Municipis de Lituània

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Lituània és un país del nord d'Europa. És membre de les Nacions Unides, de la Unió Europea, del Consell d'Europa i de la NATO.[1] L'any 2010, tenia una població d'aproximadament 3,3 milions, i una àrea de 65.300 km2.[2] En el segle XIV, el Gran Ducat de Lituània era un dels països més grans d'Europa, i incloïa l'actual Lituània, Bielorússia, gran part d'Ucraïna, i parts d'Estònia, Letònia, Moldàvia, Polònia i Rússia. Com a República Socialista Soviètica de Lituània (des de 1940), Lituània va iniciar la seva desclaració de la independència el 1990, que va obtenir reconeixement internacional l'any següent.[1]

El país té tres nivells de divisions administratives. El primer nivell consisteix en 10 comtats (en lituà, singular – apskritis, plural – apskritys). Aquests estan sub-dividits en 60 districtes municipals o municipis (en lituà: plural – savivaldybės, singular – savivaldybė), que, al seu torn, es torna a sub-dividir en uns 500 grups més petits coneguts com a seniūnija (en lituà: plural – seniūnijos, singular – seniūnija).

Al final del seu mandat com una República Socialista Soviètica, les divisions administratives consistien en 44 regions, 12 ciutats, 80 pobles, 19 assentaments i 426 districtes rurals.[3] La reforma d'aquest sistema era una preocupació immediata per al nou govern.[4] La Constitució de Lituània, ratificada el 1992, delega la facultat d'establir les unitats administratives futures al Parlament lituà (Seimas). En conseqüència, el Seimas va aprovar dues lleis fonamentals: una llei de 1993 sobre la representació del govern i una llei de 1994 que especifica les unitats administratives-territorials i els seus límits[4] El sistema actual d'un conjunt de municipis de menys de 10 comtats va ser codificat el 1995.[4] Es van fer diversos canvis el 2000, amb el resultant de 60 municipis.[5] Encara s'estan discutint nous canvis, incloent un possible augment en el nombre de municipis.[6] Els regidors municipals són elegits directament cada quatre anys.[7] Llavors els regidors es trien alcalde del municipi.[7]

El següent mapa mostra els comtats, així com els municipis. Set ciutats municipals i tres municipis estan marcats per números.

Un mapa dividit en deu seccions totes plenes amb un color diferent i que es subdivideix al seu torn en subseccions

1 – Ciutat municipial de Vílnius
2 – Ciutat municipial de Kaunas
3 – Ciutat municipial de Klaipėda

4 – Ciutat municipial de Panevėžys
5 – Ciutat municipial de Šiauliai
6 – Ciutat municipial d'Alytus

7 – Municipi de Birštonas
8 – Ciutat municipial de Palanga
9 – Municipi de Visaginas
10 – Municipi de Neringa

Municipis[modifica | modifica el codi]

