Akira (pel·lícula)

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Infotaula de pel·lículaAkira
アキラ
Akira
Akira movie poster.jpg
Fitxa tècnica
Direcció Katsuhiro Otomo
Protagonistes Mitsuo Iwata
Nozomu Sasaki
Mami Koyama
Taro Ishida
Mizuho Suzuki
Producció Ryōhei Suzuki
Shunzō Katō
Guió Katsuhiro Otomo
Izō Hashimoto
Música Tsutomu Ōhashi
Fotografia Katsuji Misawa
Muntatge Takeshi Seyama
Productora Tokyo Movie Shinsha
Distribuïdora Toho
Dades i xifres
País Japó
Data d'estrena 16 de juliol del 1988
Durada 121 minuts
Idioma original japonès
Color color
Format 1.85:1
Pressupost $8.5 milions[1]
Ingressos ¥6.346.343.871
Temàtica
Basat en Akira
Gènere Animació tradicional
Ciència-ficció
Acció
Lloc de la narració Tòquio
Més informació
IMDb Fitxa 8.1/10 stars
FilmAffinity Fitxa 7.6/10 stars
AlloCiné Fitxa
Rotten Tomatoes Fitxa
Box office Mojo Fitxa
All Movie Fitxa
TCM Fitxa
Lloc web Lloc web oficial
Modifica dades a Wikidata

Akira (アキラ?) és una pel·lícula japonesa de dibuixos animats d'estil ciberpunk del 1988 que va ser dirigida per Katsuhiro Otomo. Otomo, junt amb Izo Hashimoto van escriure'n el guió, que es basa en la primera meitat de la història que narra el còmic (manga) homònim també creat per Otomo. Destaquen les veus de Mitsuo Iwata, Nozomu Sasaki, Mami Koyama i Taro Ishida.

La pel·lícula es situa en una versió distòpica de la ciutat de Tòquio l'any 2019. L'argument es centra en un motorista adolescent, Tetsuo Shima, qui té estranys poders psíquics i el cap de la banda de motoristes i amic seu, Shotaro Kaneda. Kaneda intenta evitar que en Tetsuo alliberi l'ens psíquic anomenat Akira. Mentre que la majoria de personatges i localitzacions es van adaptar del manga original, l'argument, reestructurat, s'allunya força de l'original, ja que bona part de la segona part del còmic està retallada.

La pel·lícula va esdevenir un clàssic de culte arreu i es considera una fita de l'animació japonesa.

Argument[modifica]

El 16 de juliol del 1988 una explosió enorme destrueix Tòquio i origina la Tercera Guerra Mundial. El 2019, 31 anys després de l'explosió, la ciutat ha estat reconstruïda i rebatejada amb el nom de Neo-Tòquio. A Neo-Tòquio, Shotaro Kaneda és el cap dels Càpsules, una banda de motoristes (bōsōzoku) que es baralla amb una banda rival anomenada els Clowns. Durant una d'aquestes baralles en Tetsuo Shima, el millor amic d'en Kaneda, té un accident i queda ferit quan es creua amb en Takashi, un individu amb poders de percepció extrasensorial i amb aspecte de patir de progèria.[2] Una organització revolucionària dissident acabava d'extreure en Takashi d'un laboratori secret del govern. Uns soldats armats capturen en Takashi i en Tetsuo acaba a l'hospital. Mentre interroguen en Kaneda i la seva banda, en Kaneda coneix la Kei, un dels revolucionaris. En Kaneda aconsegueix que els alliberin a tots.

Mentrestant el coronel Shikishima i el doctor Onishi descobreixen que en Tetsuo té un poder psíquic similar al d'Akira, un dels individus amb capacitats psíquiques (un "esper") que va causar la destrucció de la ciutat 31 anys abans. La Kiyoko, una altra d'aquests individus, té visions sobre la destrucció de Neo-Tòquio, i el coronel decideix ordenar a l'Onishi que mati en Tetsuo si creu que el poder que té es podria desbocar. En Tetsuo fuig de l'hospital, queda amb la seva xicota, la Kaori, i junts roben la moto d'en Kaneda. Quan en Tetsuo i la Kaori topen amb els Clowns, que s'hi enfronten, en Kaneda i els Càpsules els salven. En Tetsuo comença a mostrar símptomes d'una mena de migranya psíquica i el doctor Onishi l'envia altre cop a l'hospital.

Com que en Kaneda salva a la Kei després d'un atac de la guerrilla, els rebels s'enduen en Kaneda al seu quarter general i decideix cooperar amb ells després de sentir per casualitat que els rebels projecten capturar en Tetsuo. Mentrestant en Takashi, la Kiyoko i en Masaru - un tercer individu amb poders paranormals - intenten matar en Tetsuo però no tenen èxit. En Tetsuo perd el nord i es desboca per l'hospital mentre intenta matar-los ell. En Kaneda, la Kei i el coronel intenten aturar en Tetsuo però no se'n surten. En Tetsuo descobreix que n'Akira està preservat en estat criogènic sota el nou Estadi Olímpic de Neo-Tòquio i fuig.

Kei and Kaneda are detained, but Kiyoko — using Kei as a mèdium — explains that Tetsuo must be stopped, and facilitates the youths' escape before taking the girl away to combat Tetsuo. Desperate to find Tetsuo, the Colonel places Neo-Tokyo under llei marcial. Tetsuo confronts and kills both the bartender and Yamagata, a member of the Capsules. He then proceeds to destroy the city as he makes his way to the Stadium, brutally dispatching the military forces who attempt to stand in his way. Upon learning of Yamagata's death from his friend Kai, Kaneda follows Tetsuo to the stadium, seeking revenge. When Tetsuo arrives at Akira's dipòsit criogènic, he defeats Kei and exhumes the Akira vault from the ground, but discovers all that is left of Akira are glass canisters filled with his remains, his body having been subjected to numerous scientific experiments.

