Llista de les universitats més antigues existents en l'actualitat

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Mapa de les universitats medievals a Europa

Aquesta és una llista de les universitats més antigues del món que perviuen en l'actualitat, fundades abans de l'any 1500.[1] La universitat, el seu origen, formació i trajectòria històrica, està considerada com una institució europea clàssica.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Per a veure els institucions apareixen en aquesta llista, cal establir el concepte de universitat. Habitualment, es considera que la concessió de títols o graus acadèmics és un dels elements determinants. Com a conseqüència, aquest concepte exclou a institucions xineses, com ara la Universitat de Nanquín (Imperial Nanjing Institute), fundada per primera vegada l'any 259, ja que no atorgaven "graduacions" en el sentit més estricte, sinó que preparava als estudiants per als exàmens estandarditzats que realitzava l'Estat per assolir un grau o posició oficial.

De la mateixa manera, s'ha de posar en dubte l'adequació de les madrassas dels països àrabs en aquesta llista, ja que la mateixa institució no atorgava un "títol" o "graduació". La llicència la signava un professor en el seu propi nom, no el de la institució, de manera que l'estudiant acabava la seva formació amb un recull de llicències de professors però no una de la institució com a tal.[11] La madrassa és històricament una institució diferent de la universitat cristiana,[4][12] per la qual cosa la Encyclopaedia of Islam només té una entrada sobre la "madrassa", però no la universitat, en què a més evita consequentemente l'ús del terme "universitat".[13]

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. ;Nota: Les referències de cada universitat són dins de cada article detallat.
  2. Sanz, Nuria; Bergan, Sjur (eds.): The Heritage of European Universities, Council of Europe, 2002, ISBN 978-92-871-4960-2, p. 119:
    « In many respects, if there is any institution that Europe can most justifiably claim as one of its inventions, it is the university. As proof thereof and without wishing here to recount the whole history of the birth of universities, it will suffice to describe briefly how the invention of universities took the form of a polycentric process of specifically European origin. »
  3. Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. The University as a European Institution", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. XIX–XX:
    « The university is a European institution; indeed, it is the European institution par excellence. There are various reasons for this assertion. As a community of teachers and taught, accorded certain rights, such as administrative autonomy and the determination and realization of curricula (courses of study) and of the objectives of research as well as the award of publicly recognized degrees, it is a creation of medieval Europe, which was the Europe of papal Christianity...No other European institution has spread over the entire world in the way in which the traditional form of the European university has done. The degrees awarded by European universities – the bachelor's degree, the licentiate, the master's degree, and the doctorate – have been adopted in the most diverse societies throughout the world. The four medieval faculties of artes – variously called philosophy, letters, arts, arts and sciences, and humanities –, law, medicine, and theology have survived and have been supplemented by numerous disciplines, particularly the social sciences and technological studies, but they remain none the less at the heart of universities throughout the world. Even the name of the universitas, which in the Middle Ages was applied to corporate bodies of the most diverse sorts and was accordingly applied to the corporate organization of teachers and students, has in the course of centuries been given a more particular focus: the university, as a universitas litterarum, has since the eighteenth century been the intellectual institution which cultivates and transmits the entire corpus of methodically studied intellectual disciplines. »
  4. 4,0 4,1 Verger, Jacques: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8, pp. 35–76 (35):
    « No one today would dispute the fact that universities, in the sense in which the term is now generally understood, were a creation of the Middle Ages, appearing for the first time between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It is no doubt true that other civilizations, prior to, or wholly alien to, the medieval West, such as the Roman Empire, Byzantium, Islam, or China, were familiar with forms of higher education which a number of historians, for the sake of convenience, have sometimes described as universities.Yet a closer look makes it plain that the institutional reality was altogether different and, no matter what has been said on the subject, there is no real link such as would justify us in associating them with medieval universities in the West. Until there is definite proof to the contrary, these latter must be regarded as the sole source of the model which gradually spread through the whole of Europe and then to the whole world. We are therefore concerned with what is indisputably an original institution, which can only be defined in terms of a historical analysis of its emergence and its mode of operation in concrete circumstances. »
  5. Makdisi, George: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255–264 (264):
    « Thus the university, as a form of social organization, was peculiar to medieval Europe. Later, it was exported to all parts of the world, including the Muslim East; and it has remained with us down to the present day. But back in the Middle Ages, outside of Europe, there was nothing anything quite like it anywhere. »
  6. Vauchez, André; Dobson, Richard Barrie; Lapidge, Michael (eds.): Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Vol. 1, Routledge, 2000, ISBN 978-1-57958-282-1, p. 1484 ("university")
  7. Encyclopædia Britannica: "University", 2012, retrieved 26 July 2012
  8. The Catholic Encyclopedia: "Universities", Vol. 15, Robert Appleton Company, New York, 1912, retrieved 27 July 2012
  9. Lexikon des Mittelalters: "Universität. Die Anfänge", Vol. 8, Cols 1249–1250, Metzler, Stuttgart, [1977]–1999
  10. Brill's New Pauly: "University", Brill, 2012
  11. William J. Courtenay, Jürgen Miethke, David B. Priest. Universities and Schooling in Medieval Society . Brill Academic Publishers, 2000. ISBN 90-04-11351-7. Page 96.
  12. Makdisi, George: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255–264 (255f.):
    « In studying an institution which is foreign and remote in point of time, as is the case of the medieval madrasa, one runs the double risk of attributing to it characteristics borrowed from one's own institutions and one's own times. Thus gratuitous transfers may be made from one culture to the other, and the time factor may be ignored or dismissed as being without significance. One cannot therefore be too careful in attempting a comparative study of these two institutions: the madrasa and the university. But in spite of the pitfalls inherent in such a study, albeit sketchy, the results which may be obtained are well worth the risks involved. In any case, one cannot avoid making comparisons when certain unwarranted statements have already been made and seem to be currently accepted without question. The most unwarranted of these statements is the one which makes of the "madrasa" a "university". »
  13. Pedersen, J.; Rahman, Munibur; Hillenbrand, R. "Madrassa." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010, Retrieved 2010.03.21