Menhaden de l'Atlàntic

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Menhaden de l'Atlàntic
Brevoortia tyrannus1.jpg
Brevoortia tyrannus.jpg
Classificació científica
Regne: Animalia
Fílum: Chordata
Classe: Osteichthyes
(Huxley, 1880)
Subclasse: Neopterygii
Infraclasse: Teleostei
Ordre: Clupeiformes
Família: Clupeidae
Gènere: Brevoortia
(Gill, 1861)[1]
Espècie: B. tyrannus
Nom binomial
Brevoortia tyrannus
(Latrobe, 1802)[2]
Sinònims
  • Clupea carolinensis (Gray, 1854)
  • Clupea menhaden (Mitchill, 1814)
  • Clupea neglecta (Rafinesque, 1818)
  • Clupea tyrannus (Latrobe, 1802)[3]

El menhaden de l'Atlàntic[4] (Brevoortia tyrannus) és una espècie de peix pertanyent a la família dels clupeids.[5]

Descripció[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Pot arribar a fer 50 cm de llargària màxima.
  • Cos ovalat.
  • 18-24 radis tous a l'aleta dorsal i 18-24 a l'anal.
  • Color blavós amb taques negres (una a l'opercle i la resta repartides pel dors).[6][7]

Reproducció[modifica | modifica el codi]

Té lloc durant tot l'any i les larves són pelàgiques.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]

Alimentació[modifica | modifica el codi]

Menja fitoplàncton (diatomees), zooplàncton (crustacis petits i anèl·lids) i detritus.[19][20]

Paràsits[modifica | modifica el codi]

És parasitat per isòpodes, copèpodes, cestodes i trematodes.[21]

Depredadors[modifica | modifica el codi]

Als Estats Units és depredat pel llobarro atlàntic ratllat (Morone saxatilis), el corball reial (Cynoscion regalis), la tonyina d'aleta blava (Thunnus thynnus),[22] el peix espasa (Xiphias gladius), el tallahams (Pomatomus saltator),[23] el tauró sedós (Carcharhinus falciformis), el solraig (Isurus oxyrinchus),[24] l'agullat (Squalus acanthias) i el tauró gris (Carcharhinus plumbeus).[25][26]

Hàbitat[modifica | modifica el codi]

És un peix marí i d'aigua salabrosa, pelàgic-nerític, oceanòdrom[27] i de clima subtropical (46°N-30°N, 81°W-64°W) que viu entre 0-50 m de fondària.[6][28]

Distribució geogràfica[modifica | modifica el codi]

Es troba a l'Atlàntic occidental: des de Nova Escòcia (el Canadà) fins a Indian River (Florida, els Estats Units).[6][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45]

Ús comercial[modifica | modifica el codi]

Es comercialitza fresc, en salaó, en conserva o fumat. També és emprat per a produir oli, fertilitzants i farina de peix.[46][47]

Estat de conservació[modifica | modifica el codi]

No apareix a la Llista Vermella de la UICN, la qual cosa vol dir que es troba fora de perill d'extinció.[8]

Observacions[modifica | modifica el codi]

És inofensiu per als humans.[6]

