William D'Arcy McNickle

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William D'Arcy McNickle
Naixement 14 de gener de 1904
St. Ignatius (Montana) Montana
Mort 10 d'octubre de 1977 (als 73 anys)
Albuquerque New Mexico
Alma mater Universitat d'Oxford
Ocupació antropòleg

(William) D'Arcy McNickle (14 de gener de 190410 d'octubre de 1977) fou un escriptor, antropòleg i activista amerindi dels Estats Units.

Biografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

D’Arcy McNickle és membre registrat dels Salish Kootenai de la reserva índia Flathead, i es va convertir en un dels més prominents activistes amerindis del segle XX. Va néixer el 14 de gener de 1904, de pare irlandès, William McNickle, i una mare cree-métis, Filomena Parenteau. Va créixer a la Reserva Flathead a St. Ignatius (Montana) i va anar a escoles de les missions fora de la reserva. En 1925 McNickle va vendre la seva assignació de terres a la Reserva Flathead per poder reunir els diners necessaris per estudiar a l'estranger a la Universitat d'Oxford i a la Universitat de Grenoble. Després de tornar als Estats Units, McNickle va viure a la ciutat de Nova York fins que fou contractat per la Bureau of Indian Affairs en 1936.[1][2]

McNickle treballà sota el Commissionat d'Afers Indis John Collier durant la dècada de 1930 a 1940. La Bureau of Indian Affairs el va contractar primer com a administrador assistent, però pel 1950 fou nomenat cap de la branca de relacions tribals, i aviat n'esdevingué un expert.[3] Va ser nomenat director de l'Universitat de Colorado's American Indian Development, Inc el 1952, i va rebre un doctdorat en ciències honorari en 1966. Aquell mateix any es va traslladar a el que avui és la Universitat de Regina, per crear el departament d'antropologia. El 1972, va ajudar a crear el Centre per a la Història dels Indis Americans a la Biblioteca Newberry de Chicago; el centre va rebre el seu nom en 1984. També anomenaren en el seu honor la biblioteca del Salish Kootenai College a la Reserva Flathead.[4]

McNickle també fou instrumental en la redaccio del "Declaration of Indian Purpose" per a la Conferència Ameríndia d Chicago (1961), ajudant a formar el National Congress of American Indians, i fou nomenat membre de l'American Anthropological Association.[4]

McNickle es va casar tres cops: amb Joran Jacobine Birkeland el 1926–1938; amb Roma Kaye Haufman en 1939–1967; i amb la cofundadora de l'AID, la sociòloga Viola Gertrude Pfrommer, el 1969-1977. Va tenir dues filles, Antoinette Marie Parenteau McNickle (amb Joran) i Kathleen D'Arcy McNickle (amb Roma). Va morir d'un atac de cor l'octubre de 1977.[4]

The Surrounded[modifica | modifica el codi]

La contribució literària més coneguda de McNickle's fou la seva novel·la The Surrounded, que parla d'Archilde Leon, un jove mig salish que retorna a la reserva índia Flathead qui troba que no es pot comunicar amb el seu pare blanc (espanyol) ni amb la seva tradicionalista mare índia. Archilde comença a trobar el seu lloc a la reserva després que un dels ancians, Modeste, li ensenya les històries de la història dels salish, i Archilde el reconcilia simultàniament amb el seu pare i adopta les tradicions índies de la seva mare. No obstant això, al final de la novel·la, és acusat injustament de dos assassinats (un comès per la seva mare) i es lliura en l'escenes que representa el títol del llibre.

