Xyrauchen texanus

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Xyrauchen texanus
Xyrauchen texanus.jpg
Estat de conservació
Classificació científica
Regne: Animalia
Fílum: Chordata
Classe: Actinopterygii
Subclasse: Neopterygii
Infraclasse: Teleostei
Superordre: Ostariophysi
Ordre: Cypriniformes
Família: Catostomidae
Gènere: Xyrauchen
(Eigenmann & Kirsch, 1889)[2]
Espècie: X. texanus
Nom binomial
Xyrauchen texanus
(Abbott, 1861)[3][4]
Sinònims
  • Catostomus texanus (Abbott, 1860)[5]

Xyrauchen texanus és una espècie de peix de la família dels catostòmids i l'única del gènere Xyrauchen.[6]

Morfologia[modifica | modifica el codi]

Pot assolir 91 cm de longitud total,[7] encara que la seua mida normal és de 50.[8][9][10]

Reproducció[modifica | modifica el codi]

A la conca inferior del riu Colorado té lloc principalment des de finals del gener fins a l'abril (rarament, fins al maig o el juny), quan la temperatura de l'aigua assoleix 11-21 °C.[11][12][13][14]

Alimentació[modifica | modifica el codi]

Menja algues, crustacis planctònics i larves d'insectes aquàtics. Al llac Mohave (Arizona i Nevada), els adults es nodreixen principalment de crustacis, diatomees, algues filamentoses i detritus.[15][16]

Depredadors[modifica | modifica el codi]

Als Estats Units és depredat per Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinella lutrensis, Pimephales promelas, Richardsonius balteatus, Ictalurus punctatus i Pylodictis olivaris.[17][18][19]

Hàbitat[modifica | modifica el codi]

És un peix d'aigua dolça, demersal, potamòdrom[20] i de clima temperat (37°N-34°N).[9]

Distribució geogràfica[modifica | modifica el codi]

Es troba als Estats Units: històricament, s'estenia a la conca del riu Colorado[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] des de Wyoming i Colorado (els Estats Units) fins a Baixa Califòrnia i Sonora (Mèxic),[30] però actualment només es troba al mateix riu al seu pas pel Gran Canyó[31] i els llacs Mead, Mohave[32][33][34] i Havasu, incloent-hi els estats d'Arizona,[35] Califòrnia,[36][37] Colorado,[38][39] Nevada, Nou Mèxic,[40] Utah,[41][42][43][44] Wyoming i la Nació Navajo.[45][9][8][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54]

Estat de conservació[modifica | modifica el codi]

Apareix a la Llista Vermella de la UICN[55][56][57][58][59][60][61] i les seues principals amenaces són la introducció d'espècies exòtiques[62][63][64] i les alteracions humanes de l'hàbitat riberenc (com ara, la construcció de preses).[65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][1][54]

Observacions[modifica | modifica el codi]

És inofensiu per als humans.[9]