En Kaneda s'enfronta a en Tetsuo amb una arma làser experimental però és incapaç de vèncer-lo, mentrestant el coronel intenta emprar un làser orbital per a matar en Tetsuo, però només aconsegueix de tallar-li el braç dret. En Tetsuo envia l'arma orbital a l'atmosfera i sintetitza un braç artificial amb els restes dels òrgans de n'Akira. Quan arriba la Kaori, els poders psicoquinètics d'en Tetsuo han començat a causar-li uns dolors terribles. El coronel explica que les drogues que han administrat a en Tetsuo, drogues pensades per a controlar les migranyes dels "espers", haurien d'aturar el desenvolupament d'aquestes habilitats incontrolables. Malgrat les súpliques del Coronel, en Tetsuo es nega a fer-li cas i tornar a l'hospital i quasi el mata, però en Kaneda el distreu enfrontant-se-li. En Tetsuo és incapaç de controlar els poders i acaba convertint-se en una massa enorme que xucla en Kaneda i trinxa la Kaori.

Els "espers" desperten l'Akira, who had merely grown beyond the requirement of a coherent biological form. Manifesting himself from the canisters, Akira reunites with his friends. Akira uses his psychic powers to create a blinding ball of light that engulfs the city, which he uses to contain Tetsuo. As Akira confronts Tetsuo, the espers hurry to teleport the Colonel to safety and — over Masaru and Kiyoko's objections — Takashi jumps into the light to rescue Kaneda. The other espers join Takashi, deciding that it will take all three of them to save Kaneda, aware they likely will not be able to return. Kaneda experiences Tetsuo's and the espers' childhood memories, including how much Tetsuo trusted Kaneda as a friend and how the children were first studied before Tokyo's destruction.

The espers remove Kaneda from the destruction and tell him that Akira will be taking Tetsuo to safety; Kiyoko implies that Kei is beginning to develop her own psychic powers, and this is confirmed when Kei calls Kaneda out telepathically. Akira's psychic power destroys most of Neo-Tokyo, and — after disappearing — leaves a void that is quickly filled by the ocean. Doctor Onishi is killed when his research laboratory is crushed. Kaneda awakens to discover that Kei and Kai have survived, and they drive away into the city. The Colonel walks out of the tunnel that the espers teleported him to and watches the sun rising over the destroyed city. Tetsuo comes into full control of his powers as he initiates a Big Bang in another dimension, uttering the words, "I am Tetsuo."

Repartiment[modifica]

  • Shotaro Kaneda (金田 正太郎 , Kaneda Shōtarō?) – És el despreocupat líder d'una banda de joves i té una moto personalitzada que li dóna prestigi. En Kaneda i en Tetsuo són molt amics des de la infància. Sovint es burla d'en Tetsuo, tot i que se l'estima com si fos el seu germà petit. Després de rescatar la Kei, en Kaneda s'implica en les activitats del seu grup de guerrillers revolucionaris amb l'esperança de trobar en Tetsuo.
  • Tetsuo Shima (島 鉄雄 , Shima Tetsuo?) – És el millor amic d'en Kaneda des de preescolar i el segon protagonista de la trama. La pel·lícula mostra en Tetsuo com l'ovella negra de la banda a la qual pertany, i com a un individu amb un fort complex d'inferioritat que pateix en silenci. En Tetsuo admira en Kaneda, però alhora sent un gran ressentiment per la dependència que en té. Després que es manifestin les seves habilitats telecinèsiques, en Tetsuo es converteix en la nèmesi d'en Kaneda, vol la moto d'en Kaneda (símbol d'estatus i poder) i intenta demostrar que és poderós i capaç de ser independent. Al final aquest poder el supera.
  • Kei (ケイ?) – Una jove revolucionària que es coneix Kaneda i de qui s'enamora mentre busca en Tetsuo. She is a member of an anti-government faction that Ryusaku and Nezu are also involved in. Initially, she does not possess any preternatural abilities, being manipulated by the Espers as a type of medium on several occasions, but upon coming in contact with the Espers' powers, due to their power constantly being channeled through her, she gains powers of her own.
  • Coronel Shikishima (敷島大佐 , Shikishima-taisa?) o El Coronel – El director actual del projecte governamental, encara actiu, que va ser responsable de desencadenar sense voler-ho el poder d'Akira trenta anys abans dels fets de la pel·lícula. Appearing tough and ruthless, he is nevertheless pragmatic enough to recognize the danger Tetsuo's fledgling powers pose and cares genuinely for the three Espers under his supervision. Amongst the other government figures depicted in the film, he is shown to be the most principled, eschewing the corruption and hedonism that typifies Neo-Tokyo, adhering instead to a strict code of soldierly honour.
  • Els Espers: Masaru (マサル? nom en clau #27), Takashi (タカシ? nom en clau #26) i Kiyoko (キヨコ? nom en clau #25) – Companys de n'Akira, tots objecte d'experiments psíquics. Mostren una varietat de poders paranormals que utilitzen per influir en el curs dels esdeveniments. Tot i que els seus poders individuals tenen menys força que els d'Akira o d'en Tetsuo, els seus esforços combinats resulten decisius en la batalla final. Físicament tenen l'aparença de nens, però amb les cares arrugades, els cabells blancs i la pell d'un color blau-verd.
  • Akira (アキラ? nom en clau #28) – El personatge que dóna nom a la pel·lícula. Akira was a young boy who developed transcendent psionic, god-like abilities when serving as a test subject for secret government ESP experiments in the 1980s. He subsequently lost control of this power and the ensuing blast completely annihilated Tokyo in a horrifying explosion in 1988. After the apocalyptic event, Akira was recovered and subjected to every test known to modern science, which proved unable to solve the mystery. El van disseccionar i el van tancar en una cambra criònica sota l'Estadi Olímpic de Neo-Tokyo.
  • Nezu (根津?) – A government mole for the resistance movement, and member of Neo-Tokyo's parliamentary executive council. Responsible for Takashi's abduction by the resistance and supplying intelligence to the underground, he is nevertheless corrupt and unprincipled, and quickly turns against his erstwhile revolutionary allies in a fit of paranoia during the Colonel's coup.
  • Yamagata (山形?) – Un dels membres destacats de la banda d'en Tetsuo. Sovint li fa la punyeta a en Tetsuo, actitud que li comporta la mort quan els poders d'en Tetsuo comencen a manifestar-se.
  • Kai (甲斐?) – Un altre membre de la banda d'en Kaneda, en Kai juga un paper menor en la batalla final contra en Tetsuo. És molt amic d'en Yamagata i romanen junts quan la banda es trenca, sent un dels pocs membres que sobreviuen.
  • Kaori (カオリ?) – Tetsuo's girlfriend. She stands by Tetsuo even though he treats her abusively in the hopes of appearing tough to his friends. When Tetsuo begins his rampage through Neo-Tokyo, she follows him, and when his powers manifest and cause his body to warp and expand to grotesque proportions, she is engulfed in his flesh and crushed by his organs.