Municpi Comtat Centre administratiu[8] Àrea[9] Pob. (2010)[9] Densitat (2010)[9]
A coat of arms depicting orange tools on a white background on the top and an orange sun on a dark green background on the bottom
Districte municipal d'Akmenė
Šiauliai Naujoji Akmenė 844 km2 26,737 31.7
A coat of arms depicting a white flower in the middle that has a yellow stamen and green leaves all on a red background
Ciutat municipial d'Alytus
Alytus Alytus 60 km2 66,841 1,671.0
A coat of arms depicting three flowers that have red petals, green stalks, and green leaves all sprouting from green earth
Districte municipal d'Alytus
Alytus Alytus[nb 1] 1,404 km2 30,691 21.9
A coat of arms depicting a brown bridge rising up out of a blue body of water into a blue sky with white clouds
Districte municipal d'Anykščiai
Utena Anykščiai 1,765 km2 31,088 17.6
A coat of arms depicting a sea creature with sharp teeth, one protruding bottom tooth, and a blowhole spewing water
Municipi de Birštonas
Kaunas Birštonas 124 km2 5,178 41.8
A coat of arms depicting a white flag with a black bird on it with a yellow beak and yellow claws all on a yellow background
Districte municipal de Biržai
Panevėžys Biržai 1,476 km2 32,116 21.8
A coat of arms depicting three golden crowns with five spikes protruding from their tops all on a blue background
Municipi de Druskininkai
Alytus Druskininkai 454 km2 24,044 53.0
A coat of arms depicting three yellow, diagonal lines zig-zagging from the bottom left to the top right on a grey background
Municipi d'Elektrėnai
Vílnius Elektrėnai 509 km2 27,622 54.3
A coat of arms depicting three white flowers lined up vertically with four yellow seeds surrounding each all on a blue background
Districte municipal d'Ignalina
Utena Ignalina 1,447 km2 19,374 13.4
A coat of arms depicting a white bird with wings outspread, a red beak, and red feet all on a dark blue background
Districte municipal de Jonava
Kaunas Jonava 944 km2 51,401 54.5
A coat of arms depicting an angel in full body armour and wings outspread while standing on a green dragon with a twisted tail
Districte municipal de Joniškis
Šiauliai Joniškis 1,152 km2 29,310 25.4
A coat of arms depicting three grey fleurs-de-lis, two directly across from each other at the top and one on the bottom, all on a red background
Districte municipal de Jurbarkas
Tauragė Jurbarkas 1,507 km2 34,213 22.7
A coat of arms depicting four grey horses with red eyes galloping both to the left and to the right all on a black background
Districte municipal de Kaišiadorys
Kaunas Kaišiadorys 1,087 km2 35,334 32.5
A coat of arms depicting a grey castle on a red background on the left and a blue eye in a yellow triangle on the right
Municipi de Kalvarija
Marijampolė Kalvarija 441 km2 13,162 29.8
A coat of arms depicting a white bull with an angry expression and a golden cross protruding from its head all on a red background
Ciutat municipial de Kaunas
Kaunas Kaunas 157 km2 348,624 2,220.5
A coat of arms depicting a grey bull's head with a golden cross protruding from the top all on a red crest on a blue background
Districte municipal de Kaunas
Kaunas Kaunas[nb 1] 1,496 km2 90,196 60.3
A coat of arms depicting six yellow stars in a diagonal line running from the bottom left to the top right all on a black background
Municipi de Kazlų Rūda
Marijampolė Kazlų Rūda 555 km2 14,189 25.6
A coat of arms depicting a black wing attached to a black tallon holding a white horseshoe attached to three yellow spurs
Districte municipal de Kėdainiai
Kaunas Kėdainiai 1,677 km2 61,872 36.9
A coat of arms depicting a white wheel on a light blue background at the top and three white leaves on a green background at the bottom
Districte municipal de Kelmė
Šiauliai Kelmė 1,705 km2 36,801 21.6
A coat of arms depicting a golden castle with three turrets surrounded with four golden stars all on a red background
Ciutat municipial de Klaipėda
Klaipėda Klaipėda 98 km2 182,752 1,864.8
A coat of arms depicting a sword with a gold hilt and a silver blade penetrating a green wreath all on a red background
Districte municipal de Klaipėda
Klaipėda Gargždai 1,336 km2 52,125 39.0
A coat of arms depicting a woman clothed in blue and brown wearing a golden crown and carrying a baby all on a grey background
Districte municipal de Kretinga
Klaipėda Kretinga 989 km2 45,103 45.6
A coat of arms depicting a black, six-pointed star on a golden background on the bottom and grey swirls on a blue background on the top
Districte municipal de Kupiškis
Panevėžys Kupiškis 1,080 km2 22,369 20.7
A coat of arms depicting a golden moose with large antlers and a protruding red tongue hovering over three black keys
Districte municipal de Lazdijai
Alytus Lazdijai 1,309 km2 24,246 18.5
A coat of arms depicting a man in full body armour riding a brown horse that is trampling a black dragon all on a yellow background
Municipi de Marijampolė
Marijampolė Marijampolė 755 km2 68,303 90.5
A coat of arms depicting a golden arrow with a zig-zag in the middle of it pulled back on a golden bow all on a blue background
Districte municipal de Mažeikiai
Telšiai Mažeikiai 1,220 km2 65,430 52.8
A coat of arms depicting a golden key on a red background at the top and three blue birds on a white background at the bottom
Districte municipal de Molėtai
Utena Molėtai 1,367 km2 22,475 16.4
A coat of arms depicting a white "N" on a blue background at the bottom and a series of black and white shapes at the top
Municipi de Neringa
Klaipėda Nida 90 km2 3,682 40.9
A coat of arms depicting a grey bird with a golden eye and wings outstretched holding a golden key all on a green background
Municipi de Pagėgiai
Tauragė Pagėgiai 537 km2 11,131 20.7
A coat of arms depicting a yellow windmill on a red crest hovering over a black bridge all on a yellow background
Districte municipal de Pakruojis
Šiauliai Pakruojis 1,316 km2 26,561 20.2
A coat of arms depicting a circle for which the boundary is itself made up of beige circles all under a silver crown on a blue background
Ciutat municipial de Palanga
Klaipėda Palanga 79 km2 17,645 223.4
