Athalia (Händel)

De Viquipèdia
Salta a la navegació Salta a la cerca
Infotaula de composicióAthalia
Forma musical oratori
Compositor Georg Friedrich Händel
Idioma anglès
Estrena
Estrena 10 juliol 1733
IMSLP: Athalia,_HWV_52_(Handel,_George_Frideric)
Modifica les dades a Wikidata

Athalia (HWV 52) és un oratori en anglès de Georg Friedrich Händel del 1733, el tercer que va compondre d'aquest tipus. En aquesta obra hi ha assoliments estructurals i retòrics per part de Händel que projecten un concepte dramàtic que pot ser únic dins la seva producció musical. Va ser un encàrrec per a la Publick Act a Oxford, una cerimònia durant la inauguració dels cursos als college locals, un dels quals havia ofert a Händel un doctorat honorari, que ell rebutjà.[1] La història es basa en la reina bíblica Atalia.

Context i estrena[modifica]

Oxford era llavors un centre del nacionalisme i sentiment jacobita i Athalia va ser composta enmig d'una controvèrsia sobre la defensa de Händel de l'òpera italiana. L'obra podria ser una reacció pragmàtica a aquesta situació: Händel apostava pel gust musical anglès escrivint un oratori, un gènere dins el qual havia tingut dos èxits amb anterioritat. Es va estrenar el 10 de juliol de 1733 en el Sheldonian Theatre a Oxford, i va ser dirigit pel propi Händel.[2] Va tenir molt bona acollida, en una posada escènica davant de 3700 persones.[3]

Anàlisi de l'obra[modifica]

Probablement, va triar Athalie de Jean Racine com la base del seu llibret perquè les al·lusions jacobites que conté. Atalia, tal com apareix a la Bíblia, va ser una tirana que usurpà el tron i que finalment és enderrocada per un príncep que pot accedir al tron que li correspon; un tema que permet una interpretació jacobita.[4]:53 Händel fa servir un plantejament retòric amb símbols a través dels quals incorpora moltes idees de Racine que no són presents en el llibret de Samuel Humphreys.

El pla tonal de l'oratori gira sobre associacions amb un significat retòric. El tractament musical de Händel es fa ressò de la divisió original de l'obra en cinc parts, la dualitat psicològica dels personatges i la seva polarització per parelles, amb una acceleració del ritme dramàtic cap al final de l'obra.[5]

La coherència retòrica i estructural d' Athalia té un efecte específic en les eleccions interpretatives. També revela una forma musical i un dramatisme que anticipa les òperes de Gluck i Mozart. També representa un particular exemple de la influència de l'estètica francesa en l'obra de Händel.

L'obra està escrita per a corda, 2 flautes dolces (o travesseres), 2 oboès, 2 fagots, 2 trompes, 2 trompetes, timbales i baix continu.[6] Athalia mostra una barreja de flexibilitat en l'estructura i originalitat, ja que Händel combina solos amb el cor d'una manera innovadora. La seva caracterització a través de la música va contribuir a un gran èxit en la seva estrena.[7]

Personatges[modifica]

  • Athalia, reina baalita de Judà i filla de Jezabel (soprano)
  • Josabeth, esposa de Joad (soprano)
  • Joas, rei de Judà (nen soprano)
  • Joad, Gran Sacerdot (contralt)
  • Mathan, sacerdot de Baal, anteriorment un sacerdot jueu (tenor)
  • Abner, capità de les forces jueves (baix)
  • Cor de joves verges
  • Cor de israelites
  • Cor de sacerdots i levites
  • Cor d'ajudants
  • Cor de sacerdots sidonis

Estructura[modifica]

