Salvelinus namaycush

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Salvelinus namaycush
Fisher holding Lake trout.jpg
Lake trout.jpg
Classificació científica
Regne: Animalia
Fílum: Chordata
Classe: Actinopterygii
Ordre: Salmoniformes
Família: Salmonidae
Gènere: Salvelinus
(Richardson, 1836)[1]
Espècie: S. namaycush
Nom binomial
Salvelinus namaycush
(Walbaum, 1792)[2]
Sinònims
  • Salmo amethystinus (Mitchill, 1818)[3]

Salvelinus namaycush és una espècie de peix de la família dels salmònids i de l'ordre dels salmoniformes.

Morfologia[modifica | modifica el codi]

Salvelinus namaycush

Els mascles poden assolir 150 cm de longitud total i 32,7 kg de pes.[4] Nombre de vèrtebres: 61-69.[5][6]

Alimentació[modifica | modifica el codi]

Menja esponges d'aigua dolça, crustacis, insectes, peixos (especialment del gènere Coregonus) i mamífers petits, tot i que n'hi ha poblacions que es nodreixen de plàncton.[7][5][8]

Depredadors[modifica | modifica el codi]

És depredat per Ameiurus nebulosus (al Canadà), Lota lota (Canadà), Prosopium cylindraceum, Ichthyomyzon unicuspis i Petromyzon marinus (als Estats Units).[9]

Hàbitat[modifica | modifica el codi]

Viu a zones d'aigües dolces temperades (65°N-43°S) i entre 18-53 m de fondària.[10][5]

Distribució geogràfica[modifica | modifica el codi]

Es troba a Nord-amèrica:[11][12] des d'Alaska[7][13][14][15][16] i el nord del Canadà[17][18][19][20][21] fins a Nova Anglaterra i la conca dels Grans Llacs d'Amèrica del Nord[22][23][24][25][26][27][28] (Canadà-Estats Units), tot i que ha estat introduït a moltes altres zones fora del seu territori original.[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][5]

Longevitat[modifica | modifica el codi]

Pot arribar a viure 50 anys.[45][46]

Estat de conservació[modifica | modifica el codi]

És molt susceptible a la contaminació, especialment als insecticides.[47][48]