Organitzacions[modifica | modifica el codi]

Contribucions literàries[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • The Surrounded (1936)
  • Wind From an Enemy Sky (1978) [5]
  • The Hawk is Hungry and Other Stories (1992)
  • Indian Man: A Life of Oliver La Farge (1971)
  • Indians and Other Americans: Two Ways of Life Meet
  • Native American Tribalism: Indian Survivals and Renewals
  • Runner in the Sun: a story of Indian Maize
  • They Came Here First : the Epic of the American Indian (1949)
  • The Indian in American Society (for National Congress of American Indians, 1955)
  • An Historical Review of Federal-Indian Relationships (American Indian Policy Review Commission, 1975)

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. Dorothy R. Parker, Singing an Indian Song: A Biography of D’Arcy McNickle (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992), 22-27, 68. Dorothy Parker, “D’Arcy McNickle,” in The New Warriors: Native American Leaders since 1900 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001), 98-99.
  2. Tribune Staff. «125 Montana Newsmakers: D'Arcy McNickle». Great Falls Tribune. [Consulta: 26 agost 2011].
  3. Parker, Singing, 122.
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 Biography at the Newberry Library website.
  5. Vince Devlin. «Film shares Arlee teacher's success at instilling tribal perspective». The Missoulian, 2012-03-28 [Consulta: 6 setembre 2012].
  • “McNickle, D”Arcy.” In American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, Volume 15, 1999.
  • Adams, Bonnie Jean. “Sending an American Indian Voice: D’Arcy McNickle: Educator, Anthropologist, Historian: An Intellectual Biography.” Thesis Dissertation (Ph.D.) Loyola University of Chicago, 1998.
  • Burlingame, Lori Lynn. “Cultural Survival and the Oral Tradition in the Novels of D’Arcy McNickle and his Successors, Momaday, Silko, and Welch.” Thesis Dissertation (Ph.D.) University of Rochester, Department of English, 1995.