Part Escena Tipus Veu Text (inici)
1 Simfonia
(Allegro, Grave, Allegro)
1 1 Ària Josabeth Blooming virgins, spotless train, tune to transport all your lays! ...
1 1 Cor Joves verges The rising world Jehovah crown'd with bright magnificence around! ...
1 1 Cor Israelites O mortals, if around us here so wond'rous all His works appear, ...
1 1 Ària Josabeth Tyrants would in impious throngs silence His adorers' songs:
but shall Salem's lyre and lute at their proud commands be mute?
1 1 Cor Israelites Tyrants! Tyrants! Ye in vain conspire! Wake the lute and strike the lyre!
1 1 Recitatiu Abner When He is in his wrath reveal'd, where will the haughty lie conceal'd?
1 1 Ària Abner When storms the proud to terrors doom, He forms the dark majestic scene,
He rolls the thunder through the gloom, and on the whirlwind rides serene.
1 1 Cor Israelites Oh Judah, boast his matchless law, pronounc'd with such tremendous awe! ...
1 2 Recitatiu Joad Your sacred songs awhile forbear, our festival demands your care;
and now no longer let your stay the due solemnities delay.
1 2 Accompagnato Joad O Judah, Judah! Chosen seed! To what distress art thou decreed! ...
1 2 Ària Joad O Lord, whom we adore, shall Judah rise no more? ...
1 2 Cor Israelites Hear from thy mercy seat the groans thy tribes repeat, the sighs they breathe to thee, the groans, the sighs!
1 3 Ària Athalia What scenes of horror round me rise! I shake, I faint with dire surprise!
Is sleep, that frees the wretch from woe, to Majesty alone a foe?
1 3 Recitatiu Athalia O Mathan, aid me to control the wild confusion of my soul!
1 3 Recitatiu Mathan Why shrinks that mighty soul with fear? What cares, what danger can be near?
1 3 Recitatiu Athalia Ev'n now, as I was sunk in deep repose, my mother's awful form before me rose; ...
1 3 Ària Athalia O Athalia, tremble at thy fate! For Judah's God pursues thee with his hate, ...
1 3 Cor Assistents i
sacerdots sidonis
The gods, who chosen blessings shed on majesty's anointed head, ...
1 3 Recitatiu Athalia Her form at this began to fade, and seem'd dissolving into shade. ...
1 3 Cor Assistents i
sacerdots sidonis
Cheer her, O Baal, with a soft serene, and in thy votary protect the queen!
1 3 Recitatiu Athalia Amidst these horrors, that my soul dismay'd, a youth I saw in shining robes array'd, ...
1 3 Recitatiu Mathan Great queen, be calm! These fears I deem the birth of a delusive dream. ...
1 3 Ària Mathan Gentle airs, melodious strains! Call for raptures out of woe,
lull the regal mourner's pains, sweetly soothe her as you flow.
1 3 Ària Athalia Softest sounds no more can ease me, heav'n a weight of woe decrees me, horrors all my hopes destroy. ...
1 3 Recitatiu Mathan Swift to the temple let us fly, to know what mansion hides this youthful foe.
1 3 Recitatiu Abner I'll haste the pontiff to prepare for this black storm of wild despair.
1 3 Cor Assistents The traitor if you there descry, oh let him by the altar die.
1 4 Recitatiu Joad My Josabeth! The grateful time appears to bid dejected Judah end her fears.
1 4 Recitatiu Josabeth Oh tell the people, as I oft have crav'd, how I from death the royal infant sav'd.
1 4 Recitatiu Abner Priest of the living God! With anxious heart proud Athalia's purpose I impart: ...
1 4 Recitatiu Josabeth Oh killing shock of unexpected pain! Oh innocence, my tender care in vain! ...
1 4 Ària Josabeth Faithful cares in vain extended, lovely hopes for ever ended, beamy dawn of joy farewell! ...
