Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

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Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
Exemplar adult femella
Exemplar adult femella
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 02.jpg
Classificació científica
Regne: Animalia
Fílum: Chordata
Classe: Actinopterygii
Ordre: Cypriniformes
Família: Cyprinidae
Gènere: Hypophthalmichthys
(Bleeker, 1860)[1]
Espècie: H. molitrix
Nom binomial
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
(Valenciennes, 1844)[2][3]
Exemplars immadurs (al voltant dels 10 cm de llargària)
Exemplars de 4 setmanes d'edat i 2 cm de llargària
Exemplar adult

Hypophthalmichthys molitrix és una espècie de peix de la família dels ciprínids i de l'ordre dels cipriniformes.

Morfologia[modifica | modifica el codi]

Alimentació[modifica | modifica el codi]

Les larves i els exemplars immadurs mengen zooplàncton, mentre que a partir dels 15 mm de llargària només es nodreixen de fitoplàncton.[7][8]

Hàbitat[modifica | modifica el codi]

És un peix d'aigua dolça i de clima subtropical (6 °C-28 °C).[6][9]

Distribució geogràfica[modifica | modifica el codi]

Es troba a Àsia: la Xina i la Sibèria oriental, tot i que ha estat introduït arreu del món per controlar la proliferació d'algues i per al consum humà.[10][6][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42]

