Llista de biblioteques destruïdes

De Viquipèdia
Dreceres ràpides: navegació, cerca

Moltes biblioteques han estat destruïdes al llarg de la història ja sigui deliberadament (a causa de guerres o desacords culturals), o bé accidentalment (com a conseqüència d'incendis, inundacions o desastres naturals). Aquest article en fa una enumeració de les més importants

Per acció humana[modifica | modifica el codi]

Imatge Nom de la biblioteca Ciutat Estat Data de destrucció Responsable Motius per a la destrucció
Epang-Palast.jpg Palau d'Epang i arxius estatals Xianyang Xina Qin 206 aC Xiang Yu Xiang Yu, rebel·lat contra Qin Er Shi, va dirigir les seves tropes cap a Xianyang l'any 206 aC. Va ordenar cremar el palau d'Epang.[1]
Ancientlibraryalex.jpg Biblioteca d'Alexandria Alexandria Antic Egipte hel·lenístic A partir del s. I a. C. Juli Cèsar El primer incendi fou durant la Guerra d'Alexandria, quan l'incendi provocat pels romans a les naus del port es propagà a la ciutat i la biblioteca. A partir de llavors, la biblioteca entrà en declivi i patí altres incendis.[2][3]
Biblioteca d'Antioquia Antioquia Antiga Síria 364 dC Emperador Jovià[4] Va ser cremada per part de l'emperador Jovià.
Egypt.Alexandria.PompeysPillar.01.jpg Biblioteca del Serapeum Alexandria Antic Egipte hel·lenístic 392 dC Teòfil d'Alexandria La biblioteca va ser cremada per ordre de Teòfil d'Alexandria, sota ordres de Teodosi I, perquè es veia com un símbol del paganisme.
Biblioteca de Ctesifont Ctesifont, Khvârvarân Pèrsia 651 dC Invasors àrabs Els llibres foren llençats a l'Eufrates per ordre de Califa Umar.[5]
Biblioteca d'al-Hakam II Còrdova Al-Andalus 976 dC al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir Tots els llibres que tractaven de ciència antiga foren destruïts per obtenir el suport dels ultraortodoxes.[6]
Biblioteca de Rayy Rayy Pèrsia 1029 AD Soldà Mahmud de Ghazni Va cremar la biblioteca i tots els llibres qualificats d'herètics.[7]
Biblioteca de Ghazna Ghazni Imperi Gúride 1151 dC 'Ala ad-Din Husain City was sacked and burned for seven days. Libraries and palaces built by the Ghaznavids were destroyed.[8]
Library of Nishapur Nishapur 1154 AD Oghuz Turks City partially destroyed, libraries sacked and burned.[9]
Nalanda University India ruins.jpg Nalanda Nalanda India 1193 AD Bakhtiyar Khilji Nalanda University complex (the most renowned repository of Buddhist knowledge in the world at the time) was sacked by Turkic Muslim invaders under Bakhtiyar Khilji; this event is seen as a milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India.[10]
Imperial Library of Constantinople Constantinople Byzantine Empire 1204 AD The Crusaders In 1204, the library became a target of the knights of the Fourth Crusade. The library itself was destroyed and its contents burned or sold. The great part of the library that was saved later became absorbed into the Ottoman Sultan's library after the Muslim forces of Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Turks, captured Constantinople at the end of the siege of 1453.
House of Wisdom Bagdad Iraq 1258 AD Mongol Invaders Destroyed during the Battle of Baghdad. Survivors said that the waters of the Tigris ran black with ink from the enormous quantities of books flung into the river.
Granada madraza2.jpg Madrassah Library Granada Crown of Castile 1499 AD Troops commanded by Cardenal Cisneros The library was attacked by troops of Cardinal Cisneros in late 1499, the books were taken to the Plaza Bib-Rambla, where they were burned in public.
Bibliotheca Corviniana Ofen Ottoman Empire 1526 AD Troops of the Ottoman Empire. Library was destroyed by Ottomans.[11]
DSCN1948PenrynPrayerBookRebellionMemorial.jpg Glasney College Penryn, Cornualla (Gran Bretanya) England 1548 AD Royal officials The smashing and looting of the Cornish colleges at Glasney and Crantock brought an end to the formal scholarship which had helped to sustain the Cornish language and the Cornish cultural identity.
Dresden Codex p09.jpg Maya codices of the Yucatán Yucatán Mexico and Guatemala 1562-07-12 AD Diego de Landa Bishop De Landa, a Franciscan monk and conquistador during the Spanish conquest of Yucatán, wrote: "We found a large number of books in these characters and, as they contained nothing in which were not to be seen as superstition and lies of the devil, we burned them all, which they (the Maya) regretted to an amazing degree, and which caused them much affliction." Only three extant codices are widely considered unquestionably authentic.
Raglan Castle Gatehouse and library.jpg Raglan Library Raglan Castle Wales 1646 AD Parliamentary Army The Earl of Worcester's library was burnt during the English Civil War by forces under the command of Thomas Fairfax[12]
