Salmó vermell

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Salmó vermell
SockeyeSalmonOregonZoo.jpg
Fish stub (Sockeye).png
Estat de conservació
Classificació científica
Regne: Animalia
Fílum: Chordata
Classe: Actinopterygii
Ordre: Salmoniformes
Família: Salmonidae
Gènere: Oncorhynchus
(Suckley, 1861)[2]
Espècie: O. nerka
Nom binomial
Oncorhynchus nerka
(Walbaum, 1792)[3]
Sinònims
  • Salmo kennerlyi (Suckley, 1861)[4]
Un pescador ensenya un salmó vermell a Alaska

El salmó vermell (Oncorhynchus nerka) és una espècie de peix de la família dels salmònids i de l'ordre dels salmoniformes.

Morfologia[modifica | modifica el codi]

Depredadors[modifica | modifica el codi]

És depredat per Coregonus clupeaformis, Salvelinus alpinus, Salvelinus malma malma, Anotopterus pharao, Oncorhynchus clarki, Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss i la foca comuna (Phoca vitulina).[8]

Hàbitat[modifica | modifica el codi]

Viu a zones d'aigües dolces, salobres i marines temperades (72°N-42°N, 130°E-109°W) fins a una fondària de 250 m.[9][7]

Distribució geogràfica[modifica | modifica el codi]

Es troba al Pacífic nord: des del nord del Japó[10] fins al Mar de Bering i Los Angeles (Califòrnia, Estats Units).[11] N'hi ha poblacions sense sortida al mar a Alaska, el Territori de Yukon, la Colúmbia Britànica, Washington i Oregon.[7][12][13]

Longevitat[modifica | modifica el codi]

Pot arribar a viure 8 anys.[14]

Interès gastronòmic[modifica | modifica el codi]

Es comercialitza fresc, en salaó, fumat, enllaunat o congelat i, d'acord amb la Guia il·lustrada multilingüe d'Osney Mead, es consumeix al vapor, fregit, rostit o cuit al forn o al microones,[15] tot i que en principi, també es podria consumir cru (sushi), a la graella, a la planxa, sofregit, a la launa, a la sal, en escabetx, etc.

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. IUCN (anglès)
  2. Suckley G., 1861. Notices of certain new species of North American Salmonidae, chiefly in the collection of the N. W. Boundary Commission, in charge of Archibald Campbell, Esq., Commissioner of the United States, collected by Doctor C. B. R. Kennerly, naturalist to the... Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N. Y. v. 7 (art. 30). 306-313.
  3. Walbaum, J. J., 1792. Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium. In quibus systema totum ichthyologiae proponitur cum classibus, ordinibus, generum characteribus, specierum differentiis, observationibus plurimis. Redactis speciebus 242 ad genera 52. Ichthyologiae pars III. Ant. Ferdin. Rose, Grypeswaldiae (Greifswald). Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium. In quibus systema totum ichthyologiae proponitur cum classibus, ordinibus, generum characteribus, specierum differentiis, observationibus plurimis. Redactis speciebus 242 ad genera 52. Pt. 3: (i-viii) + 1-723, Pls. 1-3.
  4. «Oncorhynchus nerka». Catalogue of Life. (anglès)
  5. Page, L.M. i B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Estats Units. 432 p.
  6. IGFA, 2001. Base de dades de registres de pesca IGFA fins al 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Estats Units.
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 FishBase (anglès)
  8. FishBase (anglès)
  9. Fedorov, V.V., I.A. Chereshnev, M.V. Nazarkin, A.V. Shestakov i V.V. Volobuev, 2003. Catalog of marine and freswater fishes of the northern part of the Sea of Okhotsk. Vladivostok: Dalnauka, 2003. 204 p.
  10. Chiba, K., Y. Taki, K. Sakai i Y. Oozeki, 1989. Present status of aquatic organisms introduced into Japan. p. 63-70. A S.S. De Silva (ed.) Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Spec. Publ. Asian Fish. Soc. 3, 154 p.
  11. Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald i H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Estats Units. 336 p.
  12. Coad, B.W. i J.D. Reist, 2004. Annotated list of the arctic marine fishes of Canada. Can. MS Rep. Fish Aquat. Sci. 2674:iv:+112 p.
  13. Hart, J.L., 1973. Pacific fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 180:740 p.
  14. Altman, P.L. i D.S. Dittmer, 1962. Growth, including reproduction and morphological development. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.
  15. Frimodt, C., 1995. Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, Anglaterra. 215 p.

Bibliografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Allendorf, F.W. i G.H. Thorgaard, 1984. Tetraploidy and the evolution of Salmonid fishes. p. 1-53. A B.J. Turner (ed.) Evolutionary genetics of fishes. Plenum Publishing Corporation, Nova York, Estats Units.
  • Andriyashev, A.P. i N.V. Chernova, 1995. Annotated list of fishlike vertebrates and fish of the arctic seas and adjacent waters. J. Ichthyol. 35(1):81-123.
  • Bainbridge, R., 1960. Speed and stamina in three fish. J. Exp. Biol. 37(1):129-153.
  • Beacham, T.D., McIntosh, B., MacConnachie, C., Miller, K.M., Withler, R.E. i Varavskaya, N.V., 2006. Pacific Rim population structure of sockeye salmon as determined from microsatellite analysis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135: 174-187.
  • Beitinger, T.L. i W.A. Bennett, 2000. Quantification of the role of acclimation temperature in temperature tolerance of fishes. Environ. Biol. Fish. 58(3):277-288.
  • Bogutskaya, N.G. i A.M. Naseka, 2002. An overview of nonindigenous fishes in inland waters of Russia. Proc. Zool. Inst. Russ. Acad. Sci. 296:21-30.
  • Brett, J.R., M. Hollands i D.F. Alderice, 1958. The effect of temperature on the cruising speed of young sockeye and coho salmon. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 15:587-605.
  • Brett, J.R., 1964. The respiratory metabolism and swimming performance of young sockeye salmon. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 21:1183-1226.
  • Brett, J.R., 1976. Feeding metabolic rates of young sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka, in relation to ration level and temperature. Fish. Mar. Serv. Environ. Can. Tech. Rep. No. 675. 43 p.
  • Burgner, R.L., 1991. Life history of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). A: C. Groot i L. Margolis (eds), Pacific Salmon Lifehistories, pp. 2-117. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, la Colúmbia Britànica, Canadà.
  • Carlson, H.R., 1976. Foods of juvenile sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in the inshore coastal waters of Bristol Bay, Alaska, 1966-67. NOAA Fish. Bull. 74(2):458-462.
  • Drummond Sedgwick, S., 1982. The salmon handbook: the life and cultivation of fishes of the salmon family. Andre Deutsch Ltd., Londres, Gran Bretanya, 247 p.
  • Eggers, D.M. i D.E. Rogers, 1987. The cycle of runs of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka to the Kvichak River, Bristol Bay, Alaska: cyclic dominance or depensatory fishing? p. 343-366. A H.D. Smith, L. Margolis i C.C. Wood (eds.) Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) population biology and future management. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 96.
  • Eggers, D.M., Irvine, J., Fukawaki, M. i Karpenko, V., 2003. Catch trends and status of North Pacific salmon. North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission.
  • Eschmeyer, William N.: Genera of Recent Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. iii + 697. ISBN 0-940228-23-8. Any 1990.
  • Eschmeyer, William N., ed. 1998. Catalog of Fishes. Special Publication of the Center for Biodiversity Research and Information, núm. 1, vol. 1-3. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. 2905. ISBN 0-940228-47-5.
  • Esteve, M. i D. A. McLennan, 2007: The phyloeny of Oncorhynchus (Euteleostei: Salmonidae) based on behavioral and life history characters. Copeia 2007 (núm. 3): 520-533.
  • Foerster, R.E., 1968. The sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull. 162.
  • Fukuoka, H., 1972. Chromosomes of the sockeye-salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Jap. J. Genet.. 47(6):459-464.
  • Gorshkova, G.V. i S.A. Gorshkov, 1977. The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka (Walb.) from Lake Azabachje (Kamchatka) Vopr. Ikhtiol. 17(2):220-225.
  • Gustfson, R.G., Waples, R.S., Myers, J.M., Weitkamp, L.A., Bryant, G.J., Johnson, O.W. i Hard, J.J., 2007. Pacific salmon extinctions: Quantifying lost and remaining diversity. Conservation Biology 21(4): 1009-1020.