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. Bleeker P., 1859. Conspectus systematis Cyprinorum. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder. Indië v. 20. 421-441.
  2. BioLib (anglès)
  3. Cuvier, G. & A. Valenciennes. 1844. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome dix-septième. Suite du livre dix-huitième. Cyprinoïdes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. v. 17: i-xxiii + 1-497 + 2 pp., Pls. 487-519.
  4. IGFA, 2001. Base de dades de registres de pesca IGFA fins al 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Estats Units.
  5. Billard, R., 1997. Les poissons d'eau douce des rivières de France. Identification, inventaire et répartition des 83 espèces. Lausana, Delachaux & Niestlé, 192p.
  6. 6,0 6,1 6,2 FishBase (anglès)
  7. Etnier, D.A. i W.C. Starnes, 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee, Estats Units.
  8. Billard, R., 1997.
  9. Li, S., L. Wu, J. Wang, Q. Chou i Y. Chen, 1990. Comprehensive genetic study on Chinese carps. Shanghai Scientific & Technical Publishers, Xangai, la Xina, 226 p.
  10. Frimodt, C., 1995. Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, Anglaterra. 215 p.
  11. Archarya, P. i M.B. Iftekhar, 2000. Freshwater ichthyofauna of Maharashtra State. p.136-144. A: Ponniah, A.G. i A. Gopalakrishnan (eds.). Endemic Fish Diversity of Western Ghats. NBFGR-NATP Publication. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, U.P., Índia. 1, 347 p.
  12. Azeroual, A., A.J. Crivelli, A. Yahyaoui i M. Dakki, 2000. L'ichtyofaune des eaux continentales du Maroc. Cybium 24(Suppl. 3):17-22.
  13. Barriga, R., 1991. Peces de agua dulce del Ecuador. Revista de Información técnico-científica, Quito, Equador, Politécnica, XVI(3):7-88.
  14. Barua, S.P., M.M.H. Khan i A.H.M. Ali Reza, 2001. The status of alien invasive species in Bangladesh and their impact on the ecosystems. p. 1-7. A: P. Balakrishna (ed.) Report of Workshop on Alien Invasive species, GBF-SSEA. Colombo. UICN Regional Biodiversity Programme, Asia, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  15. Berg, L.S., 1964. Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. Volum 2, quarta edició. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem.
  16. Borbori, D.C., P.S. Economidis i E.G. Maurakis, 2001. Freshwater fish habitat science and management in Greece. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 4: 381-391.
  17. Chakalall, B. (comp.), 1993. Species cultured in insular Caribbean countries, Belize, French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname. Caribbean Technical Co-operation Network in Artisanal Fisheries an Aquaculture. FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean. RLAC/93/28-PES-24. Santiago de Xile, Xile. 32 p.
  18. Chandrashekhariah, H.N., M.F. Rahman i S. Lakshmi Raghavan, 2000. Status of fish fauna in Karnataka. p. 98-135. A: Ponniah, A.G. i A. Gopalakrishnan (eds.). Endemic Fish Diversity of Western Ghats. NBFGR-NATP Publication. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, U.P., l'Índia. 1, 347 p.
  19. Chiba, K., Y. Taki, K. Sakai i Y. Oozeki, 1989. Present status of aquatic organisms introduced into Japan. p. 63-70. A: S.S. De Silva (ed.) Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Spec. Publ. Asian Fish. Soc. 3, 154 p.
  20. De Vos, L., J. Snoeks i D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde, 2001. An annotated checklist of the fishes of Rwanda (east central Africa), with historical data on introductions of commercially important species. J. E. Afr. Nat. Hist. 90:41-68.
  21. Eldredge, L.G., 1994. Freshwater fishes. p. 73-84. A: L.G. Eldredge, Perspectives in aquatic exotic species management in the Pacific Islands. Vol. 1. Introductions of commercially significant aquatic organisms to the Pacific Islands. South Pacific Commission, Nova Caledònia.
  22. Erdman, D.S., 1984. Exotic fishes in Puerto Rico. p. 162-176. A: W.R. Courtney, Jr. i J.R. Stauffer, Jr. (eds.) Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Estats Units.
  23. Hwang, H.C., P.C. Yueh i S.F. Yu, 1982. The freshwater fishes of China in colored illustrations. Vol. 1 Shanghai Sciences and Technology Press, Xangai, Xina. 173 p.
  24. Kim, I.S., Y. Choi, C.L. Lee, Y.J. Lee, B.J. Kim i J.H. Kim, 2005. Illustrated book of Korean fishes. Kyo-Hak Pub Co. Seül, Corea del Sud. 615p.
  25. Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. Biologia 52, Suppl. 5:1-271.
  26. Kottelat, M., 2006. Fishes of Mongolia. A check-list of the fishes known to occur in Mongolia with comments on systematics and nomenclature. El Banc Mundial, Washington DC. 103 p.
  27. Lever, C., 1996. Naturalized fishes of the world. Academic Press, Califòrnia, Estats Units. 408 p.
  28. López, H.L., A.M. Miquelarena i R.C. Menni, 2003. Lista comentada de los peces continentales de la Argentina. ProBiota Serie Técnica y Didáctica. Núm 5, 87p.
  29. Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno i T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tòquio, Japó. 437 p.
  30. Mirza, M.R., 2002. Checklist of freshwater fishes of Pakistan. Department of Zoology, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan.
  31. Monkolprasit, S., S. Sontirat, S. Vimollohakarn i T. Songsirikul, 1997. Checklist of Fishes in Thailand. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Bangkok, Tailàndia. 353 p.
  32. Nichols, J.T., 1943. The freshwater fishes of China. Natural history of Central Asia: Volum IX. The American Museum of Natural History, Nova York, Estats Units, 322 p.
  33. Nijssen, H. i S.J. de Groot, 1974. Catalogue of fish species of the Netherlands. Beaufortia 21(285):173-207.
  34. Rema Devi, K. i T.J. Indra, 2000. Freshwater ichthyofaunal resources of Tamil Nadu. p. 77-97. A: Ponniah, A.G. i A. Gopalakrishnan . Endemic Fish Diversity of Western Ghats. NBFGR-NATP Publication. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, U.P., l'Índia. 1, 347 p.
  35. Sal'nikov, V.B., 1998. Anthropogenic migration of fish in Turkmenistan. J. Ichthyol. 38(8):591-602.
  36. Shaji, C.P., P.S. Easa i A. Gopalakrishnan, 2000. Freshwater fish diversity of Western Ghats. p. 33-35. A: Ponniah, A.G. i A. Gopalakrishnan. (eds.). Endemic Fish Diversity of Western Ghats. NBFGR-NATP Publication. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, U.P., Índia. 1, 347 p.
  37. Shrestha, J., 1994. Fishes, fishing implements and methods of Nepal. Smt. M.D. Gupta, Lalitpur Colony, Lashkar (Gwalior), Índia. 150 p.
  38. Suvatti, C., 1981. Fishes of Thailand. Royal Institute of Thailand, Bangkok. 379 p.
  39. Talwar, P.K. i A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Volum 2. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
  40. Vasil'eva, E.D., 2003. Main alterations in ichthyofauna of the largest rivers of the northern coast of the Black Sea in the last 50 years: A review Folia Zool. 52(4): 337-358.
  41. Walker, K.F. i H.Z. Yang, 1999. Fish and fisheries in western China. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 385:237-278.
  42. Yu, Y.S., A.W. Sin i Y.W. Chan, 1973. Results of induced spawning of the bighead, Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson), grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes) and silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes) in Hong Kong, 1969-71. Hong Kong Fish. Bull. (3): 55-76.

Bibliografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Anònim, 2001. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution - Division of Fishes.
  • Anònim, 2002. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West , NY 10024-5192, Estats Units.
  • Baensch, H.A. i R. Riehl, 1991. Aquarien atlas. Bd. 3. Melle: Mergus, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde, Alemanya. 1104 p.
  • Bleeker, P., 1878: Sur les espèces du genre Hypophthalmichthys Blkr. (Cephalus Basil. nec. Bl. nec. Al.). Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 12: 209-218.
  • Boulenger, G. A., 1901: On the presence of a superbranchial organ in the cyprinoid fish Hypophthalmichthys. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 8 (núm. 45): 186-188.
  • Cremer, M.C. i R.O. Smitherman, 1980. Food habits and growth of silver and bighead carp in cages and ponds. Aquaculture 20:57-64.
  • Eschmeyer, William N.: Genera of Recent Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. iii + 697. ISBN 0-940228-23-8. Any 1990.
  • Eschmeyer, William N., ed. 1998. Catalog of Fishes. Special Publication of the Center for Biodiversity Research and Information, núm. 1, vol. 1-3. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. 2905. ISBN 0-940228-47-5.
  • Helfman, G., B. Collette i D. Facey: The diversity of fishes. Blackwell Science, Malden, Massachusetts (Estats Units), 1997.
  • Howes, G. J., 1981: Anatomy and phylogeny of the Chinese major carps Ctenopharyngodon Steind., 1866 and Hypophthalmichthys Blkr., 1860. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology v. 41 (núm. 1): 1-52.
  • Liao, C.-I., H.-M. Su i E.Y. Chang, 2001. Techniques in finfish larviculture in Taiwan. Aquaculture 200(2001):1-31.
  • Marian, T. i Z. Krasznai, 1979. Comparative karyological studies on chinese carps. Aquaculture 18:325-336.
  • Moyle, P. i J. Cech.: Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology, 4a. edició, Upper Saddle River, Nova Jersey, Estats Units: Prentice-Hall. Any 2000.
  • Nelson, J.S., E.J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L.T. Findley, C.R. Gilbert, R.N. Lea i J.D. Williams, 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland, Estats Units.
  • Nelson, J.S. 2006: Fishes of the world. Quarta edició. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, Nova Jersey, Estats Units. 601 p.
  • Riede, K., 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Alemanya. 329 p.
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea i W.B. Scott, 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Pub. (20):183 p.
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea i W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21): 243 p.
  • Schoonbee, H.J., F. De W. Brandt i C.A.L. Bekker, 1978. Induced spawning of the two phytophagous Chine carp species Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) and Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Val.) with species reference to possible use of grass carp in the control of aquatic weeds. Water S.A. 4(2):93-103.
  • Vasil'ev, V.P., 1980. Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish. J. Ichthyol. 20(3): 1-38.
  • Wheeler, A.: The World Encyclopedia of Fishes, 2a. edició, Londres: Macdonald. Any 1985.
  • Zan, R. i Z. Song, 1980. Comparative analysis of karyotypes of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus, as well Aristichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Acta genet. sin. 7(1):72-76.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]

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