1 4 Recitatiu Abner O cease, fair princess, to indulge your woe; no mortal to your son can prove a foe.
1 4 Recitatiu Joad This grief, oh Josabeth, degrades your soul; can God no longer Judah's foe control? ...
1 4 Ària Joad Gloomy tyrants, we disdain all the terror you intend,
all your fury will be vain, and in low confusion end!
1 4 Cor Israelites Alleluja!
2 1 Cor Sacerdots, levites,
israelites i Joad
The mighty pow'r in whom we trust, is ever to His promise just;
He makes this sacred day appear, the pledge of a propitious year.
2 1 Ària Joad He bids the circling season shine, recalls the olive and the wine,
with blooming plenty loads the plain, and crowns the fields with golden grain.
2 1 Cor Sacerdots, levites,
i israelites
Give glory to His awful name, let ev'ry voice His praise proclaim!
2 1 Ària Josabeth Through the land so lovely blooming, nature all her charms assuming, wakes the soul to cheerful praise. ...
2 1 Recitatiu Abner Ah! Were this land from proud oppression freed, Judea would be bless'd indeed!
2 1 Recitatiu Joad Oh Abner, wer't thou certain that the sword had not destroy'd the race by thee deplor'd, ...
2 1 Ària Abner Ah, canst thou but prove me! To vengeance I spring. ...
2 1 Recitatiu Joad Thou dost the ardour that I wish display; revisit me before the close of day. ...
2 2 Recitatiu Athalia Confusion to my thoughts! My eyes have view'd my dreadful vision in the place renew'd!
Through all my veins the chilling horrors run. Say, Josabeth, is this fair youth thy son?
2 2 Josabeth Though much he merits my fond love, yet he is not indebted for his birth to me.
2 2 Recitatiu Athalia Who is thy father? Let his name be known!
2 2 Recitatiu Josabeth He has no father but kind heav'n alone.
2 2 Recitatiu Athalia Why so officious does thy zeal appear? I mean the answer from his lips to hear. How art thou call'd?
2 2 Recitatiu Joas Eliakim
2 2 Recitatiu Athalia Unfold thy father's name!
2 2 Recitatiu Joas In me, alas, behold an orphan, cast by providence, and ne'er as yet acquainted who his parents were.
2 2 Recitatiu Athalia Give me to understand whose tender cares sustain'd and rear'd thee in thy infant years?
2 2 Ària Joas Will God, whose mercies ever flow, expose his children's youth to woe? ...
2 2 Recitatiu Athalia 'Tis my intention, lovely youth, that you a scene more suited to your worth shall view: ...
2 2 Recitatiu Joas Shall I behold the God by whom I'm bless'd profan'd by you with rites that I detest?
2 2 Recitatiu Athalia Princess, in discipline you much excel; whate'er you dictate he remembers well. ...
2 2 Ària Athalia My vengeance awakes me, compassion forsakes me, all softness and mercy away!
My foes with confusion shall find their illusion and tremble before me today!
2 2 Duet Josabeth My spirits fail, I faint, I die!
2 2 Duet (continuació) Joas Ah, why?
2 2 Duet (continuació) Josabeth The grave shall hide my head!
2 2 Duet (continuació) Joas Is hope for ever fled?
2 2 Duet (continuació) Josabeth My grief's too great to bear, I faint, I die -
2 2 Duet (continuació) Joas Ah, why?
2 2 Duet (continuació) Josabeth I faint, I die!
2 2 Duet (continuació) Joas Is hope for ever fled?
2 2 Duet (continuació) Josabeth The grave shall hide my head!
2 2 Duet (continuació) Joas Kind heav'n will defend me -
2 2 Duet (continuació) Josabeth Thy ardours affect me -
2 2 Duet (continuació) Joas He sure will protect me: Is hope for ever fled? For ever fled?
Andante
