema indoeuropeu més general i estès com podia ser Cerber...

Notes[modifica | modifica el codi]

A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Geri i Freki
  1. Simek (2007:90; 106); Lindow (2001:120; 139).
  2. Orel (2003:132).
  3. Orel (2003:113).
  4. Lindow (2001:120 and 139).
  5. Lincoln (1991:99).
  6. Thorpe (1907:21).
  7. Bellows (1923:92).
  8. Lincoln views this activity as the reason behind their epithet "ravenous" or "greedy". See Lincoln (1991:99).
  9. Thorpe (1907:138).
  10. Bellows (1936:295-296).
  11. 11,0 11,1 Faulkes (1995:33).
  12. 12,0 12,1 Faulkes (1995:64).
  13. Faulkes (1995:135 and 204).
  14. Faulkes (1995:136 and 138).
  15. Faulkes (1995:136).
  16. Silén (1993:88—91).
  17. 17,0 17,1 Lindow (2001:120).
  18. 18,0 18,1 Spiedel (2004:24—28).
  19. 19,0 19,1 Grimm (1882:147).
  20. Bloomfield also mentions another Nordic pair in this connection: Geri "Greedy" and Gifr "Violent" are two dogs which guard the maiden Menglöð in the Fjölsvinnsmál. See Bloomfeld (1908:316-318).

References[modifica | modifica el codi]

Plantilla:Odin Plantilla:Norse mythology Plantilla:Good article