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. Gill T. N., 1861. Synopsis of the subfamily of Clupeinae, with descriptions of new genera. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. v. 13. 33-38.
  2. Latrobe, B. H., 1802. A drawing and description of the Clupea tyrannus and Oniscus praegustator. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society v. 5: 77-81, Pl. 1.
  3. Catalogue of Life (anglès)
  4. TERMCAT (anglès)
  5. The Taxonomicon (anglès)
  6. 6,0 6,1 6,2 6,3 FishBase (anglès)
  7. Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 1 - Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303.
  8. 8,0 8,1 Animal Diversity Web (anglès)
  9. Massman, W.H., J.J. Norcross i E.B. Joseph, 1962. Atlantic menhaden larvae in Virginia coastal waters. Chesapeake Sci. 3(1):42-45.
  10. Austin, H.M., 1973. The ecology of Lake Montauk planktonic fish eggs and larvae. N.Y. Ocean Sci. Lab. Tech. Rept. 0021. 37 p.
  11. Breder, C.M. i D.E. Rosen, 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, Nova Jersey, Estats Units. 941 p.
  12. Colton, J.B. Jr. i R.R. Marak, 1969. Guide for identifying the common planktonic fish eggs and larvae of continental shelf waters, Cape Sable to Bloc Island. U.S. Bur. Commer. Fish. Biol. Lab. Ref. 69-9. 43 p.
  13. Dovel, W.L., 1971. Fish eggs and larvae of the upper Chesapeake Bay. Univ. Md. Nat. Resour. Inst., Spec. Rept. 4. 71 p.
  14. Higham, J.r. i W.R. Nicholson, 1964. Sexual maturation and spawning of the Atlantic menhaden. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Fish. Bull. 63(2):255-271.
  15. Jones, P.W., F.D. Martin i J.D. Hardy, Jr., 1978. Development of fishes of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. An atlas of eggs, larval and juvenile stages. Vol. 1. Acipenseridae through Ictaluridae. U.S. Fish Wildl. Ser. Biol. Serv. Program FWS/OBS-78/12. 336 p.
  16. Pauly, D. i R.S.V. Pullin, 1988. Hatching time in spherical, pelagic, marine fish eggs in response to temperature and egg size. Environ. Biol. Fish. 22(4):261-271.
  17. Richards, S.W., 1959. Pelagic fish eggs and larvae of the Long Island Sound. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ. 17(1):95-124.
  18. Scotton, L.N., R.E. Smith, N.S. Smith, K.S. Price i D.P. de Sylva, 1973. Pictorial guide to fish larvae of Delaware Bay: with information and bibliographies useful for the study of fish larvae. Delaware Bay Report Series. Vol. 7. College of Marine Studies, Universitat de Delaware. 205 p.
  19. Scott, W.B. i M.G. Scott, 1988. Atlantic fishes of Canada. Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 219: 731 p.
  20. Lewis, V.P. i D.S. Peters, 1994. Diet of juvenile and adult Atlantic menhaden in estuarine and coastal habitats. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 123(5):803-810.
  21. Bigelow, H.B., M.G. Bradbury, J.R. Dymond, J.R. Greeley, S.F. Hildebrand, G.W. Mead, R.R. Miller, L.R. Rivas, W.L. Schroeder, R.D. Suttkus i V.D. Vladykov, 1963. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Part three. New Haven, Sears Found. Mar. Res., Yale Univ.
  22. Chase, B.C., 2002. Differences in diet of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) at five seasonal feeding grounds on the New England continental shelf. Fish. Bull. 100(2):168-180.
  23. Buckel, J.A. i D.O. Conover, 1997. Movements, feeding periods, and daily ration of piscivorous young-of-the-year bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, in the Hudson River stuary. Fish. Bull. 95:665-679.
  24. Stillwell, C.E. i N.E. Kohler, 1982. Food, feeding habits, and estimates of daily ration of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the Northwest Atlantic. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39(3):407-414.
  25. Medved, R.J. i J.A. Marshall, 1981. Feeding behavior and biology of young sandbar sharks, Carcharhinus plumbeus (Pisces, Carcharhinidae), in Chincoteague Bay, Virginia. Fish. Bull. 79(3):441-447.
  26. FishBase (anglès)
  27. Riede, K., 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Alemanya. 329 p.
  28. Meldrim, J.W. i J.J. Gift, 1971. Temperature preference, avoidance and shock experiments with estuarine fishes. Ichthyological Assoc., Bull. 75 p.
  29. Bigelow, H.B. i W.C. Schroeder, 1953. Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. Fish. Bull. 53:1-577.
  30. Cooper, R.A., 1965. An unusually large menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus from Rhode Island. Copeia 1965:412.
  31. Dahlberg, M.D., 1970. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico menhadens, genus Brevoortia (Pisces: Clupeidae). Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Ser. 15(3):91-162.
  32. Fahay, M., 1983. Guide to the early stages of marine fishes occuring in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Cape Hatteras to the Southern Scotian Shelf. J. Northwest Atl. Fish. Sci. 4:1-423.
  33. Hildebrand, S.F., 1964. Family Clupeidae. P. 257-454. A: H.B. Bigelow et al. (eds.). Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Mem. Sears Fdn. Mar. Res., New Haven, (1-3):1-630.
  34. Hildebrand, S.F. i W.C. Schroeder, 1928. Fishes of Chesapeake Bay. U.S. Bur. Fish. Bull. 43(pt. 1):366 p.
  35. June, F. i W. Nicholson, 1964. Age and size composition of the menhaden catch along the Atlantic coast of the United States, 1958. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv. Spec. Scient. Rep. (446).
  36. June, F.C., 1961. The menhaden fishery of the United States. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Fish. Leafl. 521. 13 p.
  37. Kjelson, M.A., D.S. Peters, G.W. Thayer i G.N. Johnson, 1975. The general feeding ecology of postlarval fishes in the Newport River estuary. Fish. Bull. 73(1):137-144.
  38. Mansueti, A.J. i J.D. Hardy, 1967. Development of fishes of the Chesapeake Bay region. An atlas of egg, larval and juvenile stages. Part. 1. Port City Press, Baltimore. 202 p.
  39. McHugh, J.L., R.T. Oglesby i A.L. Pacheco, 1959. Length, weight, and age composition of the menhaden catch in Virginia waters. Limnol. Oceanogr. 4(2):145-162.
  40. Nelson, J.S., E.J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L.T. Findley, C.R. Gilbert, R.N. Lea i J.D. Williams, 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland, Estats Units.
  41. Nichols, J.T. i C.M. Breder, 1927. The marine fishes of New York and southern New England. New York Zoological Society, Nova York. 192 p.
  42. Robins, C.R. i G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Estats Units. 354 p.
  43. Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea i W.B. Scott, 1980. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (12)1-174.
  44. Smith, C.L., 1997. National Audubon Society field guide to tropical marine fishes of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., Nova York, Estats Units. 720 p.
  45. Wilber, D.H., D.G. Clarke, M.H. Burlas, H. Ruben i R.J. Will, 2003. Spatial and temporal variability in surf zone fish assemblages on the coast of northern New Jersey. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 56(2):291-304.
  46. Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985.
  47. Frimodt, C., 1995. Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, Anglaterra. 215 p.

Bibliografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Anònim, 2001. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution - Division of Fishes.
  • Anònim, 2002. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West, NY 10024-5192, Estats Units.
  • Bowman, R.E., C.E. Stillwell, W.L. Michaels i M.D. Grosslein, 2000. Food of northwest Atlantic fishes and two common species of squid. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NE 155, 138 p.
  • Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba i K.E. Carpenter, 1994. SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). Núm. 9. Roma, FAO. 103 p.
  • Doucette, A.J. Jr. i J.M. Fitzsimons, 1988. Karyology of elopiform and clupeiform fishes. Copeia 1988(1):124-130.
  • Eschmeyer, William N., ed. 1998. Catalog of Fishes. Special Publication of the Center for Biodiversity Research and Information, núm. 1, vol. 1-3. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. ISBN 0-940228-47-5.
  • Gislason, H., N. Daan, J.C. Rice i J.G. Pope, 2008. Does natural mortality depend on individual size? ICES CM 2008/F:16.
  • Goode, G.B., 1879. The natural and economic history of the American menhaden. U.S. Comm. Fish., Rept. Of the Comm. (1877)5(Appendix A):1-530.
  • Gray, I.E., 1954. Comparative study of the gill area of marine fishes. Biol. Bull. Mar. Biol. Lab. Woods Hole 107:219-225.
  • Hartman, K.J. i S.B. Brandt, 1995. Trophic resource partitioning, diets, and growth of sympatric estuarine predators. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 124(4):520-537.
  • Henry, K.A., 1971. Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus). Resource and fishery - analysis of decline. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS SSRF-642, 32 p.
  • Hettler, W.F., 1976. Influence of temperature and salinity on routine metabolic rate and growth of young Atlantic menhaden. J. Fish Biol. 8:55-65.
  • Ida, H., N. Oka i K. Hayashigaki, 1991. Karyotypes and cellular DNA contents of three species of the subfamily Clupeinae. Jap. J. Ichthyol. 38(3):289-294.
  • James, A.G., 1988. Are clupeid microphagists herbivorous or omnivorous? A review of the diets of some commercially important clupeids. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 7:161-177.
  • June, F.C. i L. Chamberlain, 1959. The role of the estuary in the life history and biology of Atlantic menhaden. Gulf Caribb. Fish. Inst. Proc. (1958):41-45.
  • Kotlyar, A.N., 1984. Dictionary of names of marine fishes on the six languages. All Union Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, Moscou. 288 p.
  • Lazzaro, X., 1987. A review of planktivorous fishes: their evolution, feeding behaviours, selectivities, and impacts. Hydrobiologia 146:97-167.
  • McKenney, T.W., 1969. Life history of Atlantic menhaden. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Circ. 350. 49 p.
  • Meldrim, J.W. i J.J. Gift, 1971. Temperature preference, avoidance and shock experiments with estuarine fishes. Ichthyological Assoc., Bull. 75 p.
  • Museu Suec d'Història Natural. Base de dades de la col·lecció d'ictiologia. Secció d'Ictiologia, Departament de Zoologia de Vertebrats. Estocolm, Suècia, 1999.
  • Myers, R.A., J. Bridson i N.J. Barrowman, 1995. Summary of worldwide spawner and recruitment data. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2024. 274 p.
  • Pauly, D., 1980. On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters, and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 39(2):175-192.
  • Reintjes, J.W., 1969. Synopsis of biological data on the Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus. FAO Fish. Synops. 42 and U.S. Wildl. Serv. Circ. 320. 30 p.
  • Ricker, W.E., 1973. Russian-English dictionary for students of fisheries and aquatic biology. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa.
  • Rush, W., 1952. Observations of age and growth in the menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) as determined by scale determination. Copeia (3):208-209.
  • Sambilay, V.C. Jr., 1990. Interrelationships between swimming speed, caudal fin aspect ratio and body length of fishes. Fishbyte 8(3):16-20.
  • Schaaf, W.E. i G.R. Hunstman, 1972. Effects of fishing on the Atlantic menhaden stock: 1955-1969. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 101:290-297.
  • Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao i C.F. Lai (eds.), 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]

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