2 2 Duet (continuació) Josabeth Whate'er this tyrant may decree, oh God, I place my trust in thee!
2 2 Ària Joas In Jehovah's awful sight, haughty tyrants are but dust.
Those, who glory in their might, place in vanity their trust.
2 3 Recitatiu Joad Dear Josabeth, I trembled whilst thy woe did in its first emotions wildly flow; ...
2 3 Duet Joad Cease thy anguish, smile once more, let thy tears no longer flow! ...
2 3 Duet (continuació) Josabeth All his mercies I review, gladly, with a grateful heart,
and I trust He will renew blessings he did once impart.
2 3 Duet (continuació) Joad and Josabeth Whate'er this tyrant may decree, returning joys we soon shall see.
2 3 Recitatiu Abner Joad, ere day has ended half his race, again expect me in this sacred place.
2 3 Cor Joves verges The clouded scene begins to clear, and joys in gentle trains appear.
2 3 Cor Sacerdots i levites When crimes aloud for vengeance call, the guilty will be doomed to fall.
2 3 Cor Israelites Rejoice, oh Judah, in thy God! The proud alone shall feel His rod,
whilst blessings with a mild decree, His mercy now prepares for thee.
3 1 Ària Joad What sacred horrors shake my breast! Ah! 'Tis the pow'r divine confess'd! ...
3 1 Cor Verges, sacerdots
i levites
Unfold, great seer, what heav'n imparts, and speak glad tidings to our hearts!
3 1 Accompagnato Joad Let harmony breathe soft around, and aid my raptures with the sound!
3 1 Ària Joad Jerusalem, thou shalt no more a tyrant's guilty reign deplore; ...
3 1 Cor Verges, sacerdots
i levites
Oh shining mercy!
3 1 Cor (continuació) Joad Heav'n itself will now relieve me!
3 1 Cor (continuació) Verges, sacerdots
i levites
Oh shining mercy!
3 1 Cor (continuació) Joad See, she falls..
3 1 Cor (continuació) Verges, sacerdots
i levites
Gracious pow'r..
3 1 Cor (continuació) Joad ..she bleeds..
3 1 Cor (continuació) Verges, sacerdots
i levites
..gracious pow'r..
3 1 Cor (continuació) Joad ..she dies!
3 1 Cor (continuació) Verges, sacerdots
i levites
..oh shining mercy, gracious pow'r, that aids us in the needful hour!
3 1 Recitatiu Joad Eliakim!
3 1 Recitatiu Joas My father!
3 1 Recitatiu Joad Let me know: Should heav'n on thee a diadem bestow,
what reign of Judah's kings wouldst thou that day choose for the model of thy future sway?
3 1 Recitatiu Joas Should God such glory for my lot ordain, like righteous David I would wish to reign.
3 1 Recitatiu Joad Oh, Joas! Oh, my king! Thus low to thee I pay the homage of my bended knee!
3 1 Recitatiu Joas Is this reality or kind deceit? Ah, can I see my father at my feet?
3 1 Recitatiu Josabeth Ye sacred bands, who serve the God of truth, Revere your sov'reign in that royal youth!
3 1 Cor Verges, sacerdots
i levites
With firm united hearts, we all will conquer in his cause, or fall.
3 2 Recitatiu Mathan Oh princess, I approach thee to declare how much thy welfare is my care.
3 2 Recitatiu Josabeth What means, proud Mathan, thy intrusion here? Has heav'n no vengeance for thy crimes to fear?
3 2 Recitatiu Mathan Fair Josabeth, though you insult me so, trust me, in Mathan you behold no foe!
3 2 Ària Josabeth Soothing tyrant, falsely smiling! Virtue's foes I ne'er shall fear; ...
3 3 Recitatiu Joad Apostate priest! How canst thou dare to violate this house of pray'r?
3 3 Recitatiu Mathan Joad, I scorn thy proud insulting mien; prepare to answer thy offended queen!
3 4 Recitatiu Athalia Oh bold seduce, art thou there? Where is the youth, inform me, where?
3 4 Recitatiu Joad Ye priests, the youth before her bring! Proud woman, there, behold our king!