A coat of arms depicting a red castle with black double doors, two black windows, and one central tower all standing on black ground
Ciutat municipial de Panevėžys
Panevėžys Panevėžys 50 km2 111,959 2,239.2
A coat of arms depicting two grey sheaves of wheat on a blue background at the top and a red plowshare on a grey background at the bottom
Districte municipal de Panevėžys
Panevėžys Panevėžys[nb 1] 2,179 km2 42,449 19.5
A coat of arms depicting the black head of a bull with a golden vine entangled in its black horns and a golden ring protruding from its nose
Districte municipal de Pasvalys
Panevėžys Pasvalys 1,289 km2 31,718 24.6
A coat of arms depicting the Eye of Providence with a blue iris encapsulated in a golden triangle surrounded in golden rays all on a blue background
Districte municipal de Plungė
Telšiai Plungė 1,105 km2 43,044 39.0
A coat of arms depicting a man in full body armour riding a brown horse that is tramplinga green dragon spewing red flames from its mouth
Districte municipal de Prienai
Kaunas Prienai 1,031 km2 33,048 32.1
A coat of arms depicting a silver horse that is rearing and neighing all on a dark green background bordered by a thin silver line
Districte municipal de Radviliškis
Šiauliai Radviliškis 1,635 km2 47,626 29.1
A coat of arms depicting a golden lynx with black spots, a red tongue, white teeth, and white claws standing on its back paws on green turf
Districte municipal de Raseiniai
Kaunas Raseiniai 1,573 km2 40,656 25.8
A coat of arms depicting a golden lion holding a silver-bladed sword in its mouth with a golden hilt and standing on green turf all on a blue background
Municipi de Rietavas
Telšiai Rietavas 586 km2 9,837 16.8
A coat of arms divided into four sections, the top left and bottom right of which are red, the bottom left of which is blue, and the top right of which is brown
Districte municipal de Rokiškis
Panevėžys Rokiškis 1,807 km2 37,815 20.9
A coat of arms depicting a grey castle with three towers topped by crosses with a human head on the front door all on a blue background
Districte municipal de Skuodas
Klaipėda Skuodas 911 km2 23,123 25.4
A coat of arms depicting two grey sheaves of wheat on a red background on the left and six black, curved lines on a grey background on the right
Districte municipal de Šakiai
Marijampolė Šakiai 1,453 km2 35,507 24.4
A coat of arms depicting a golden key overlapping a silver key on a blue background at the top and three golden nuts on a red background on the bottom
Districte municipal de Šalčininkai
Vilnius Šalčininkai 1,491 km2 36,992 24.8
A coat of arms depicting a black bear with a silver collar on a red background on the left and a blue eye in a grey triangle on the right
Ciutat municipial de Šiauliai
Šiauliai Šiauliai 81 km2 125,453 1,548.8
A coat of arms depicting an angry, grey bear with yellow claws and a long, red tongue gripping a yellow axe in its paws all on a blue background
Districte municipal de Šiauliai
Šiauliai Šiauliai[nb 1] 1,807 km2 49,199 27.2
A coat of arms depicting five red leaves in a straight, horizontal row on a grey background at the top and five grey leaves on a red background at the bottom
Districte municipal de Šilalė
Tauragė Šilalė 1,188 km2 29,486 24.8
A coat of arms depicting a grey boat hovering over two partitions of grey water that are themselves hovering over a grey horn all on a green-and-black background
Districte municipal de Šilutė
Klaipėda Šilutė 1,706 km2 52,119 30.6
A coat of arms depicting a silver-bladed sword with a golden hilt standing erect between the silver antlers of a silver moose head
Districte municipal de Širvintos
Vilnius Širvintos 906 km2 18,629 20.6
A coat of arms depicting a silver fish swimming to the right on the top and another fish swimming to the left on the bottom all on a blue background
Districte municipal de Švenčionys
Vilnius Švenčionys 1,692 km2 29,922 17.7
A coat of arms depicting a rounded, silver horn hung up by a rounded, silver strap all on a solid red background bordered by a black line
Districte municipal de Tauragė
Tauragė Tauragė 1,179 km2 49,925 42.3
A coat of arms depicting a bishop in brown robes with a brown mitre on his head surrounded by a golden halo looking at another man
Districte municipal de Telšiai
Telšiai Telšiai 1,439 km2 53,821 37.4
A coat of arms depicting a man in full body armour holding a white spear in his right hand and a red-and-yellow shield in his left hand
Districte municipal de Trakai
Vilnius Trakai 1,208 km2 35,700 29.6
A coat of arms depicting an open book with a red rose on one page and a red bull on the other all hovering over a red heart with a building in the background
Districte municipal d'Ukmergė
Vilnius Ukmergė 1,395 km2 44,783 32.1
A coat of arms depicting a golden horseshoe hovering over a white, 8-point star all on a blue background bordered by a thin, black line
Districte municipal d'Utena
Utena Utena 1,230 km2 46,939 38.2
A coat of arms depicting a golden scarab with wings and legs outstretched flying over six purple flowers all on a blue background
Districte municipal de Varėna
Alytus Varėna 2,218 km2 27,604 12.4
A coat of arms depicting a large, red fleur-de-lis that has a horizontal symmetry axis all on a blue background bordered by a black line
Districte municipal de Vilkaviškis
Marijampolė Vilkaviškis 1,259 km2 47,204 37.5
A coat of arms depicting a white man with a white cape holding a golden staff and giving a ride to a white, golden-haloed child on his shoulder
Ciutat municipial de Vílnius
Vilnius Vílnius 401 km2 560,192 1,397.0
A coat of arms depicting a man in full body armour riding a black horse and carrying a white spear with a golden blade in his right hand
Districte municipal de Vílnius
Vilnius Vílnius[nb 1] 2,129 km2 96,484 45.3
A coat of arms depicting a grey bird with a long, twisting neck, a yellow, pointy beak, and long yellow legs all on a dark blue background
Municipi de Visaginas
Utena Visaginas 58 km2 28,335 488.5
A coat of arms depicting a grey animal with the body of a fish and the head of a deer on a blue background at the top and a sword on the bottom
Districte municipal de Zarasai
Utena Zarasai 1,334 km2 19,855 14.9