BurningofWashington1814.jpg Library of Congress Washington, D.C. Estats Units 1814 Tropes de l'exèrcit britànic The library was destroyed during the War of 1812 when British forces set fire to the U.S. Capitol during the Burning of Washington.[13]
University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, Alabama United States 1865-05-04 AD Troops of the Unió Army During the American Civil War, Union troops destroyed most buildings on the University of Alabama campus, including its library of approximately 7.000 volumes.[14]
Third Anglo-Burmese War A.jpg Royal library of the Kings of Burma Mandalay Palace Burma 1885 - 1887 AD Troops of the British Army The British looted the palace at the end of the 3rd Anglo-Burmese War (some of the artefacts which were taken away are still on display in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London)[15] and burned down the royal library.
Louvain Library WWI.jpg Library of the Catholic University of Leuven Leuven Belgium 1914-08-25 German Occupation Troops The Germans set the library on fire as part of the burning of the entire city in an attempt to use terror to quell Belgian resistance to occupation.[16]
Four Courts Conflagration.jpg Public Records Office of Ireland Dublín Ireland 1922 AD Disputed. Poss. deliberately by Anti-Treaty IRA or accidental ignition of their stored explosives due to shelling by Provisional Government forces.[17] The Four Courts was occupied by the Anti-Treaty IRA at the start of the Irish Civil War. The building was bombarded by the Provisional Government forces under Mícheál Ó Coileáin.[18]
1933-may-10-berlin-book-burning.JPG Institut für Sexualwissenschaft Berlin Nazi Germany 1933-05-?? Members of the Deutsche Studentenschaft On 6 May 1933, the Deutsche Studentenschaft made an organised attack on the Institute of Sex Research. A few days later, the Institute's library and archives were publicly hauled out and burned in the streets of the Opernplatz.
National University of Tsing Hua, University Nan-k'ai, Institute of Technology of He-pei, Medical College of He-pei, Agricultural College of He-pei, University Ta Hsia, University Kuang Hua, National University of Hunan China 1937 – 1945 AD World War II Japanese Troops During World War II, Japanese military forces destroyed or partly destroyed numerous Chinese libraries, including libraries at the National University of Tsing Hua, Peking (lost 200,000 of 350,000 books), the University Nan-k'ai, T'ien-chin (totally destroyed, 224,000 books lost), Institute of Technology of He-pei, T'ien-chin (completely destroyed), Medical College of He-pei, Pao-ting (completely destroyed), Agricultural College of He-pei, Pao-ting (completely destroyed), University Ta Hsia, Shanghai (completely destroyed), University Kuang Hua, Shanghai (completely destroyed), National University of Hunan (completely destroyed).[19]
Louvain Library WWI.jpg Library of the Catholic University of Leuven Leuven Belgium 1940-05-?? AD German Occupation Troops Caught fire during German invasion of Louvain, Belgium.[20]
Bombed National Library Belgrad.JPG National Library of Serbia Belgrad Yugoslavia 1941-04-?? AD Nazi German Luftwaffe Destroyed during the World War II bombing of Belgrade.
Vogel Załuski Library.jpg Załuski Library Varsòvia Poland 1944 AD Nazi German troops The library was burned down during the Nazi suppression of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. The burning of this library was part of the general setting on fire of a large part of the city of Warsaw.[21]
National Library of Cambodia Phnom Penh Cambodia 1976 – 1979 AD The Khmer Rouge[19] Burnt most of the books and all bibliographical records. Only 20% of materials survived.[19]
Jaffna Public Library Jaffna Sri Lanka 1981-05-?? AD Plainclothes police officers and others In May 1981 a mob composed of thugs and plainclothes police officers went on a rampage in minority Tamil-dominated northern Jaffna, and burned down the Jaffna Public Library. At least 95,000 volumes – the second largest library collection in South Asia – were destroyed.[22]
Picture of burned Sikh Reference Library Sikh Reference Library Punjab India 1984-06-07 AD Troops acting under Indira Gandhi's orders Before its destruction, the library contained rare books and handwritten manuscripts on Sikh religion, history, and culture[23] It could have been a desperate act on failure to locate letters or documents that could have implicated the then Indian government and its leader Indira Gandhi [24]
Biblioteca Nationala Universitara.jpg! Palatul Fundatiei Universitare (Biblioteca Centrala Universitara).jpg Central University Library of Bucharest Bucharest Romania 1989-12-2? CE Romanian Land Forces Burnt down during the Romanian Revolution.[25][26]
Oriental Institute in Sarajevo Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-05-17 AD Bosnian Serb Army Destroyed by the shellfire during the Siege of Sarajevo.