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. 1,0 1,1 IUCN (anglès)
  2. Kirsch, P. H., 1889. Notes on a collection of fishes obtained in the Gila River, at Fort Thomas, Arizona, by Lieut. W. L. Carpenter, U. S. Army. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. v. 11 (núm. 754): 555-558.
  3. BioLib (anglès)
  4. Abbott, C. C., 1860. Description of four new species of North American Cyprinidae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. v. 12: 473-474.
  5. «Xyrauchen texanus». Catalogue of Life. (anglès)
  6. The Taxonomicon (anglès)
  7. Page, L.M. i B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Estats Units. 432 p.
  8. 8,0 8,1 Hugg, D.O., 1996. MAPFISH georeferenced mapping database. Freshwater and estuarine fishes of North America. Life Science Software. Dennis O. i Steven Hugg, 1278 Turkey Point Road, Edgewater, Maryland, Estats Units.
  9. 9,0 9,1 9,2 9,3 FishBase (anglès)
  10. Snyder, D. E. i R. T. Muth, 1990. Description and identification of razorback, flannelmouth, white, Utah, bluehead, and mountain sucker larvae and early juveniles. Colorado Division of Wildlife Technical Publication No. 38. 152 pp.
  11. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 22 de maig del 1990. Proposal to determine the razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) to be an endangered species. Federal Register 55(99):21154-21161.
  12. Mueller, G., 1989. Observations of spawning razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) utilizing riverine habitat in the lower Colorado River, Arizona-Nevada. Southwestern Naturalist 34:147-149.
  13. Muth, R. T. i J. B. Ruppert, 1996. Effects of two electrofishing currents on captive ripe razorback suckers and subsequent egg-hatching success. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 16:473-476.
  14. Tyus, H. M. i C. A. Karp, 1990. Spawning and movements of razorback sucker, Xyrauchen texanus, in the Green River basin of Colorado and Utah. Southwestern Naturalist 35:427-433.
  15. Marsh, P. C., 1987. Digestive tract contents of adult razorback suckers in Lake Mohave, Arizona-Nevada. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 116:117-119.
  16. Marsh, P. C. i D. R. Langhorst, 1988. Feeding and fate of wild larval razorback sucker. Environ. Biol. Fish. 21(1):59-67.
  17. FishBase (anglès)
  18. Johnson, J. E. i R. T. Hines, 1999. Effect of suspended sediment on vulnerability of young razorback suckers to predation. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 128(4):648-655.
  19. Johnson, J. E., M. G. Pardew i M. M. Lyttle, 1993. Notes: Predator recognition and avoidance by larval razorback sucker and northern hog sucker. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 122(6):1139-1145.
  20. Riede, K., 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Alemanya. 329 p.
  21. Wick, E. J., C. W. McAda, i R. V. Bulkley, 1982. Life history and prospects for recovery of the razorback sucker. Pàgs. 120-126 "a" Miller, W. H., ed. Fishes of the Upper Colorado River System: present and future. Am. Fish. Soc.
  22. Mueller, G., P. C. Marsh, G. Knowles i T. Wolters, 2000. Distribution, movements, and habitat use of razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) in a lower Colorado River reservoir, Arizona-Nevada. Western North American Naturalist 60:180-187.
  23. Miller, W. H., H. M. Tyus, and C. A. Carlson, 1982. Fishes of the upper Colorado system: present and future. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. 131 pp.
  24. McAda, C. W. i R. S. Wydowski, 1980. The razorback sucker, Xyrauchen texanus, in the Upper Colorado River Basin. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Technical Paper 99:1-15.
  25. Marsh, P. C. i W. L. Minckley, 1989. Observations on recruitment and ecology of razorback sucker: lower Colorado River, Arizona-California-Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist 49:71-8.
  26. Ferriole, Stephen, 1988. Wildlife Resource Information System. Razorback Sucker mapping criteria for the Colorado, Dolores, Gunnison, Green, White, and Yampa Rivers. Final report for CDOW, Grand Junction, Colorado.
  27. Behnke, R. J. i D. E. Benson, 1980. Endangered and threatened fishes of the upper Colorado River basin. Bulletin 503A. Cooperative Extension Service, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.
  28. McAda, C. W. i Wydoski, R. S., 1980. The razorback sucker, Xyrauchen texanus, in the upper Colorado River Basin, 19741976. Technical Papers of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 99.
  29. Minckley, W. L., 1983. Status of the razorback sucker, Xyrauchen texanus (Abbott), in the lower Colorado River Basin. The Southwestern Naturalist 28(2): 165-187.
  30. Page, L. M. i B. M. Burr, 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Segona edició. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.
  31. Douglas, M. E. i Marsh, P. C., 1998. Population and survival estimates of Catostomus latipinnis in northern Grand Canyon, with distribution and abundance of hybrids with Xyrauchen texanus. Copeia 1998: 915-925.
  32. Marsh, P. C., Pacey, C. A. i Kesner, B. R., 2003. Decline of the razorback sucker in Lake Mohave, Colorado River, Arizona and Nevada. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132: 1251-1256.
  33. Dowling, T. E., Marsh, P. C., Kelsen, A. T. i Tibbets, C. A., 2005. Genetic monitoring of wild and repatriated populations of endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus, Catostomidae, Teleostei) in Lake Mohave, Arizona-Nevada. Molecular Ecology 14: 123-135.
  34. Langhorst, D.R. i P.C. Marsh, 1986. Early life history of razorback sucker in Lake Mojave. Final Report to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Arizona State University, Tempe. 24pp. + app.
  35. Minckley, W. L., 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona. 293 pp.
  36. California Department of Fish and Game (CDF&G), 1990. 1989 annual report on the status of California's state listed threatened and endangered plants and animals. 188 pp.
  37. Moyle, P. B., 1976. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, Califòrnia. 405 pp.
  38. Tyus, H. M. i C. A. Karp, 1989. Habitat use and streamflow needs of rare and endangered fishes, Yampa River, Colorado. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Report 89(14). 27 pp.