Doblatge[modifica]

Personatge Doblador japonès (1988) Doblador català (1996)[3][4] Doblador valencià (2011)[5][6]
Shōtarō Kaneda Mitsuo Iwata Sergi Zamora Enric Puig
Tetsuo Shima Nozomu Sasaki Albert Trifol Segarra Jorge Tejedor
Kei Mami Koyama Sílvia Gómez Eva Bau
Coronel Tarō Ishida Joan Carles Gustems Sergio Capelo
Doctor Ōnishi Mizuho Suzuki Antonio Crespo Francesc Fenollosa
Ryūsaku (Roy) Tetsusho Genda (Tesshō Genda) Oriol Rafel César Lechiguero
Kiyoko (N. 25) Sachie Ito Rosa López
Takashi (N. 26) Tatsuhiko Nakamura Xavier Fernández
Masaru (N. 27) Kazuhiro Kando Emili Freixas Maria Carme Giner
Kaori Yuriko Fuchizaki Núria Trifol Ruth Doménech
Yamagata (Yama) Masaaki Ōkura Aleix Estadella Darío Torrent
Kai Takeshi Kusao Claudi Domingo Benja Figueres
Nezu Hiroshi Ōtake Josep Maria Zamora
Miyako Kōichi Kitamura Felip Bau
Inspector Michihiro Ikemizu Santi Lorenz
Eiichi Watanabe Tarō Arakawa Martí Pich
Mitsuru Kuwata Yukimasa Kishino Amadeu Aguado
Yūji Takeyama Masato Hirano Pep Ribas
Soldats Kazumi Tanaka
Harukiya Yōsuke Akimoto José Javier Serrano
Enginyer Sakiyama Masayuki Katō Quim Roca

Producció[modifica]

Mentre treballava en el manga original, Akira, Katsuhiro Otomo no tenia intenció de fer cap mena d'adaptació de la sèrie,[7] però li va cridar l'atenció el fet que li oferissin encarregar-se del desenvolupament de la seva obra per a la pantalla gran. Va accedir que es fes una pel·lícula d'anime sobre la sèrie sempre que ell en tingués el control creatiu, decisió basada de l'experiència que havia adquirit quan va treballar en la pel·lícula Harmagedon, basada en el manga i les novel·les de la sèrie Genma Taisen. The Akira Committee was the name given to a partnership of several major Japanese entertainment companies brought together to realize production of an Akira film. The group's assembly was necessitated by the unconventionally high budget of around ¥1,100,000,000, intended to achieve the desired epic standard equal to Otomo's over 2,000 page manga tale. The committee consisted of publisher Kodansha Ltd., Mainichi Broadcasting System, Inc., Bandai Co., Ltd., Hakuhodo Incorporated, distributor Toho Co., Ltd., Laserdisc Corporation and Sumitomo Corporation who all forwarded money and promotion towards the movie. The animation for the movie was provided for by animation producers, Tokyo Movie Shinsha Co., Ltd.[8]

Most anime is notorious for cutting production corners with limited animation, such as having only the characters' mouths move while their faces remained static. Akira broke from this trend with detailed scenes, pre-scored dialogue (wherein the dialogue is recorded before the film starts production and the movements of the characters' lips are animated to match it)[9] – a first for an anime production, although the voice actors did perform with the aid of animatics[10] – and super-fluid motion as realized in the film's more than 160,000 animation cels.[8] Computer-generated imagery was also used in the film, primarily to animate the pattern indicator used by Doctor Ōnish, but it was additionally used to plot the paths of falling objects, model parallax effects on backgrounds, and tweak lighting and lens flares.[10] Unlike its live-action predecessors, Akira also had the budget to show a fully realized futuristic Tokyo.

The teaser trailer for Akira was released in 1987. The film was completed in 1987 and released in 1988, two years before the manga officially ended in 1990. Otomo is claimed to have filled 2000 pages of notebooks, containing various ideas and character designs for the film, but the final storyboard consisted of merely 738 pages.[10] He had great difficulty completing the manga; Otomo has stated that the inspiration for its conclusion arose from a conversation that he had with Alejandro Jodorowsky in 1990. He later recalled that the film project had to begin with the writing of an ending that would bring suitable closure to major characters, storylines, and themes without being extraordinarily lengthy, so that he could know in reverse order which manga elements would make the cut into the anime and thus suitably resolve the manga's various elements into a lean, two-hour story.