[27] [28][29]

Evstafiev-bosnia-cello.jpg National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-08-25 AD Bosnian Serb Army The library was completely destroyed during the Siege of Sarajevo.[27]
Abkhazian Research Institute of History, Language and Literature & National Library of Abkhazia Sukhumi Abkhazia 1992-10-?? AD Georgian Armed Forces Destroyed during the War in Abkhazia.[30]
Pol-i-Khomri Public Library Pol-i-Khomri Afghanistan 1998 AD Taliban militia It held 55,000 books and old manuscripts.[31]
Iraq National Library and Archive, Al-Awqaf Library, Central Library of the University of Baghdad, Library of Bayt al-Hikma, Central Library of the University of Mosul and other libraries Baghdad Iraq 2003-04-?? AD Unknown members of the Bagdad population Several libraries looted, set on fire, damaged and destroyed in various degrees during the 2003 Iraq War.[32][33][34][35][36]
Egyptian Scientific Institute El Caire Egipte 2011-12-?? AD A first estimate says that only 30,000 volumes have been saved of a total of 200,000.[37]
Ahmed Baba Institute (Timbuktu library) Timbuktu Mali 2013-01-28 AD Islamists militia The library was burned down, it contained over 20,000 manuscripts with only a fraction of them having been scanned as of January 2013.[38][39][40]
Libraries of Fisheries and Oceans Canada Canada 2013 AD Government of Canada headed by prime minister Stephen Harper Alleged digitization effort to reduce the nine original libraries to seven and save $C443,000 annual cost.[41] It is alleged that only 5–6% of the material was digitized, and that scientific records and research created at a taxpayer cost of tens of millions of dollars was dumped, burned, and given away.[42] Particularly noted are baseline data important to ecological research, and data from 19th century exploration.
Saeh Library Trípoli Líban 3 de gener de 2014 Unknown The library was burned down, it contained over 80.000 manuscripts and books.[43][44][45][46]
National Archives of Bosnia and Herzegovina (partially) Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina 2014-02-07 AD Unknown During the 2014 unrest in Bosnia and Herzegovina large amounts of historical documents were destroyed when sections of the Archives of Bosnia and Herzegovina, housed in the presidential building, were set on fire. Among the lost archival material were documents and gifts from the Ottoman period, original documents from the 1878-1918 Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as documentations of the interwar period, the 1941-1945 rule of the Independent State of Croatia, papers from the following years, and about 15000 files from the 1996-2003 Human Rights Chamber for Bosnia and Herzegovina.[47][48]

