Ruth Benedict

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Ruth Benedict (1937)

Ruth Benedict (6 de juny de 188717 de setembre de 1948) va ser una antropòloga nord-americana. Va néixer en la ciutat de Nova York, i estudi al Vassar College d'aquesta ciutat, on es va graduar en l'any 1909.

Va ingressar a la Universitat de Columbia el 1919, on va ser estudianta del curs impartit per Franz Boas. Es va graduar com doctora en filosofia en 1923. Alguns dels seus companys van ser Margaret Mead (amb qui va sostenir una relació amorosa) i Marvin Opler.

Franz Boas, el seu mestre, és considerat el pare de l'antropologia nord-americana. Els seus punts de vista sobre la manera com l'antropologia havia d'encarar l'anàlisi de la societat es reflecteixen especialment a l'obra de Ruth Benedict.

La postura de Boas sobre el racisme (continguda en Race, Language and Culture) arriben a l'obra de Benedict, que afirmava a Patterns of Culture (1934) que la cultura de cada poble és única i només pot ser compresa des dels seus propis termes.

En el context de la Segona Guerra Mundial, Benedict va participar com col·laboradora de l'Exèrcit dels Estats Units. La tasca específica encarregada a l'autora va ser l'anàlisi de la cultura japonesa, amb el propòsit de comprendre quins eren els principis més importants del patró cultural dels japonesos. En teoria, això donaria als militars nord-americans un avantatge sobre els seus oponents asiàtics. El fruit d'aquesta investigació va ser el treball The Chrysanthemum and the Sword (El Crisantem i l'Espasa)

Obres[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Benedict, Ruth. "Journals." An Anthropologist at Work: Writings of Ruth Benedict. Ed. Margaret Mead. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1959, pp. 118–155.
  • Benedict, Ruth. "The Story of My Life..." An Anthropologist at Work: Writings of Ruth Benedict. Ed. Margaret Mead. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1959. pp. 97–112.
  • Benedict, Ruth. "The Vision in Plains Culture." American Anthropologist 24:1-23. Benedict
  • Benedict, Ruth. "Two Diaries." An Anthropologist at Work: Writings of Ruth Benedict. Ed. Margaret Mead. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1959, pp. 55–79.
  • Benedict, Ruth. Patterns of Culture. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1934.
  • Benedict, Ruth, and Gene Weltfish. "The Races of Mankind", Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 85. New York: Public Affairs Committee, Inc., 1943.
  • Benedict, Ruth. The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture. Rutland, VT and Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Co. 1954 orig. 1946.
  • Benedict, Ruth. "Anthropology and the Humanities." American Anthropologist 50: 585-593. Benedict

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]

Bibliografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • C. Douglas Lummis "Ruth Benedict's Obituary for Japanese Culture". Japanfocus.org
  • Babcock, Barbara. "Not in the First Person Singular" (reprinted in) Women Writing Culture. Eds. Behar, Ruth and Deborah A. Gordon. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995 [11993].
  • Banner, Lois W. Intertwined Lives: Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, and Their Circle. New York: Vintage, 2004. ISBN 0-679-77612-5.
  • Bateson, Mary Catherine. With a Daughter's Eye. New York: William Morrow, 1984. Memoir of Margaret Mead by her daughter, documenting the relationship between Mead and Benedict.
  • Caffrey, Margaret M. Ruth Benedict: Stranger in this Land. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1989.
  • Geertz, Clifford. Works and Lives: The Anthropologist as Author. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1988.
  • Handler, Richard. "Vigorous Male and Aspiring Female: Poetry, Personality, and Culture in Edward Sapir and Ruth Benedict" in Malinowski, Rivers Benedict and Others: Essays on Culture and Personality, ed. George Stocking. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986.
  • Handler, Richard. "Ruth Benedict and the Modernist Sensibility," in Modernist Anthropology: From Fieldwork to Text, edited by Marc Manganaro, Princeton University Press, 1990, pp. 163–80.
  • Lapsley, Hilary. Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict: The Kinship of Women. Amherst, Mass.: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999. ISBN 1-55849-181-3.
  • Mead, Margaret. "A New Preface" in Patterns of Culture. Boston, Houghton Mifflin: 1959.
  • Mead, Margaret. "Search: 1920-1930." An Anthropologist at Work: Writings of Ruth Benedict. Ed. Margaret Mead. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1959, pp. 3–17.
  • "Remarks by H.E. Mr. Sadaaki Numata, Ambassador of Japan at the Prize Distribution Ceremony of Annual Chrysanthemum and Autumn Flowers Show at Rose and Jasmine Gardens on 25 November 2000" via the Internet Archive.
  • Modell, Judith Schachter. Ruth Benedict: Patterns of a Life. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.
  • Sandall, Roger. The Culture Cult: Designer Tribalism and Other Essays. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8133-3863-8.
  • Stassinos, Elizabeth 1997. "Marriage as Mystery Writ Symbiotically: The Benedicts’ Unpublished “Chemical Detective Story” of the “The Bo-Cu Plant.” History of Anthropology Newsletter (pp. 3–10). Vol. XXIV, Number 1. Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago: Chicago.
  • Stassinos, Elizabeth 1998 "Response to Visweswaren, 'Race and the culture of anthropology,'" American Anthropologist, Vol 100, No. 4. pp 981–983.
  • Stassinos, Elizabeth 2000. “Frankenstein’s Native” in Women Succeeding in the Sciences: Theories and Practices across Disciplines. Jody Bart (Ed.). Purdue University Press: Indiana. ISBN 978-1-55753-122-3
  • Stassinos, Elizabeth 2007. "Culture and Personality In Henry's Backyard: Boasian War Allegories in Children's Science Writ Large Stories," HIstories of Anthropology Annual Volume 2. Regna Darnell and Frederic W. Gleach (Eds.). University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-6663-4
  • Stassinos, Elizabeth 2009. "An Early Case of Personality: Ruth Benedict's Autobiographical Fragment and the Case of the Biblical 'Boaz'" in Histories of Anthropology Volume 5. Regna Darnell and Frederick W. Gleach (Eds.). University of Nebraska Press. ISSN 1557-637X
  • Young, Virginia Heyer. Ruth Benedict : Beyond Relativity, Beyond Pattern. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8032-4919-5.