Vegeu també[modifica | modifica el codi]

A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Municipis de Lituània

Notes[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 The administrative centers in these municipalities are located outside of the municipality proper.

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. 1,0 1,1 «Timeline: Lithuania». BBC News, 17 novembre 2010. [Consulta: 9 març 2011].
  2. «Lithuania country profile». BBC News, 17 novembre 2010. [Consulta: 9 març 2011].
  3. Conference on Local and Regional Authority Co-operation in the Baltic Sea Area: proceedings, Kaunas, Lithuania, 21-23, April 1999. Council of Europe, gener 2000, p. 9. ISBN 978-92-871-4538-3 [Consulta: 16 febrer 2011]. 
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 Jolanta Vaičiūnienė. «The Administrative–Territorial Reform in Lithuania: History and Today». Council of Europe, 2008-11-14. [Consulta: 16 febrer 2011].
  5. Baltic partnerships: integration, growth and local governance in the Baltic Sea Region. OECD Publishing, abril 2007, p. 75. ISBN 978-92-64-02928-6 [Consulta: 23 febrer 2011]. 
  6. Council of Europe. State of human rights and democracy in Europe. Council of Europe, 2007, p. 269–271. ISBN 978-92-871-6288-5 [Consulta: 17 febrer 2011]. 
  7. 7,0 7,1 Miluše Kindlová. Constitutional law of 10 EU member states: the 2004 enlargement. Kluwer, 2006, p. 603–604. ISBN 978-90-13-03468-4 [Consulta: 17 febrer 2011]. 
  8. Municipality administrative centers and coats of arms are given by Statistics Lithuania in subpages under the Portrait of the Regions of Lithuania; e.g. Alytus town municipality.
  9. 9,0 9,1 9,2 «M3010211: >>>Total area and population by administrative territory». Statistics Lithuania. [Consulta: 16 febrer 2011].