In the repositories that were burnt, about 60 percent of the material was lost, according to estimates by Šaban Zahirović, the head of the Archives.[49]

Natural disasters[modifica | modifica el codi]

Image Name of Library City Country Date of Destruction Causes and/or Account of Destruction
Imperial University Library in Tokyo, Max Müller Library, Nishimura Library, Hoshino Library Japan 1923-09-?? AD An earthquake and the following fires.[19]
National Library of Nicaragua Rubén Darío Nicaragua 1931 AD, 1972 AD It was damaged in the 1931 earthquake. Another earthquake in 1972 caused damages; furthermore, it was looted.[50]
100px Several libraries, archives, and museums[cal citació] India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Thailand, Sri Lanka 2004-12-?? AD The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. See Library damage resulting from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.

Fire[modifica | modifica el codi]

See also[modifica | modifica el codi]

References[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. Sima Qian. Records of the Grand Historian, Biography of Emperor Gaozu.
  2. The Alexandrian Library"
  3. Lewis, Bernard. "The Vanished Library". The New York Review of Books. 37(14). 27 September 1990.
  4. Albrecht, Michael von & Schmeling, Gareth L. (1997) A History of Roman Literature; p. 1744
  5. John, Pedler. A Word Before Leaving: A Former Diplomat's Weltanschauung (en anglès). Troubador Publishing Ltd, 2015, pàg. 265. ISBN 9781784622237 [Consulta: 4 gener 2015]. 
  6. Ann Christy, Christians in Al-Andalus:711–1000, (Curzon Press, 2002), 142.
  7. "Moslem Libraries and Sectarian Propaganda", Ruth Stellhorn Mackensen, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 51, No. 2 (January, 1935), 93–94.
  8. C.E. Bosworth, The Later Ghaznavids, (Columbia University Press, 1977), 117.
  9. The Tomb of Omar Khayyâm, George Sarton, Isis, Vol. 29, No. 1 (July, 1938):16.
  10. Sen, Gertrude Emerson (1964) The Story of Early Indian Civilization. Orient Longmans
  11. (DE)Edit Szegedi, Geschichtsbewusstsein und Gruppenidentität, (Bohlau Verlag, 2002), 223.
  12. Johnson, Paul. «Raglan Castle and the Civil War». Castlewales. [Consulta: 16 juliol 2010].
  13. «Jefferson's Legacy: A Brief History of the Library of Congress». Library of Congress, 2006-03-06. [Consulta: 2008-01-14].
  14. Wolfe, Suzanne Rau. The University of Alabama: A Pictorial History. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press, 1983, p. 57–59. 
  15. Bird, George W. Wanderings in Burma. Londres: F. J. Bright & Son, 1897, p. 254. 
  16. Kramer, Alan. Dynamic of Destruction: culture and mass killing in the First World War. London: Penguin, 2008. ISBN 978-1-84614-013-6. Gibson, Craig. «The culture of destruction in the First World War». Times Literary Supplement, 30 de gener de 2008.
  17. Hill, J. R.. A New History of Ireland Volume VII: Ireland 1921-84. Oxford University Press, 2003, p. Chapter II p2. ISBN 978-0-19-161559-7. 
  18. Ferriter, Diarmaid. The Limits of Liberty – Episode 1. RTÉ, 2010. 
  19. 19,0 19,1 19,2 19,3 Lost Memory — Libraries and Archived Destroyed in the Twentieth Century (Arxivat a WebCite)
  20. University of Louvain, International Dictionary of University Histories, ed. Carol J. Summerfield, Mary Elizabeth Devine, Anthony Levi, (Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1998), 531.