Otomo is a big fan of Tetsujin 28-go. As a result, his naming conventions match the characters featured in Tetsujin 28-go: Kaneda shares his name with the protagonist of Tetsujin 28-go; Colonel Shikishima shares his name with Professor Shikishima of Tetsujin 28-go, while Tetsuo is named after Shikishima's son Tetsuo Shikishima; Akira's Ryūsaku is named after Ryūsaku Murasame. In addition, Takashi has a "26" tattooed on his hand which closely resembles the font used in Tetsujin 28-go. The namesake of the series, Akira, is the 28th in a line of psychics that the government has developed, the same number as Tetsujin-28.

The sound of Kaneda's bike engine was produced by compositing the engine sound of a 1929 Harley-Davidson motorcycle with a jet engine.

Distribució[modifica]

Cinema[modifica]

L'estrena d'Akira, a càrrec de Toho, va tenir lloc el 16 de juliol del 1988. La distribuidora nord-americana Streamline Pictures, acabada de fundar, ràpidament va adquirir els drets d'una versió en anglès que havia doblat la mateixa Kōdansha,[11] la pel·lícula es va poder veure en uns quants cinemes nord-americans des de finals del 1988 i durant tot el 1889. Streamline va aconseguir els drets de distribució quan tant en George Lucas com n'Steven Spielberg la van titllar d'invendible als Estats Units.[12] Al Regne Unit, l'Institute of Contemporary Arts va ser la distribuidora d'Akira, que es va estrenar el 25 de gener del 1991 i reestrenar el 13 de juliol del 2013. A Austràlia la distribució va anar a càrrec d'Island World Communications i Satellite Entertainment, posteriorment va passar a Manga Entertainment i a Madman Entertainment, quan la filial australiana de Manga Entertainment es va fusionar amb Madman. Al Canadà la versió de Streamline, la va distribuir el 1990 Lionsgate (en aquella època anomenada C/FP Distribution). El 2001 la Pioneer va reestrenar la pel·lícula en uns quants cinemes amb un nou doblatge en anglès produït per Animaze, la pel·lícula es va poder veure de març a desembre d'aquell any.

Akira es va estrenar a Catalunya el 1991 durant la 24a edició del Festival Internacional de Cinema Fantàstic de Sitges (avui Festival Internacional de Cinema Fantàstic de Catalunya),[13][14] i arreu d'Espanya el 10 de juliol del 1992.[15]

Home media[modifica]

VHS releases included the initial Streamline Video offering (May 1991), later wider distribution by MGM/UA Home Video, and a subtitled edition from Orion Home Video (September 1993). In the UK, Akira was released on video by Island World Communications in 1991. The success of this release led to the creation of Manga Entertainment, who later took over the release. The original VHS release of Akira started up Manga Entertainment Australia and VHS distribution was handled by Ronin Films and Polygram until 1994 when Siren Entertainment took over all of Manga Entertainment Australia's distribution including Akira under a special license from Polygram, who handled Island's video distribution. Akira was re-released on video in 1994, and again on DVD in 2001 and distributed by Madman Entertainment and The AV Channel. The Criterion Collection released a laserdisc edition in 1993. Pioneer Entertainment issued a DVD and a VHS with a new English dub (the dub produced by Animaze) in 2001. This was one of the few releases from Geneon to feature THX-certified audio and video. In 2002, Manga released a two-disc DVD featuring the new Pioneer/Animaze English dub followed in 2004 by another two-disc set containing the original Japanese as well as both the Streamline and Pioneer/Animaze dubs. This version did not contain standard English subtitles, only closed captioning subtitles. In 2005, Manga Entertainment and Boulevard UMD released Akira on UMD for the Sony PSP in the United Kingdom using the original Streamline dub.

El 24 de febrer del 2009 Bandai Entertainment va posar a la venda una edició en Blu-ray a Amèrica del Nord sota el segell Honneamise.[16][17] A Blu-ray edition of Akira was subsequently released in Australia by Madman Entertainment under exclusive license from Manga Entertainment UK and Kodansha.[18] Madman has recently released a DVD/Blu-ray combo which license is separate from the standalone Blu-ray release because instead of the DVD version being the Manga Video UK version, it uses Madman/Manga's 2001 Special Edition DVD release which is licensed from Manga UK. The Blu-ray release is the very first to use the highest sampling rate currently possible (Japanese Dolby TrueHD 192 kHz because of its analog roots) and is also the first to use the hypersonic effect (only available in this track and via a high-end audio system). As well as Japanese with English subtitles, the Blu-ray also features the 2001 Pioneer/Animaze English dub. The DVD version of Akira has been re-released in 2012 by Bandai Entertainment. The film was licensed again by Funimation Entertainment following Bandai Entertainment's closure shortly after its DVD release.[19] The Funimation release includes both the Streamline and Pioneer dubs.[20] Funimation released the 25th anniversary Blu-ray/DVD combo and separate DVD release on November 12, 2013.[21]

Televisió[modifica]

The film aired on Adult Swim's Toonami on December 7, 2013, with a rating of TV-MA-LV.[22] The Streamline dub version premiered on The Sci-Fi Channel in the mid-90s during their week long anime events and Saturday Anime block. It has aired numerous times on Australian FTA station SBS.[23]

Recepció i llegat[modifica]

Roger Ebert selected Akira as his "Video Pick of the Week" in 1989 on Siskel & Ebert and the Movies. For its wider 2001 release, he gave the film "Thumbs Up." As of September 2013, the film has an 87% "fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes. The title has been regarded as one of the greatest animated movies of all time and prompted an increase in popularity of anime movies in the US and, generally, outside of Japan. It is still admired for its exceptional visuals. In Channel 4's 2005 poll of the 100 greatest cartoons of all time featuring both cartoon shows and cartoon movies, Akira came in at number 16.[24] On Empire magazine's list of the 500 greatest movies of all time, Akira is number 440.[25] It showed again on Empire's list of The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema, coming in at #51.[26] IGN also named it 14th on its list of Top 25 Animated Movies of All-Time.

