Saboga sapidíssima

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Saboga sapidíssima
Il·lustració del 1896
Il·lustració del 1896
Alosa sapidissima.jpg
Classificació científica
Regne: Animalia
Fílum: Chordata
Classe: Actinopterygii
Ordre: Clupeiformes
Família: Clupeidae
Gènere: Alosa
Linck, 1790[1]
Espècie: A. sapidissima
Nom binomial
Alosa sapidissima
Wilson, 1811[2][3]
Sinònims

Clupea sapidissima (Wilson, 1811)[2]

La saboga sapidíssima (Alosa sapidissima) és una espècie de peix de la família dels clupeids i de l'ordre dels clupeïformes present a Amèrica del Nord des de Terranova[4] i Nova Escòcia fins a la Florida central.[5] Com a conseqüència d'haver estat introduït als rius Sacramento[6][7] i Columbia també és ara present des de Cook Inlet (Alaska)[4] fins a Baixa Califòrnia (Mèxic).[8] Així mateix, fou introduït també a la Península de Kamtxatka (Rússia).[9][10] És pescat comercialment als rius i estuaris durant les seues migracions per fresar[11] i és venut fresc, en saló o fumat. Es menja fregit, enfornat i a la graella. Els seus ous són molt apreciats.[12]

Morfologia[modifica | modifica el codi]

Els mascles poden assolir 76 cm de llargària total i 61,7 les femelles.[13] Pot assolir 5.500 g de pes.[14] Nombre de vèrtebres: 51-60.[10]

Ecologia[modifica | modifica el codi]

Les larves es desenvolupen als rius durant l'estiu i, quan arriba la tardor, baixen al mar fins que arriben a la maduresa sexual i, llavors, tornen als rierols per fresar.[15] Menja plàncton (principalment copèpodes i misidacis) i, de tant en tant, peixets. S'absté de menjar durant les seues migracions.[4] És parasitat per nematodes, acantocèfals, copèpodes i distomes.[16] És depredat pel llobarro atlàntic ratllat (Morone saxatilis), el tallahams (Pomatomus saltator), la llampresa de mar (Petromyzon marinus) i la foca comuna (Phoca vitulina).[17] Pot arribar a viure 13 anys.[18]

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. Linck H. F. 1790. Versuch einer Eintheilung der Fische nach den Zähnen. Mag. Neueste Phys. Naturgesch. v. 6 (núm. 3). 28-38.
  2. 2,0 2,1 BioLib (anglès)
  3. Wilson, A. 1811. The Cyclopedic; or, universal dictionary of arts, sciences, and letters. Rees' Cyclopedia v. 9: sense número de pàgina.
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 Scott, W.B. i E.J. Crossman 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 184:1-966.
  5. Walburg, C.H. 1960. Abundance and life history of the shad, St. Johns River, Florida. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Fish. Bull 60(177):487-501.
  6. Stevens, D.E. 1966. Distribution and food habits of the American shad, Alosa sapidissima, in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. p. 97-107. A J.L. Turner i D.W. Kelly (comp.) Ecological studies of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Part II Fishes of the Delta. Fish. Bull. 136.
  7. Stevens, D.E. 1966. Food habits of striped bass, Roccus saxatilis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. p. 68-96. A J.L. Turner i D. W. Kelly (comp.) Ecological studies of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Part II Fishes of the Delta, Fish. Bull. 136.
  8. Welander, A.D. 1940. Notes on the dissemination of shad, Alosa sapidissima (Wilson), along the Pacific coast of North America. Copeia (4):221-223.
  9. Russian Academy of Sciences 2000. Catalog of vertebrates of Kamchatka and adjacent waters. 166 p.
  10. 10,0 10,1 FishBase (anglès)
  11. Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman 1973 Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 184:1-966
  12. Frimodt, C. 1995. Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, Anglaterra. 215 p.
  13. Hart, J.L. 1973. Pacific fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 180:740 p.
  14. Robins, C.R. i G.C. Ray 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Estats Units. 354 p.
  15. Morrow, J.E. 1980. The freshwater fishes of Alaska. University of. B.C. Animal Resources Ecology Library. 248p.
  16. Bigelow, H.B., M.G. Bradbury, J.R. Dymond, J.R. Greeley, S.F. Hildebrand, G.W. Mead, R.R. Miller, L.R. Rivas, W.L. Schroeder, R.D. Suttkus i V.D. Vladykov 1963. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Part three. New Haven, Sears Found. Mar. Res., Yale Univ.
  17. FishBase (anglès)
  18. Altman, P.L. i D.S. Dittmer 1962. Growth, including reproduction and morphological development. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.

Bibliografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

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  • Andriyashev, A.P. i N.V. Chernova 1995. Annotated list of fishlike vertebrates and fish of the arctic seas and adjacent waters. J. Ichthyol. 35(1):81-123.
  • Bailey, R.M., J.E. Fitch, E.S. Herald, E.A. Lachner, C.C. Lindsey, C.R. Robins i W.B. Scott 1970. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Tercera edició. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Pub. 6:150 p.
  • Bentzen, P., W.C. Leggett i G.G. Brown 1993. Genetic relationships among the shads (Alosa) revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis. J. Fish Biol. 43:909-917.
  • Bigelow, H.B. i W.W. Welsh 1925. Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. Bull. W.S. Bur. Fish. 40:1-567.
  • Bigelow, H.B. i W.C. Schroeder 1953. Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. Fish. Bull. 53:1-577.
  • Bogutskaya, N.G. i A.M. Naseka 2002. An overview of nonindigenous fishes in inland waters of Russia. Proc. Zool. Inst. Russ. Acad. Sci. 296:21-30.
  • Breder, C.M. i D.E. Rosen 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, Nova Jersey. 941 p.
  • Buckel, J.A. i D.O. Conover 1997. Movements, feeding periods, and daily ration of piscivorous young-of-the-year bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, in the Hudson River stuary. Fish. Bull. 95:665-679.
  • Carl, G.C., W.A. Clemens i C.C. Lindsey 1959. The freshwater fishes of British Columbia (3a revisió). B.C. Prov. Mus. Handb. 5: 192 p.
  • Carlander, K.D. 1969. Handbook of freshwater fishery biology, volume 1. The Iowa State University Press, Ames. Iowa.
  • Chittenden, M.E. Jr. 1976. Present and historical spawning grounds and nurseries of American shad, Alosa sapidissima, in the Delaware River. Fish. Bull. 74:343-352.
  • Clemens, W.A. i G.V. Wilby 1961. Fishes of the Pacific coast of Canada. 2a edició. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada Bull. (68):443 p.
  • Coker, G.A., C.B. Portt i C.K. Minns 2001. Morphological and ecological characteristics of Canadian freshwater fishes. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Núm. 2554. 89p.
  • Crecco, V., T. Savoy i L. Gunn 1983. Daily mortality rates of larval and juvenile American shad (Alosa sapidissima) in the Connecticut River with changes in year-class strength. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40:1719-1728.
  • Davis, W.S. 1957. Ova production of American shad in Atlantic coast rivers. U.S. Fish Wildlife Serv. Res. Rep. 49: 5.
  • Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald i H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Estats Units. 336 p.
  • Eschmeyer, William N.: Genera of Recent Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. iii + 697. 1990. ISBN 0-940228-23-8
  • Eschmeyer, William N., ed. 1998. Catalog of Fishes. Special Publication of the Center for Biodiversity Research and Information, núm. 1, vol. 1-3. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. 2905. ISBN 0-940228-47-5.
  • Evermann, B.W. i E.L. Goldsborough 1907. The fishes of Alaska. Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish. 26: 219-360.
  • FAO 1992 FAO Yearbook. Fishery statistics: catches and landings, vol. 74. FAO Fish. Series 43. 677 p.
  • Goodson, G. 1988. Fishes of the Pacific coast. Alaska to Peru including the Gulf of California and the Galapagos Islands. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Califòrnia. 267 p.
  • Grabe, S.A. 1996. Feeding chronology and habits of Alosa spp. (Clupeidae) juveniles from the lower Hudson River estuary, New York. Environ. Biol. Fish. 47:321-326.
  • Hart, J.L. 1973. Pacific fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 180:740 p.
  • Helfman, G., B. Collette i D. Facey: The Diversity of Fishes. Blackwell Science, Malden, Massachusetts, Estats Units, 1997. ISBN 1-4051-2494-6.
  • Hildebrand, S.F. 1964. Family Clupeidae. p. 257-454. A H.B. Bigelow et al. (eds.) Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Mem. Sears Fdn. Mar. Res., New Haven, (1-3):1-630.
  • Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister i J.R. Stauffer 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History. 867 p.
  • Leim, A.H. 1924. The life history of the shad (Alosa sapidissima (Wilson)), with special reference to the factors limiting its abundance. Contrib. Can. Biol. n.s. 2(11):161-284.
  • Mansueti, R.J. 1955. Natural history of the American shad in Maryland waters. Maryland Tidewater News 11(Suppl. 4):1-2.
  • Marcy, B.C. Jr. i P.M. Jacobson 1976. Early life history studies of American shad in the lower Connecticut River and the effects of the Connecticut Yankee Plant. Am. Fish. Soc. Monogr. 1 252 p.
  • McPhail, J.D. i R. Carveth 1993 Field key to the freshwater fishes of British Columbia. Fish Museum, Department of Zoology, U.B.C., Canada, 239 p.
  • Melvin, G.D., M.J. Dadswell i J.D. Martin 1985. Impact of lowhead hydroelectric tidal power development on fisheries. 1.- A pre-operation study of the spawning population of American shad, Alosa sapidissima (Pisces: Clupeidae), in the Annapolis River, Nova Scotia, Canada. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. (1340):1-37.
  • Milner, J.W. 1874. Report on the propagation of the shad (Alosa sapidissima) and its introduction into new waters by the U.S. Fish Commissioner in 1873. U.S. Comm. Fish. Rept. (1872-73)2:419-451.
  • Moyle, P. i J. Cech.: Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology, 4a. edició, Upper Saddle River, Nova Jersey, Estats Units: Prentice-Hall. Any 2000. ISBN 0-13-011282-8.
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  • Perley, M.H. 1852. Reports of the sea and river fisheries of New Brunswick. Fredericton, N.B. 294 p.
  • Quast, J.C. i E.L. Hall 1972. List of fishes of Alaska and adjacent waters with a guide to some of their literature. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS SSRF-658, 47 p.
  • Rice, H.J. 1878. Notes upon the development of the sad, Alosa sapidissima. Md. Comm. Fish. Rept. 1878:95-106.
  • Rice, H.J. 1884. Experiments upon retarding the development of eggs of the shad, made in 1879, at the United States shad-hatching station at Havre de Grace. Md. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish. 1881(1884):787-794.
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea i W.B. Scott 1980. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (12)1-174.
  • Roy, J.M. 1969. The American shad and the alewife. Fishes of Quebec Album 8:24.
  • Ryder, J.A. 1884. On the retardation of the development of the ova of shad (Alosa sapidissima) with observations on the egg fungus and bacteria. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish. 1881(1884):795-811.
  • Savoy, T.J. i V.A. Crecco 1988. The timing and significance of density-dependent and density-independent mortality of American shad Alosa sapidissima. Fish. Bull. 86:467-482.
  • Scott, W.B. i M.G. Scott 1988. Atlantic fishes of Canada. Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 219: 731 p.
  • Scotton, L.N., R.E. Smith, N.S. Smith, K.S. Price i D.P. de Sylva 1973. Pictorial guide to fish larvae of Delaware Bay: with information and bibliographies useful for the study of fish larvae. Delaware Bay Report Series. Vol. 7. College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware. 205 p.
  • Walburg, C. i P.R. Nichols 1967. Biology and management of the American shad and status of the fisheries. Atlantic coast of the United States. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Spec. Sci. Rept. Fish. 550. 105 p.
  • Wheeler, A.: The World Encyclopedia of Fishes, 2a. edició, Londres: Macdonald. Any 1985. ISBN 0-356-10715-9.
  • Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 1 - Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303.
  • Wilber, D.H., D.G. Clarke, M.H. Burlas, H. Ruben i R.J. Will 2003. Spatial and temporal variability in surf zone fish assemblages on the coast of northern New Jersey. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 56(2):291-304.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]