  • Habicht, C., Seeb, L.W. i Seeb, J.E., 2007. Genetic and ecological divergence defines population structure of sockeye salmon populations returning to Bristol Bay, Alaska, and provides a tool for admixture analysis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136(1): 82-94.
  • Helfman, G., B. Collette i D. Facey: The diversity of fishes. Blackwell Science, Malden, Massachusetts, Estats Units, 1997.
  • Hilborn, R., Quinn, T.P., Schindler, D.E. i Rogers, D.E., 2003. Biocomplexity and fisheries sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100: 6564-6568.
  • Irvine, J.R., Gross, M.R., Wood, C.C., Holtby, L.B., Schubert, N.D. i Amiro, P.G., 2005. Canada's Species At Risk Act: An opportunity to protect "endangered" salmon. Fisheries 30(12): 11-19.
  • Irvine, J.R. i Fraser, G.A., 2008. Canada's Wild Pacific Salmon Policy (WSP) and the Maintenance of Diversity. A: J.L. Nielsen (ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth World Fisheries Congress: reconciling fisheries with conservation. Symposium 49, pp. 1946. Bethesda, Maryland.
  • McDonald, J. i J.M. Hume, 1984. Babine Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) enhancement program: testing some major assumptions. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41:70-92.
  • McPhail, J.D. i C.C. Lindsey, 1970. Freshwater fishes of northwestern Canada and Alaska. Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull. 173:381 p.
  • Moyle, P. i J. Cech.: Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology, 4a. edició, Upper Saddle River, Nova Jersey, Estats Units: Prentice-Hall. Any 2000. ISBN 0130112828.
  • Murua, H. i F. Saborido-Rey, 2003. Female reproductive strategies of marine fish species of the North Atlantic. J. Northwest Atl. Fish. Sci. 33:23-31.
  • Nelson, J.: Fishes of the World, 3a. edició. Nova York, Estats Units: John Wiley and Sons. Any 1994.
  • Quinn, T.P., 2005. The behavior and ecology of Pacific salmon and trout. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Estat de Washington|Washington.
  • Richardson, J., 1836. The fish. Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the zoology of of the northern parts of British America. (3): 327 p.
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea i W.B. Scott, 1980. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (12)1-174.
  • Ruggerone, G.T., 2006. Abundances of wild and hatchery salmon by region of the Pacific Rim. Natural Resources Consultants, Inc.
  • Sambilay, V.C. Jr., 1990. Interrelationships between swimming speed, caudal fin aspect ratio and body length of fishes. Fishbyte 8(3):16-20.
  • Simon, R.C., 1963. Chromosome morphology and species evolution in the five North American species of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus). J. Morphol. 112:77-97.
  • Smith, H.D., Margolis, L. i Wood, C.C. (eds)., 1987. Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) population biology and future management. Canadian Special Publications in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, pp. 486 pp.
  • Stearley, R. F. i G. R. Smith, 1993: Phylogeny of the Pacific trouts and salmons (Oncorhynchus) and genera of the family Salmonidae. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society v. 122 (núm. 1): 1-33.
  • Vasil'ev, V.P., 1980. Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish. J. Ichthyol. 20(3):1-38.
  • Wheeler, A.: The World Encyclopedia of Fishes, 2a. edició, Londres: Macdonald. Any 1985. ISBN 0356107159.
  • Wilmot, R.L. i C.V. Burger, 1985. Genetic differences among populations of Alaskan sockeye salmon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 114(2):236-243.
  • Wood, C.C., 1995. Life history variation and population structure in sockeye salmon. American Fisheries Society Symposium 17: 195-216.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]