Akira is regarded by many critics as a landmark anime film, one that influenced much of the art in the anime world that followed its release with many illustrators in the manga industry citing the film as an important influence.[27] The film led the way for the growth of popularity of anime outside of Japan. Akira is considered a forerunner of the second wave of anime fandom that began in the early 1990s and has gained a massive cult following since then. Akira has also been cited as a major influence on live-action films ranging from The Matrix[28] to Chronicle.[29]

The Akira anime also made TIME magazine's list of top 5 anime DVDs.[30] The film also made number 16 on Time Out's top 50 animated movie list[31] and number 5 on Total Film's Top 50 Animated Films list.[32] Wizard magazine also listed the film as #5 on their list of the greatest anime.

Anime News Network's Bamboo Dong commends the Limited Edition's DVD for its "superbly translated" English subtitles and the commendable English dubbing, which "sticks very close to the English translation, and the voice actors deliver their lines with emotion".[33] THEM Anime's Raphael See applauds the film's "astounding special effects and clean, crisp animation".[34] Chris Beveridge comments on the Japanese audio, which brings "the forward soundstage nicely into play when required. Dialogue is well placed, with several key moments of directionality used perfectly".[35] The New York Times' Janet Maslin commends Otomo's artwork, stating "the drawings of Neo-Tokyo by night are so intricately detailed that all the individual windows of huge skyscrapers appear distinct. And these night scenes glow with subtle, vibrant color".[36] The Washington Post's Richard Harrison comments on the pace of the film, stating that the author "has condensed the narrative sprawl of the comics to provide coherence, though there's a bit of "Back to the Future Part II" incompleteness to the story. That hardly matters, since the film moves with such kinetic energy that you'll be hanging on for dear life".[37] The Village Voice's Michael Atkinson criticizes the film's plot stating that it "amounts to little more than a descent into accelerating, reactive physical mayhem, caused by a government-project migraine packing the titanic toll of an H-bomb".[38] Variety commends the film's "imaginative and detailed design of tomorrow to the booming Dolby effects on the soundtrack" but criticizes the "slight stiffness in the drawing of human movement".[39] Los Angeles Times' Charles Solomon criticizes the film as "a jumble of high-tech visuals that will appeal only to hard-core Japanese animation fans. Viewers in search of a coherent narrative or polished animation should look elsewhere".[40] Empire's Kim Newman commends the film's scintillating animated visuals, with not one - not one - computer-assisted shot in sight".[41] The Guardian's Phelim O'Neill draws a parallel on Akira' influence on the science-fiction genre to Blade Runner and Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey.[42] Chicago Tribune's Dave Kehr commends Otomo's excellent animation-specific ideas: Vehicles leave little color trails as they roar through the night, and there are a number of dream sequences that make nice use of the medium's ability to confound scale and distort perspective".[43]

Banda sonora[modifica]

Infotaula d'àlbumAkira: Original Soundtrack
Banda sonora de Geinō Yamashirogumi (芸能山城組)
Publicat 1990
Gravat 1988
Gènere Anime, cinema, gamelan, noh
Duració 69:36
Llengua japonès
Discogràfica Victor Music Industries, Demon Records/JVC Records
Productor Shoji Yamashiro
País Japó
Modifica dades a Wikidata

AKIRA: Original Soundtrack (Akira: Banda Sonora Original) was recorded by Geinō Yamashirogumi (芸能山城組). The music was composed and conducted by musical director Shoji Yamashiro. It features music which was additionally rerecorded for release. "Kaneda", "Battle Against Clown" and "Exodus From the Underground Fortress" are really part of the same song cycle – elements of "Battle" can be heard during the opening bike sequence, for example. The score is generally sequenced in the same order that the music occurs in the film. The North American version featured extensive production notes by David Keith Riddick and Robert Napton.

A second soundtrack was released featuring the original music without rerecording, but it was made into character study collages with sound effects and dialogue from the film; the recording was probably a direct transfer from the film.

Symphonic Suite AKIRA is the same version as AKIRA: Original Soundtrack, but without the voices and sound effects.

Symphonic Suite AKIRA LP track listing

  1. "Kaneda"
  2. "Tetsuo"
  3. "Ohjifuchi"
  4. "Exodus From the Underground Fortress"
  5. "Requiem"

Symphonic Suite AKIRA & AKIRA: Original Soundtrack CD track listing

  1. "Kaneda" – 3:10
  2. "Battle Against Clown" – 3:36
  3. "Winds Over Neo-Tokyo" – 2:48
  4. "Tetsuo" – 10:18
  5. "Doll's Polyphony" – 2:55
  6. "Shohmyoh" – 10:10
  7. "Mutation" – 4:50
  8. "Exodus From the Underground Fortress" – 3:18
  9. "Illusion" – 13:56
  10. "Requiem" – 14:20

AKIRA: The Original Japanese Soundtrack track listing

  1. "Kaneda" – 9:56
  2. "Tetsuo 1" – 12:36
  3. "Tetsuo 2" – 12:33
  4. "Akira" – 7:56

Videojocs[modifica]