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. Richardson J. 1836. The Fish. A Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the zoology of the northern parts of British America: containing descriptions of the objects of natural history collected on the late northern land expeditions, under the command of Sir John Franklin, R.N. Fauna Boreali-Americana Part 3. i-xv + 1-327.
  2. Walbaum, J. J., 1792. Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium. In quibus systema totum ichthyologiae proponitur cum classibus, ordinibus, generum characteribus, specierum differentiis, observationibus plurimis. Redactis speciebus 242 ad genera 52. Ichthyologiae pars III. Ant. Ferdin. Rose, Grypeswaldiae [Greifswald]. Artedi Piscium Pt. 3: (i-viii) + 1-723, Pls. 1-3
  3. «Salvelinus namaycush». Catalogue of Life. (anglès)
  4. IGFA, 2001. Base de dades de registres de pesca IGFA fins al 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Estats Units
  5. 5,0 5,1 5,2 5,3 FishBase (anglès)
  6. Webster, D.A., W.A. Lund, Jr., R.W. Wahl i W.D. Youngs, 1960. Observed and calculated lengths of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Cayuga Lake, New York. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 89(3):274-279.
  7. 7,0 7,1 Morrow, J.E., 1980. The freshwater fishes of Alaska. University of. B.C. Animal Resources Ecology Library. 248p.
  8. Jude, D.J., F.J. Tesar, S.F. Deboe i T.J. Miller, 1987. Diet and selection of major prey species by Lake Michigan salmonids, 1973-1982. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 116(5):677-691.
  9. FishBase (anglès)
  10. Scott, W.B. i E.J. Crossman, 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 184:1-966.
  11. Page, L.M. i B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Estats Units. 432 p.
  12. Jordan, D.S. i C.H. Gilbert, 1883. A synopsis of the fishes on North America. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 16:1-1018.
  13. Evermann, B.W. i E.L. Goldsborough, 1907. The fishes of Alaska. Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish. 26: 219-360
  14. Burr, J.M., 1997. Growth, density, and biomass of lake trout in Arctic and Subarctic Alaska. p. 109-118. A J.B. Reynolds (ed.) Fish ecology in Arctic North America. American Fisheries Society Symposium 119, 19-21 de maig de 1992, Fairbanks, Alaska, Estats Units
  15. Burr, J.M., 1993 Maturity of lake trout from eleven lakes in Alaska. Northwest Science 67:78-87.
  16. Burr, J.M., 1989 Stock assessment and biological characteristics of lake trout populations in interior Alaska, 1988 Alaska Department of Fish and Game Fishery Data Series 99, Juneau
  17. Nelson, J.S. i M.J. Paetz, 1992 The fishes of Alberta. The University of Alberta Press, Canadà
  18. McPhail, J.D. i C.C. Lindsey, 1970 Freshwater fishes of northwestern Canada and Alaska. Fish. Res. Board Can. Bull. 173:381 p.
  19. McAllister, D.E., 1990. A list of the fishes of Canada. Syllogeus Núm. 64. Nat. Mus. Nat. Sci., Ottawa, Canadà. 310 p.
  20. Martin, N.V., 1957. Reproduction of lake trout in Algonquin Park, Ontàrio. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 86:231-244.
  21. Coker, G.A., C.B. Portt i C.K. Minns, 2001. Morphological and ecological characteristics of Canadian freshwater fishes. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Núm. 2554. 89p.
  22. Van Oosten, J. i P.H. Eschmeyer, 1956. Biology of young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan. Res. Rep. U.S. Fish. Serv. 42:88 p.
  23. Schram, S.T., J.H. Selgeby, C.R. Bronte i B.L. Swanson, 1995. Population recovery and natural recruitment of lake trout at Gull Island shoal, Lake Superior, 1964-1992. J. Great Lakes Res. 2, supp.1:225-232.
  24. Loftus, K.H., 1958. Studies on river-spawning populations of lake trout in eastern Lake Superior. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 87:259-277.
  25. Eschmeyer, P.H., 1955. The reproduction of lake trout in southern Lake Superior. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 84(1):47-74.
  26. Cable, L.E., 1956. Validity of age and determination from scales, and growth of marked Lake Michigan lake trout. Fish. Bull. 57(107):1-59.