3 4 Cor Joves verges, sacerdots
i levites
Around let acclamations ring: Hail, royal youth! Long live the king!
3 4 Ària Joad Reviving Judah shall no more detested images adore; ...
3 4 Cor Joves verges, sacerdots
i levites
Bless the true church, and save the king!
3 4 Recitatiu Athalia Oh, treason, treason! Impious scene! Abner, avenge thy injur'd queen!
3 4 Recitatiu Joad Great chief, behold thy royal Joas there, preserv'd by Josabeth's successful care!
Thy dauntless loyalty of soul I know; thou canst not be to David's race a foe.
3 4 Recitatiu Abner Does heav'n this blessing then at last accord? Oh royal Joas, oh my honour'd Lord!
3 4 Ària Abner Oppression, no longer I dread thee, thy terrors, proud queen, I despise!
They crimes to confusion have led thee, and Judah triumphant shall rise!
3 4 Recitatiu Athalia Where am I? Furies, wild despair! Where are my guards, my vassals, where?
Mathan, invoke thy God to shed his vengeance on each rebel's head!
3 4 Recitatiu Mathan He hears no more! Our hopes are past! The Hebrew's God prevails at last!
Alas, alas! My broken vow! His dreadful hand is on me now!
3 4 Ària Mathan Hark! Hark! Hark! His thunders round me roll, His angry awful frowns I see, ...
3 4 Recitatiu Joad Yes, proud apostate, thou shalt fall, they crimes aloud for vengeance call!
3 4 Recitatiu Athalia I see all hopes, all succours fail, and Judah's God will now prevail; ...
3 4 Ària Athalia To darkness eternal and horrors infernal undaunted I'll hasten away.
Oh tyrants, your treason shall in the due season weep blood for this barbarous day!
3 5 Recitatiu Joad Now, Josabeth, thy fears are o'er!
3 5 Recitatiu Josabeth Bless'd be His name whom we adore!
3 5 Duet Joad Joys, in gentle trains appearing, Heav'n does to my fair impart;
and, to make them more endearing, I shall share them with thy heart!
3 5 Duet (continuació) Josabeth Softest joys would be deceive me, hadst thou they happy part;
oh my dearest Lord, believe me, thou shalt share them with my heart.
3 5 Duet (continuació) Joad I shall share them with thy heart!
3 5 Duet (continuació) Josabeth Thou shalt share them with my heart!
3 5 Duet (continuació) Joad i Josabeth And to make them more endearing I shall/thou shalt share them with thy/my heart!
3 5 Recitatiu Abner Rejoice, oh Judah, this triumphant day! Let all the goodness of our God display;
whose mercies to the wond'ring world declare; His chosen people are His chosen care!
3 5 Cor Joves verges, sacerdots,
levites i israelites
Give the glory to His awful name, let ev'ry voice His praise proclaim!

Referències[modifica]

  1. Smither, Howard E. A History of the Oratorio: Vol. 2: The Oratorio in the Baroque Era: Protestant Germany and England. University of North Carolina Press, 1977. ISBN 9780807812945.  p. 204–205
  2. Smither, 1977, p. 204.
  3. Smither, 1977, p. 205.
  4. Rooke, Deborah W. Handel's Israelite Oratorio Libretti: Sacred Drama and Biblical Exegesis. Oxford University Press, USA, 2012. ISBN 978-0199279289. 
  5. Tellez, Carmen Helena, "Musical Form and Dramatic Concept in Handel's Athalia", Doctor of Music, Indiana University, 1989. Dissertation Number: DÓNA9135209(autor)
  6. Gerbrandt, Carl. Sacred Music Drama: The Producer's Guide Second Edition. AuthorHouse, 2006. ISBN 978-1425968472. 
  7. Lee, Jonathan Rhodes=. «Handel's Little-Known Third Oratorio: The Juicy, Murderous Athalia», 14-04-2009. [Consulta: 13 setembre 2013].

Enllaços externs[modifica]