El 1988 la Taito va llançar Akira, un videojoc d'aventures per a la NES (Famicom al Japó) que només es va vendre al país nipó.[44] Es va iniciar la producció d'un altre joc d'Akira per a la Super Nintendo, la Mega Drive i la Sega Mega-CD, però es va cancel·lar junt amb el projecte d'un altre joc pensat per a les consoles portàtils Game Boy i Game Gear.[45] L'empresa britànica International Computer Entertainment va produir un videojoc basat en Akira per a l'Amiga i l'Amiga CD32 el 1994.[46] Per a aprofitar el llançament en DVD de la pel·lícula, el 2002 la Bandai va editar Akira Psycho Ball, un simulador de pinball (joc del milió) per a la PlayStation 2.[47]

Pel·lícula d'imatge real[modifica]

El 2002 es va estendre la notícia que la Warner Bros. havia adquirit els drets per a produir una versió en imatge real d'Akira.[48]

Des d'aleshores els noms d'una colla de directors, guionistes i productors s'han relacionat amb aquest projecte, la llista començà amb Stephen Norrington (guionista/director) i Jon Peters (productor).[48][49] El 2008, l'Anime News Network va anunciar el nou equip, en Ruairí Robinson n'havia de ser el director, en Gary Whitta el guionista i n'Andrew Lazar, en Leonardo DiCaprio i la Jennifer Davisson en serien els productors.[50] A finals del 2009, en Whitta va anunciar que ja no estava implicat en la producció,[51] i es deia que en Mark Fergus i en Hawk Ostby eren els nous encarregats del guió.[52] El febrer del 2010, Deadline.com va publicar que la Warner havia començat a negociar la direcció de la pel·lícula amb els germans Allen i Albert Hughes.[53] El 17 de juny del mateix any, el productor Lazar va dir que havien contractat un nou guionista i que la producció de la pel·lícula agafava empenta.[54] També va declarar que n'Albert Hughes en seria l'únic director i que Akira es dividiria en dues pel·lícules, la primera correspondria als tres primers volums i la segona als tres darrers.[54] L'abril del 2011, en Chris Weston va declarar que li havien encarregat el disseny conceptual i que també treballava en els storyboards de la nova adaptació cinematogràfica, però que encara no se n'havia aprovat la producció.[55][56] Un mes més tard, el 26 de maig, s'anunciava que el director, Albert Hughes, havia abandonat el projecte per diferències creatives.[57] El 14 de juliol s'anunciava l'elecció del director català Jaume Collet-Serra com a substitut de Hughes.[58]

Una altra font d'especulació ha estat el repartiment. El 2009 hi havia rumors sobre la participació dels actors Leonardo DiCaprio i Joseph Gordon-Levitt.[51][59] Durant el novembre del 2010, es va anunciar que es negociava amb Zac Efron per al paper principal,[60] i Morgan Freeman havia de ser l'actor designat per a fer de Coronel Shikishima.[61]

El febrer del 2011, es va anunciar que James Franco negociava fer de Kaneda.[62] Aquell mateix mes, Vulture va publicar que li havien ofert el paper de Kei a Mila Kunis, però que l'havia rebutjat per a fer de Bruixa Dolenta de l'Oest a la pel·lícula Oz the Great and Powerful.[63] Deadline va anunciar que Garrett Hedlund, Michael Fassbender, Justin Timberlake, Joaquin Phoenix i Chris Pine eren candidats a fer de Kaneda, mentre que Andrew Garfield i James McAvoy podien estar negociant el paper de Tetsuo el març del 2011.[64] Deadline also reported Steve Kloves was hired to rewrite the movie and Robert Pattinson was in talks for a role, but he has denied any involvement with the franchise.[64][65] On May 6, 2011 Keanu Reeves was reported to have been offered the role of Kaneda, but 11 days later on 17 May, he was reported as having turned it down.[66][67]

George Takei spoke with The Advocate in April 2011 about the casting rumors at that time, stating that any decision to cast white actors in Akira would offend both Asians and the fans of the original manga or animated film.[68]

On October 24, 2011, a new casting call for the live-action remake of Akira was posted on Actors Access, only a few days after Warner Bros. gave production approval once again after years of trying. For Tetsuo, the production team is looking for a male of "any ethnicity" who is 20–25 years old and "strung out, intense, a street rat." For Kei, the casting call was looking for a female between 20–30 years old, also of "any ethnicity", who is "tough, sexy, strong willed, and street savvy." According to Variety, Garrett Hedlund is the frontrunner for the other lead role of Shotaro Kaneda.[69]

As of November 3, 2011, Garrett Hedlund was in talks to portray Kaneda, Helena Bonham Carter has been offered the role of Lady Miyako, Keira Knightley has been approached for a role and Gary Oldman was cast as the Colonel, although Ken Watanabe has instead been offered the part.[70][71][72][73] Actors Alden Ehrenreich, Michael Pitt, Paul Dano, D.J. Cotrona, Logan Marshall-Green, Toby Kebbell, Richard Madden, Rami Malek and Dane DeHaan are the frontrunners to portray Tetsuo. Ezra Miller was a frontrunner for the part of Tetsuo but denied about audition for the film.[74][75][76][77] Kristen Stewart was offered to play the female role of Kei but was never publicly secured or confirmed.[78]

As of January 6, 2012, production has been "shut down" for the fourth time.[79]

On May 28, 2013, Whitta's script of the film shows that Manhattan is owned by the Japanese.[80] On August 1, 2013, Collet-Serra has spoken that he's in talks again to make the film when he finishes with his next movies, Non Stop and Run All Night, hoping that Akira will start filming in 2014, but it is unclear if Hedlund is still attached to star.[81]