  27. Burnham-Curtis, M.K. i G.R. Smith, 1994. Osteological evidence of genetic divergence of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior. Copeia (4):845-850.
  28. Auer, N.A., 1982. Family Salmonidae, trouts. p. 80-145. A N.A. Auer (ed.) Identification of larval fishes of the Great Lakes basin with emphasis on the Lake Michigan drainage. Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Special Publ. 82-3, 744 p.
  29. Wittenberg, R. (ed.)., 2005. An inventory of alien species and their threat to biodiversity and economy in Switzerland. CABI Bioscience Switzerland Centre report to the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape. The environment in practice núm. 0629. Federal Office for the Environment, Berna, Suïssa. 155 pp.
  30. Welcomme, R.L., 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 294. 318 p.
  31. Vigliano, P.H. i G. Darrigran, 2002. Argentina's Freshwater Systems, Aliens in Wonderland p. 25-44, a Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species.
  32. Spillman, C.-J., 1961. Faune de France: Poissons d'eau douce. Fédération Française des Sociétés Naturelles, volum 65. [París]. 303 p.
  33. Paulin, C., A. Stewart, C. Roberts i P. McMillan, 1989. New Zealand fish: a complete guide. National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series Núm. 19. xiv+279 p.
  34. Muus, B.J. i P. Dahlström, 1974. Collins guide to the sea fishes of Britain and North-Western Europe. Collins, Londres (Regne Unit). 244 p.
  35. McDowall, R.M., 1990. New Zealand freshwater fishes: a natural history and guide. Hinemann Reed Auckland. 553 p.
  36. McDowall, R.M., 1984. Exotic fishes: The New Zealand experience. p. 200-214. A W.R. Courtenay, Jr. i J.R. Stauffer (eds.) Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Estats Units.
  37. Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno i T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tòquio, Japó. 437 p.
  38. Maitland, P.S., 2004. Keys to the freshwater fish of Great Britain and Ireland with notes on their distribution and ecology. Scientific Publication Núm. 62, Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, Cumbria. 248 pp.
  39. Keith, P. i J. Allardi (coords.), 2001. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de France. Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, París. Patrimoines naturels, 47:1-387.
  40. Holcík, J., 1991. Fish introductions in Europe with particular reference to its central and eastern part. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48 (Suppl. 1):13-23.
  41. Hanel, L., 2003. The ichthyofauna of the Czech Republic: development and present state. Matthias Belivs Univ. Proc. 3(1): 41-71.
  42. Delachaux, M., 1901. L'acclimatation et l'élevage de l'omble chevalier américain dans un lac des Alpes. Bull. Soc. cent. Aquic. Pêche, 13:41-54.
  43. Chiba, K., Y. Taki, K. Sakai i Y. Oozeki, 1989. Present status of aquatic organisms introduced into Japan. p. 63-70. A S.S. De Silva (ed.) Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Spec. Publ. Asian Fish. Soc. 3, 154 p.
  44. Chadderton, W.L., N. Grainger i T. Dean, 2003. Appendix 1 - Prioritising control of invasive freshwater fish. p. 171-174. A Department of Conservation. Managing invasive freshwater fish in New Zealand. Proceedings of a workshop hosted by Department of Conservation, 10-12 de maig de 2001, Hamilton. xiv + 174 p.
  45. Power, 1978. Fish population structure in Arctic lakes. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 35:53-59.
  46. Beverton, R.J.H. i S.J. Holt, 1959. A review of the lifespans and mortality rates of fish in nature and their relation to growth and other physiological characteristics. p. 142-180. A G.E.W. Wolstenholme i M. O'Connor (eds.) CIBA Foundation colloquia on ageing: the lifespan of animals. volum 5. J & A Churchill Ltd, Londres
  47. Burdick, G.E., E.J. Harris, H.J. Dean, T.M. Walker, J. Skea i D. Colby, 1964. The accumulation of DDT in lake trout and the effect on reproduction. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 93(2):127-136.
  48. Morrow, J.E., 1980

Bibliografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Adams, A.L., 1873 Field and forest rambles, with notes and observations on the natural history of eastern Canada. Henry S. King & Co., Londres. 333 p.
  • Adams, J.F., 1997. Relative abundance and maturity of Lake trout from Walker Lake, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 1987-1988. p. 104-108. A J.B. Reynolds (ed.) Fish Ecology in Arctic North America. American Fisheries Society Symposium 19, 19-21 de maig de 1992, Fairbanks, Alaska, Estats Units.
  • Allendorf, F.W. i G.H. Thorgaard, 1984. Tetraploidy and the evolution of Salmonid fishes. p. 1-53. A B.J. Turner (ed.) Evolutionary genetics of fishes. Plenum Publishing Corporation, Nova York.
  • Andriyashev, A.P. i N.V. Chernova, 1995. Annotated list of fishlike vertebrates and fish of the arctic seas and adjacent waters. J. Ichthyol. 35(1):81-123.
  • Beamish, F.W.H., 1980. Swimming performance and oxygen consumption of the charrs. p. 739-748. A E.K. Balon (ed.) Perspectives in vertebrae science: charrs, salmonid fishes of the genus Salvelinus. Chapter 24. W. Junk, Dordrecht, Països Baixos.
  • Bigelow, H.B., M.G. Bradbury, J.R. Dymond, J.R. Greeley, S.F. Hildebrand, G.W. Mead, R.R. Miller, L.R. Rivas, W.L. Schroeder, R.D. Suttkus i V.D. Vladykov, 1963. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Part three. New Haven, Sears Found. Mar. Res., Yale Univ.
  • Berkes, F. i M. Mackenzie, 1978. Cree fish names from Eastern James Bay, Quebec. Arctic 31(4):489-495.
  • Davisson, M.T., J.E. Wright i L.M. Atherton, 1973. Cytogenetic analysis of pseudolinkage of LDH loci in teleost genus Salvelinus. Genetics73:645-658.
  • Eschmeyer, William N.: Genera of Recent Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. iii + 697. ISBN 0-940228-23-8. Any 1990.
  • Eschmeyer, William N., ed. 1998. Catalog of Fishes. Special Publication of the Center for Biodiversity Research and Information, núm. 1, vol. 1-3. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. 2905. ISBN 0-940228-47-5.
  • Gibson, E.S. i F.E.J. Fry, 1954. The performance of the lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, at various levels of temperature and oxygen pressure. Can. J. Zool. 32:252-260.
  • Helfman, B. Collette i D. Facey: The diversity of fishes. Blackwell Science, Malden, Massachusetts (Estats Units), 1997.
  • Merriman, D., 1935. Squam lake trout. Bull Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 75: 3-10.
  • Miller, R.B. i W.A. Kennedy, 1948. Observations on the lake trout of Great Bear Lake. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 7(4):176-189.
  • Mitchill, S.L., 1818. Description of three species of fish. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1(2):407-412.
  • Moyle, P. i J. Cech.: Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology, 4a. edició, Upper Saddle River, Nova Jersey, Estats Units: Prentice-Hall. Any 2000. ISBN 0-13-011282-8.
  • Nelson, J.: Fishes of the World, 3a. edició. Nova York, Estats Units: John Wiley and Sons. Any 1994.
  • Phillips, R.B. i P.E. Ihssen, 1985. Chromosome banding in salmonid fish: Nucleolar organizer regions in Salmo and Salvelinus. Canad. J. Genet. Cytol.. 27():433-440.
  • Phillips, R.B., K.D. Zajicek i P.E. Ihssen, 1989. Population differences in chromosome-banding polymorphisms in lake trout. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 118(1):64-73.
  • Phillips, R.B., K.A. Pleyte i P.E. Ihssen, 1989. Patterns of chromosomal nucleolar organizer region (NOR) variation in fishes of the genus Salvelinus. Copeia 1989:47-53.
  • Power, 1978. Fish population structure in Arctic lakes. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 35:53-59.
  • Quast, J.C. i E.L. Hall, 1972. List of fishes of Alaska and adjacent waters with a guide to some of their literature. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS SSRF-658, 47 p.
  • Richardson, J., 1836. The fish. Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the zoology of of the northern parts of British America. (3): 327 p.
  • Royce, W.F., 1951. Breeding habits of lake trout in New York. Fish. Bull. U.S. Fish. Wildl. Serv. 52(59):59-76.
  • Shuter, B.J., J.E. Matuszek i H.A. Regier, 1987. Optimal use of creel survey data in assessing population behaviour: Lake Opeongo lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) 1936-83. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44 (Suppl. 2):229-238.
  • Vasil'ev, V.P., 1980. Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish. J. Ichthyol. 20(3):1-38.
  • Wahl, R.W., 1960. Chromosome morphology in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Copeia :16-19
  • Walters, V., 1955. Fishes of the western arctic America and eastern arctic Siberia, taxonomy and zoogeography. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. N.Y. 106(5):255-368.
  • Wheeler, A.: The World Encyclopedia of Fishes, 2a. edició, Londres: Macdonald. Any 1985. ISBN 0-356-10715-9.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]