  39. Woodling, J., 1985. Colorado's Little Fish: A Guide to the Minnows and Other Lesser Known Fishes in the State of Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver.
  40. Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch i M. Sublette, 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, Nou Mexico. 393 pp.
  41. Karp, C. A. i Mueller, G., 2002. Razorback sucker movements and habitat use in the San Juan River inflow, Lake Powell, Utah, 1995-1997. Western North American Naturalist 62: 106-111.
  42. Lanigan, S. H. i Tyus, H. M., 1989. Population size and status of the razorback sucker in the Green River basin, Utah and Colorado. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9: 68-73.
  43. Sigler, W. F. i R. R. Miller, 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah State Department of Fish and Game, Salt Lake City, Utah, 203 pp.
  44. Tyus, H. M., 1987. Distribution, Reproduction, and Habitat Use of the Razorback Sucker in the Green River, Utah, 1979-1986. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 116:111-116.
  45. Division of Natural Resources, Navajo Fish and Wildlife Department, 1995. Endangered Species List for The Navajo Nation.
  46. Jelks, H.L., S.J. Walsh, N.M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D.A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N.E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J.S. Nelson, S.P> Platania, B.A. Porter, C.B. Renaud, J.J. Schmitter-Soto, E.B. Taylor i M.L. Warren, Jr., 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8): 372-407.
  47. Holden, P.B. i C.B. Stalnaker, 1975. Distribution of fishes in the Dolores and Yampa River system of the upper Colorado Basin. Southwestern Naturalist 19:403-412.
  48. U.S. Fish i Wildlife Service. 1994. Determination of Critical Habitat for the Colorado River Endangered Fishes; Razorback Sucker, Colorado Squawfish, Humpback Chub, and Bonytail Chub. Federal Register (59) 54: 13374-13400.
  49. Marsh, P. C. i Minckley, W. L., 1989. Observations on recruitment and ecology of razorback sucker: lower Colorado River, Arizona-California-Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist 49: 71-78.
  50. Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister i J. R. Stauffer, Jr., 1980. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, Carolina del Nord. i-x + 854 pp.
  51. Platania, S. P., K. R. Bestgen, M. A. Moretti, D. L. Probst i J. E. Brooks, 1991. Status of Colorado squawfish and razorback sucker in the San Juan River, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. The Southwestern Naturalist, 36(1):147-150.
  52. Smith, G. R., 1992. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae, freshwater fishes of North America and Asia. Pàgines 778-826 a R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Califòrnia. xxvi + 969 pp.
  53. GBIF (anglès)
  54. 54,0 54,1 NatureServe (anglès)
  55. Groombridge, B. (ed.), 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. UICN, Gland, Suïssa.
  56. Baillie, J. i Groombridge, B., 1996. Llista Vermella d'Animals Amenaçats de la UICN 1996. UICN, Gland, Suïssa.
  57. Hilton-Taylor, C., 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. UICN, Gland, Suïssa i Cambridge, la Gran Bretanya. xviii + 61 p. (amb 1 CD-ROM).
  58. UICN, 1986. 1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Suïssa i Cambridge, la Gran Bretanya.
  59. UICN, 1988. 1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Suïssa i Cambridge, la Gran Bretanya.
  60. UICN, 1990. 1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Suïssa i Cambridge, la Gran Bretanya.
  61. UICN, 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Suïssa i Cambridge, la Gran Bretanya.
  62. Marsh, P. C. i J. E. Brooks, 1989. Predation by ictalurid catfishes as a deterrent to re-establishment of hatchery-reared razorback suckers. Southwestern Naturalist 34:188-195.
  63. Clarkson, R. W., Marsh, P. C., Stefferud, S. E. i Stefferud, J. A., 2005. Conflicts between native fish and nonnative sport fish management in the Southwestern United States. Fisheries 30(9): 20-27.
  64. Lenon, N., Stave, K., Burke, T. i Deacon, J. E., 2002. Bonytail (Gila elegans) may enhance survival of razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) in rearing ponds by preying on exotic crayfish. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Sciences 34(1): 46-52.
  65. Clarkson, R. W. i Childs, M. R., 2000. Temperature effects of hypolimnion-release dams on early life history stages of Colorado river basin big-river fishes. Copeia 2000: 402-412.
  66. Minckley, W. L., Marsh, P. C., Deacon, J. E., Dowling, T. E., Hedrick, P. W., Matthews, W. J. i Mueller, G., 2003. A conservation plan for native fishes of the lower Colorado River. Bioscience 53(3): 219 - 234.
  67. Minckley, W. L., Meffe, G. K. i Soltz, D. L., 1991. Conservation and management of short-lived fishes: the cyprinodontoids. A: W.L. Minckley i J.E. Deacon (eds), Battle Against Extinction: Native Fish Management in the American West, pp. 247-282. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.
  68. Bestgen, K. R., 1990. Status review of the razorback sucker, Xyrauchen texanus. Colorado State Univ. Larval Fish Lab. Contribution 44.
  69. Bestgen, K. R., G. B. Haines, R. Brunson, T. Chart, M. Trammell, R. T. Muth, G. Birchell, K. Christopherson i J. M. Bundy, 2002. Status of wild razorback sucker in the Green River Basin, Utah and Colorado, determined from basinwide monitoring and other sampling programs. Draft Report of Colorado State University Larval Fish Laboratory to Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Denver, Colorado.
  70. Minckley, W. L., P. C. Marsh, J. E. Brooks, J. E. Johnson i B. L. Jensen, 1991. Management toward recovery of the razorback sucker. Pàgs. 303-357 "a" W. L. Minckley i J. E. Deacon, editors. Battle against extinction: native fish management in the American West. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
  71. Minckley, W. L. i J. E. Deacon, 1991. Battle Against Extinction: Native Fish Management in the American West. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. xviii + 517 pp.
  72. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), 1997. Razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) draft recovery plan. Denver, Colorado.

Bibliografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Anònim, 2001. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution - Division of Fishes.
  • Anònim, 2002. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West, NY 10024-5192, Estats Units.
  • Bundy, J. M. i K. R. Bestgen, 2001. Confirmation of daily increment deposition in otoliths of young razorback suckers. Southwestern Naturalist 46:34-40.
  • Dowling, T. E., Minckley, W. L. i Marsh, P. C., 1996. Mitochondrial DNA diversity within and among populations of razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) as determined by restriction endonuclease analysis. Copeia 1996(3): 542-550.
  • Eschmeyer, William N., 1990. Genera of Recent Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, els Estats Units. iii + 697. ISBN 0940228238.
  • Eschmeyer, William N., ed., 1998. Catalog of Fishes. Special Publication of the Center for Biodiversity Research and Information, núm. 1, vol. 1-3. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, els Estats Units. ISBN 0940228475.
  • Hanel, L. i J. Novák, 2002. Ceské názvy zivocichu V. Ryby a ryboviti obratlovci (Pisces) 3., maloústí (Gonorhynchiformes) - máloostní (Cypriniformes). Národní muzeum (zoologické oddelení), Praga.
  • Harris, P. M. i R. L. Mayden, 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of major clades of Catostomidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) as inferred from mitchondrial SSU and LSU rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20:225-237.
  • Helfman, G., B. Collette i D. Facey, 1997. The diversity of fishes. Blackwell Science, Malden, Massachusetts, els Estats Units.
  • Moyle, P. i J. Cech, 2000. Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology, 4a. edició, Upper Saddle River, Nova Jersey, els Estats Units: Prentice-Hall.
  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea i J. D. Williams, 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland, els Estats Units.
  • Nelson, J. S., 2006. Fishes of the world. Quarta edició. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, Nova Jersey, els Estats Units. 601 p.
  • Ricker, W.E., 1973. Russian-English dictionary for students of fisheries and aquatic biology. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa.
  • Robins, C. R., R. M. Bailey, C. E. Bond, J. R. Brooker, E. A. Lachner, R. N. Lea i W. B. Scott, 1980. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (12)1-174.
  • Robins, C. R., R. M. Bailey, C. E. Bond, J. R. Brooker, E. A. Lachner, R. N. Lea i W. B. Scott, 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Pub. (20):183 p.
  • Wheeler, A., 1985. The World Encyclopedia of Fishes, 2a. edició, Londres: Macdonald.
  • Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao i C.F. Lai (eds.), 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan. 1.028 pàgines.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]

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