Crítiques abans del rodatge[modifica]

Existeix certa polèmica entre aficionats i especialistes entorn de les decisions que s'han pres i s'estan prenent en el plantejament de la pel·lícula, entre elles el fet que l'acció tingui lloc a Neo-Manhattan en lloc de Neo-Tòquio, que els protagonistes siguin nord-americans (o anglesos) i sobre els diversos canvis més de la trama.[82][83][84][85][86]

Referències i notes[modifica]

  1. «5 Things You Didn’t Know: Akira». AskMen. [Consulta: 14 gener 2014].
  2. Anomenen espers a aquests individus amb poders paranormals, amb aspecte de nens amb progèria.
  3. Akira. Fitxa de doblatge.
  4. Altres veus: Carme Canet i Elisabet Bargalló.
  5. «Ficció en Valencià: Akira (1988)». [Consulta: 28 abril 2016].
  6. Altres veus: Mayte Mira, Carlos Cárdenas i Boris Sanz.
  7. Plantilla:Cita AV media
  8. 8,0 8,1 Production insights, Akira #3 (Epic Comics, 1988).
  9. Interview with Akira creator Katsuhiro Otomo (3/4)
  10. 10,0 10,1 10,2 Hughes, David. Comic Book Movies. Virgin Books, 2003, p. 27. ISBN 0-7535-0767-6. 
  11. Entrevistes als cofundadors de la Streamline Pictures Carl Macek i Jerry Beck publicades per la revista canadenca Protoculture Addicts núm. 9 (novembre del 1990), and company spotlight in Protoculture Addicts núm. 18 (juliol del 1992).
  12. "Otomo Takes Manhattan", Marvel Age núm. 100 (Marvel Comics, maig del 1991).
  13. 24ed. Festival Internacional de Cinema Fantàstic de Sitges (4/10 - 12/10) (pàgina oficial)
  14. El mundo al borde del mundo. Diario de Sevilla. Publicat el 24 de gener del 2014. (castellà)
  15. Estrenes. IMDB. (anglès)
  16. Akira on Blu-ray."Bandai Announces Akira Blu-ray". Retrieved on 14-10-2008.
  17. «Akira comes on Blu-ray this Summer – I4U News». I4u.com, 23-03-2007. [Consulta: 13 març 2009].
  18. Madman Entertainment release of Akira on Blu-Ray. Madman.com.au. Retrieved on 19-11-2009.
  19. «Funi Adds Seikishi, Yamato: R, One Piece: Strong World, Fairy Tail Film, Akira». Anime News Network. [Consulta: 28 juliol 2012].
  20. «Akira 25th Anniversary Edition Includes Streamline, Pioneer Dubs». Anime News Network. [Consulta: 6 agost 2013].
  21. «Akira DVD/Blu-ray 25th Anniversary Edition (Hyb)». Anime News Network. [Consulta: 4 setembre 2013].
  22. «Toonami to Show Akira, Summer Wars, 1st FMA Film, Trigun Film». Anime News Network, 16-11-2013. [Consulta: 16 novembre 2013].
  23. http://www.sbs.com.au/films/movie/10577/akira
  24. «Channel4 – 1q00 Greatest Cartoons». Channel4.com. [Consulta: 27 juny 2009].
  25. «Empire: Features». Empireonline.com. [Consulta: 13 març 2009].
  26. «The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema».
  27. «Akira – Movie Reviews, Trailers, Pictures – Rotten Tomatoes». Uk.rottentomatoes.com. [Consulta: 13 març 2009].
  28. «200 Things That Rocked Our World: Bullet Time». Empire. EMAP, 200, February 2006, pàg. 136.
  29. Woerner, Meredith. «Chronicle captures every teen’s fantasy of fighting back, say film’s creators». io9, 02-02-2012. [Consulta: 25 maig 2012].
  30. Sunday, July 31, 2005 «5 Top Anime Movies on DVD». TIME, 31-07-2005 [Consulta: 16 març 2011].(subscripció necessària)
  31. «Time Out's 50 Greatest Animated Films – Part 4 - Time Out Film - Time Out London». Timeout.com. [Consulta: 16 març 2011].
  32. 50 Greatest Animated Movies
  33. Dong, Bamboo. «Akira Limited Edition Metal DVD Case». Anime News Network. [Consulta: 22 novembre 2013].
  34. See, Raphael. «Akira». THEM Anime. [Consulta: 22 novembre 2013].
  35. Beveridge, Chris. «Akira: Special Edition (& Limited Edition)». Mania.com, 17-04-2002. [Consulta: 22 novembre 2013].
  36. Maslin, Janet. «Akira (1988) Review/Film; A Tokyo of the Future In Vibrant Animation». The New York Times, 19-10-1990. [Consulta: 22 novembre 2013].
  37. Harrison, Richard. «'Akira' (NR)». The Washington Post, 25-12-1989. [Consulta: 22 novembre 2013].
  38. Atkinson, Michael. «The Art of the Ridiculous Sublime». The Village Voice, 27-03-2011. [Consulta: 22 novembre 2013].
  39. «Review: ‘Akira’». Variety, 31-12-1987. [Consulta: 22 novembre 2013].
  40. Solomon, Charles. «MOVIE REVIEW: 'Akira': High-Tech Hokum From Japan». Los Angeles Times, 14-03-1990. [Consulta: 22 novembre 2013].
  41. Newman, Kim. «Akira». Empire, 18-03-2002. [Consulta: 22 novembre 2013].
  42. O'Neill, Phelim. «Akira – review». The Guardian, 24-06-2011. [Consulta: 22 novembre 2013].