Crítica acadèmica[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Cobb, Daniel M. “Chapter One: Declarations.” In Before Red Power: The Politics of Tribal Self-Determination in Cold War America. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008.
  • Cobb, Daniel M. “Indian Politics in Cold War America: Parallel and Contradiction.” Princeton University Library Chronicle LXVII, no. 2 (winter 2006): 392-419.
  • Cobb, Daniel M. “Talking the Language of the Larger World: Politics in Cold War (Native) America.” In Beyond Red Power: New Perspectives on American Indian Politics and Activism. Edited by Daniel M. Cobb and Loretta Fowler. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 2007.
  • Collier, John. “A Perspective on the United States Indian Situation of 1952 in its Hemispheric and Worldwide Bearing.” América Indígena 13, no. 1 (January 1953): 7-13.
  • Cowger, Thomas. The National Congress of American Indians: The Founding Years. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001.
  • Cracroft, Richard H. Twentieth-century American Western Writers. Detroit: Gale Group, 1999.
  • Critical Perspectives on Native American Fiction. Edited by Richard F. Fleck. Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press, 1993.
  • Handbook of Native American Literature. Edited by Andrew Wiget. New York: Garland, 1996.
  • Hans, Birgit, ed. “The Hawk is Hungry” & Other Stories: An Annotated Anthology of D’Arcy McNickle’s Short Fiction. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1992.
  • Hans, Birgit. “Surrounded: The Fiction of D’Arcy McNickle.” Thesis Dissertation (Ph.D.) University of Arizona, 1988.
  • Hans, Birgit. The Hawk is Hungry: An Annotated Anthology of D’Arcy McNickle’s Short Fiction. Thesis (M.A.) University of Arizona, 1986.
  • Lagrand, James B. Indian Metropolis: Native Americans in Chicago, 1945-75. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2002.
  • Libby, Orin Grant. The Arikara Narrative of Custer’s Campaign and the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Introduction by D’Arcy McNickle. 1920. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.
  • Lurie, Nancy Oestreich. “Sol Tax and Tribal Sovereignty,” Human Organization: Journal of the Society for Applied Anthropology, Vol. 58 No. 1 (Spring 1999): 108-117.
  • Miller, Jay. Writings in Indian History, 1985-1990. Compiled by Jay Miller, Colin G. Calloway, and Richard A. Sattler. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995.
  • Nagel, Joane. American Indian Ethnic Renewal: Red Power and the Resurgence of Identity and Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Native American Literature: An Anthology. Compiled by Lawana Trout. Lincolnwood, Ill.: NTC Pub. Group, 1999.
  • Ortiz, Alfonso. D’Arcy McNickle (1904–1977): Across the River and Up the Hill: A Personal Remembrance. 1980-1989?.
  • Ortiz, Simon J. “Towards a National Indian Literature: Cultural Authenticity in Nationalism.” MELUS 8, no. 2 (summer 1981): 7-12.
  • Owens, Louis. Other Destinies: Understanding the American Indian Novel. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.
  • Parker, Dorothy R. “Choosing an Indian Identity: A Biography of D’Arcy McNickle.” Thesis Dissertation (Ph. D.) University of New Mexico, 1988.
  • Parker, Dorothy R. “D’Arcy McNickle: Living a Broker’s Life.” In Between Indian and White Worlds: The Cultural Broker. Edited by Margaret Connell Szasz. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994.
  • Parker, Dorothy R. Singing an Indian Song: A Biography of D’Arcy McNickle. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.
  • Parker, Dorothy. “D’Arcy McNickle.” In The New Warriors: Native American Leaders since 1900. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001.
  • Parker, Robert Dale. The Invention of Native American Literature. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003.
  • Provinse, John Henry, Thomas Segundo, Sol Tax, and D’Arcy McNickle. The American Indian Now: An NBC Radio Discussion. Chicago: University of Chicago Round Table (Radio Program), 1954.
  • Purdy, John Lloyd. Word Ways: The Novels of D’Arcy McNickle. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1990.
  • Rains, James W. “Today Speaks in Yesterday’s Voice: Writing American Indians into History in the Fiction of D’Arcy McNickle." Thesis Dissertation (Ph.D.) University of Michigan, 2004.
  • Roemer, Kenneth M. Native American Writers of the United States. Detroit: Gale Research, 1997.
  • Rosier, Paul C. “’They Are Ancestral Homelands’: Race, Place, and Politics in Cold War Native America, 1945-1961.” Journal of American History 92, no. 4 (March 2006): 1300-1326.
  • Ruppert, James. D’Arcy McNickle. Boise, Idaho: Boise State University, 1988.
  • Smoke Rising: The Native American Literary Companion. Edited by Joseph Bruchac, managing editor; Janet Witalec, editor with Sharon Malinowski. Detroit: Visible Ink Press, 1995.
  • Squires, Nancy Elam. "Back to the Blanket: The Indian Fiction of Oliver La Farge, Joseph Matthews, D’Arcy McNickle, Ruth Underhill and Frank Waters, 1927-1944." Thesis (Ph.D.) Harvard University, 2004.
  • Stories for a Winter’s Night: Short Fiction by Native Americans. Edited by Maurice Kenny. Buffalo, N.Y.: White Pine Press, 2000.
  • Straus, Terry, Ron Bowan, and Michael Chapman, “Anthropology, Ethics, and the American Indian Chicago Conference,” American Ethnologist Vol. 13 No. 4 (November 1986): 802-804.
  • The Legacy of D’Arcy McNickle: Writer, Historian, Activist. Edited by John Lloyd Purdy. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.
  • The Singing Spirit: Early Short Stories by North American Indians. Edited by Bernd C. Peyer. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1989.
  • Thompson, Joan Elizabeth. “The Control of Water and Land: Dams and Irrigation in Novels by Mary Hallock Foote, Mary Hunter Austin, Frank Waters, and D’Arcy McNickle.” Thesis Dissertation (Ph.D) University of Minnesota, 1994.
  • Towner, Lawrence William. “D’Arcy McNickle.” In Past Imperfect: Essays on History, Libraries, and the Humanities. Edited by Robert W. Karrow, Jr. and Alfred F. Young, with an introduction by Alfred F. Young. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
  • Voice of the Turtle: American Indian Literature, 1900-1970. Edited by Paula Gunn Allen. New York: Ballantine Books, 1994.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]