  21. Rebecca Knuth. Burning Books and Leveling Libraries: extremist violence and cultural destruction. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2006, p. 166. ISBN 0-275-99007-9. 
  22. Knuth, Rebecca (2006-06-27). "Destroying a Symbol: Checkered History of Sri Lanka's Jaffna Public Library" (PDF). , IFLA. Data de consulta {Plantilla:Accessdate].  
  23. Kaur, Jaskaran; Crossette, Barbara (2006).|http://ensaaf-org.jklaw.net/publications/reports/20years/20years-2nd.pdf
  24. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2000/20000612/main7.htm
  25. The Central University Library of Bucharest, official site: "the History".
  26. "Legea recunoştinţei, made in Romania", Evenimentul Zilei, 03 June 2010.
  27. 27,0 27,1 Collection of articles and studies on destruction of libraries and archives in Bosnia and Herzegovina (available for download in .pdf)
  28. Erasing the Past: The Destruction of Libraries and Archives in Bosnia-Herzegovina (Arxivat a WebCite)
  29. Crimes of war, crimes of peace: destruction of libraries during and after the Balkan wars of the 1990s (Arxivat a WebCite)
  30. Abkhazia: Cultural Tragedy Revisited, Caucasus Reporting Service, Institute for War and Peace Reporting
  31. Censorship of historical thought: a world guide, 1945–2000, Antoon de Baets
  32. Prized Iraqi annals 'lost in blaze' (Arxivat a WebCite)
  33. Photos of the Iraq National Library 2003–08
  35. Middle East Librarians Association Committee on Iraqi Libraries
  36. Assessment of damage to Libraries and Archives in Iraq
  37. Un incendio durante los disturbios de El Cairo destruye el original de la 'Descripción de Egipto' encargada por Napoleón (Arxivat a WebCite)
  38. Harding, Luke. «Timbuktu mayor: Mali rebels torched library of historic manuscripts». The Guardian, 28 gener 2013. [Consulta: 28 gener 2013].
  39. Walker, Peter. «Timbuktu library is treasure house of centuries of Malian history». The Guardian, 28 gener 2013. [Consulta: 28 gener 2013].
  40. Fleeing Islamists burn priceless Timbuktu library, accessed 29 January 2013
  41. Andrew Nikiforuk. «Secret Memo Casts Doubt on Feds' Claims for Science Library Closures: Goal stated is 'culling' research, not preserving and sharing through digitization». The Tyee, 30 desembre 2013.
  42. «Irreplaceable research lost from purged federal libraries: BC Green Party MLA Andrew Weaver says government didn’t digitize entire libraries as promised». News1130, 6 gener 2014.
  43. «Lebanon Loses 78000 Books To Terrorism: Tripoli’s "Al Sa’eh" Library Burned». .
  44. «Thousands of books, manuscripts torched in fire at historic Lebanese library». .
  45. «Tripoli Figures Condemn Torching Famed Library as Father Sarrouj 'Forgives Attackers'». .
  46. «20 Pictures Of Al Sa’eh Library in Tripoli Before It Got Torched». .
  47. «Ogromna šteta, dio dokumentacije nepovratno uništen». tportal.hr, 13 febrer 2014 [Consulta: 19 febrer 2014].
  48. «Nepovratno uništen deo Arhiva BiH». B92, 13 febrer 2014 [Consulta: 19 febrer 2014].
  49. «Direktor Arhiva BiH tvrdi: Izgorjelo je 60 posto depoa». Oslobođenje, 13 febrer 2014 [Consulta: 17 febrer 2014].
  50. Biblioteca Nacional Rubén Darío (castellà)
  51. Charles A. Halbert Public Library (Arxivat a WebCite)

Further reading[modifica | modifica el codi]

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]