  43. Kehr, Dave. «Japanese Cartoon Akira Isn`t One For The Kids». Chicago Tribune, 30-03-1990. [Consulta: 22 novembre 2013].
  44. Review of the NES/Famicom game by Mobygames.com
  45. Szczepaniak, John. «Jim Gregory interview - AKIRA - SNES». Hardcore Gaming 101, 22-12-2012. [Consulta: 27 agost 2013].
  46. Review of the AmigaCD game by Mobygames.com
  47. Review of the Akira pinball simulator by Tothegame.com
  48. 48,0 48,1 Linder, Brian et al. movies.ign.com Akira (Live Action)], IGN, 12 d'abril del 2002.
  49. «WB giving life to anime ‘Akira’». Variety.com. [Consulta: 28 gener 2014].
  50. «Warner, Leonardo DiCaprio to Produce Live-Action Akira».
  51. 51,0 51,1 «Gary Whitta Provides Akira Update».
  52. Steve 'Frosty' Weintraub. «Exclusive AKIRA Movie Update».
  53. Fleming, Mike. «Hughes Bros Move From 'Book Of Eli' To 'Akira'».
  54. 54,0 54,1 Steve 'Frosty' Weintraub. «Exclusive: Producer Andrew Lazar Video Interview JONAH HEX; Plus Updates on AKIRA, ONE FINGER SALUTE, GET SMART 2, More».
  55. www.digitalspy.com Chris Weston at Kapow! Comic Con By Hugh Armitage, retrieved 5/3/2011
  56. Así podría haber sido la nueva 'Akira'. Cinemanía. 14-9-2012 (castellà)
  57. Goldberg, Matt. «Director Albert Hughes Leaves AKIRA». Collider.
  58. Hollywood Reporter Jaume Collet-Serra Tapped to Direct 'Akira' for Warner Bros. De Jay A. Fernandez.
  59. Steve 'Frosty' Weintraub. «Exclusive AKIRA Movie Update».
  60. www.slashfilm.com "Rumor: Zac Efron in Albert Hughes' Akira?" by Peter Sciretta, retrieved 5/3/2011
  61. «Another Akira Casting Rumor Emerges From the Frozen Locker».
  62. www.slashfilm.com Is James Franco Going to Play Kaneda in ‘Akira’? Rereport from Spanish site www.ecartelera.com Retrieved 5/3/2011
  63. Hester, Patrick. «Mila Kunis Casts Spell On 'Oz The Great And Powerful,' James Franco Officially On Board?». MTV.
  64. 64,0 64,1 Mike Fleming. «'Akira' Focuses On Short List Of Actors After Getting Steve Kloves Rewrite». Deadline.
  65. moviesblog.mtv.com Robert Pattinson Expresses Interest In 'Akira' But Denies Casting by Aly Semigran, retrieved 5/3/2011
  66. «Keanu Reeves might take Akira Role». TG Faily.
  67. Schaefer, Sandy. «Keanu Reeves Passes On ‘Akira’; Project Still Moving Forward». Screenrant.
  68. Ross von Metzke. «Takei to WB: Do the Right Thing». The Advocate.
  69. «The live-action Akira has a new casting call for lead characters». Asia Pacific Arts, 27-10-2011.
  70. Todd Brown. «Garrett Hedlund Formally Offered Lead In AKIRA». Twitchfilm.
  71. Mike Fleming. «Gary Oldman Coveted By Warner Bros For ‘Akira’ And ‘Arthur & Lancelot’». Deadline.
  72. Borys Kit «Garrett Hedlund in Negotiations to Star in Akira for Warner Bros.». The Hollywood Reporter, 03-11-2011.
  73. Borys Kit. «BREAKING: No Oldman For AKIRA, WB Offering The Colonel To Ken Watanabe». The Hollywood Reporter.
  74. Borys Kit «Casting Couch: Who's Testing for Directors Roland Emmerich, Akiva Goldsman and 'Die Hard 5' (Exclusive)». The Hollywood Reporter, 04-11-2011.
  75. Chris Jancelewicz. «Ezra Miller: 'Akira' Remake Not 'Next Move' [Exclusive]». MovieFone.
  76. Borys Kit «Casting Couch: Hot Actors Testing for Key 'Akira' Role». The Hollywood Reporter, 18-11-2011.
  77. Mike Fleming. «‘Akira’ Not Dead Yet, Despite Vancouver Office Closing And Test Option Expirations With Lead Actors». Deadline.
  78. The Deadline Team. «Kristen Stewart In Talks For Role Of Kei In Jaume Collet-Serra’s ‘Akira’». Deadline.
  79. Kit, Borys «'Akira' Production Offices Shut Down As Warner Bros. Scrutinizes Budget (Exclusive)». The Hollywood Reporter, 05-01-2012.
  80. Screenwriter Gary Whitta Says His AKIRA Script Took Place in a Japanese-owned Manhattan
  81. Jaume Collet-Serra Returns to Direct ‘Akira’ (EXCLUSIVE)
  82. Akira? A caricature, more like. Ben Child. The Guardian. 20-10-2011. (anglès)
  83. Dig Up Your Best ‘Brokira’ Jokes, WB’s Live Action ‘Akira’ Movie Is Back On With Jaume Collet-Serra. Caleb Goellner. Comics alliance. 2-8-2013. (anglès)
  84. Akira, la adaptación que nunca fue. Álex Pruñonosa. Domingo de cine. 11-4-2013. (castellà)
  85. ¿Por qué Toby Kebbell desechó participar en 'Akira'?, el actor contesta. El séptimo arte. 28-3-2012 (castellà)
  86. Would-be Tetsuo actor Toby Kebbell explains where the live-action “Akira” movie went wrong. Rick Marshall. IFC. 26-3-2012. (anglès)

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