Epinephelus itajara

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Infotaula d'ésser viuEpinephelus itajara modifica
Gordon - Goliath grouper.jpg
Estat de conservació
Status iucn3.1 VU-ca.svg
UICN195409 modifica
EspècieEpinephelus itajara modifica
Lichtenstein, 1822[1][2]
Sinònim taxonòmicEpinephalus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822)
  • Epinephelus itajarra (Lichtenstein, 1822)
  • Promicrops itaiara (Lichtenstein, 1822)
  • Serranus guasa (Poey, 1860)
  • Serranus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822)
  • Serranus quinquefasciatus (Bocourt, 1868)[3]

Epinephelus itajara és una espècie de peix de la família dels serrànids i de l'ordre dels perciformes[4] present a l'Atlàntic occidental (des de Florida -Estats Units- fins al sud del Brasil, incloent-hi el Golf de Mèxic i el Carib), l'Atlàntic oriental (des de Senegal fins a la República del Congo, rar a les Illes Canàries) i al Pacífic oriental (des del Golf de Califòrnia fins al Perú).[5] Els mascles poden assolir els 250 cm de longitud total.[5]


  1. Bloch M. E. 1793. Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische. Berlin. Naturg. Ausl. Fische v. 7. i-xiv + 1-144.
  2. BioLib
  3. «Epinephelus itajara». Catalogue of Life. (anglès) (anglès)
  4. The Taxonomicon (anglès)
  5. 5,0 5,1 FishBase (anglès)


  • Anguilera, O. i de Aguilera, D.R.. 2004. Goliath grouper (Pisces: Serranidae) from the Upper Miocene Urumaco Formation, Venezuela. Journal of Paleontology 78(6): 1202-1206.
  • Ault, J.S., Smith, S.G. i Bohnsack, J.A., 2005. Evaluation of average length as an estimator of exploitation status for the Florida coral-reef community. ICES Journal of Marine Science 62: 417-423.
  • Bohnsack, J.A., Harper, D.E. i McClellan, D.B., 1994. Fisheries trends from Monroe County, Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science 54: 982-1018.
  • Bullock, L.H. i Smith, G.B., 1991. Seabasses (peix|Pisces: Serranidae). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises, Vol. VIII, Part II. Florida Marine Research Institute, Department of Natural Resources, St. Petersburg, Florida. 243 pp.
  • Bullock, L.H., Murphy, M.D., Godcharles, M.F. i Mitchell, M.E., 1992. Age, growth and reproduction of jewfish Epinephelus itajara in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Fisheries Bulletin 90: 243-249.
  • Cervigón, F., 1983. La acuicultura en Venezuela: estado actual y perspectivas. Editorial Arte., Caracas, 121pp.
  • Coleman, F., Koenig, C. i Eklund, A., 2002. Report to The Curtis and Edith Munson Foundation on the Preliminary Studies Using Pop-up Archival Satellite Tags to Track Movements of Adult Goliath Grouper Epinephelus itajara Populations in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico.16pp.
  • Colin, P.L., 1994. Preliminary investigations of reproductive activity of the jewfish, Epinephelus itajara (Peix|Pisces: Serranidae). Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribean Fisheries Institute 43: 138-147.
  • Ferreira, B. i Maida, M., 1995. Projecto Mero: apresentacao e resultados preliminaries. Boletim Tecnico-Cientifico do CEPENE-Ibama 3(1): 201-210.
  • Floeter, S.R., Halpern, B.S. i Ferreira, C.E.L., 2006. Effects of fishing and protection on Brazilian reef fishes. Biological Conservation 128: 391-402.
  • Francesconi, J.J. i Schwartz, F.J., 2000. Jewfish, Epinephelus itajara, from North Carolina, with range correction and body comparisons. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 116(2): 167-170.
  • Gerber L.R., Heppell, S.S., Ballantyne, F. i Sala, E., 2005. The role of dispersal and demography in determining the efficacy of marine reserve. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62(4): 863-871.
  • Gilmore, R.G., Bullock, L.H. i Berry, F.H., 1978. Hypothermal mortality in marine fishes of south-central Florida, January 1977. Northeast Gulf Science 2(2): 77-97.
  • Gómez, A.E. i Zapata, L.A., 1999. An overview on the fishery and biology of the grouper and of the seabass (peix|Pisces: Serranidae) in the Colombian Pacific. Boletin Cientifico 6: 227-246.
  • Heemstra, P.C. i Randall, J.E., 1993, Groupers of the World (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. FAO Species Catalogue Vol. 16., FAO Fish. Synop. Núm. 125, 125:I-viii, 1-382.
  • Helfman, G., B. Collette i D. Facey: The diversity of fishes. Blackwell Science, Malden, Massachusetts, Estats Units, 1997.
  • Huntsman, G.R., Potts, J., Mays, R.W. i Vaughan, D., 1999. Groupers (Serranidae, Ephinephelinae): endangered apex predators of reef communities. A: J.A. Musick (ed.) Life in the Slow lane: Ecology and Conservation of Long-Lived Marine Animals, pp. 231-271. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.
  • Koenig, C.C., Coleman, F.C., Eklund, A.M., Schull, J. i Ueland, J. Mangrove as essential nursery habitat for goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara). Bulletin of Marine Science.
  • Koenig, C., Coleman, F. i Eklund, A., 1997. Report to The Curtis and Edith Munson Foundation on Studies of the jewfish (Epinephelus itajara) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. 28pp.
  • Lichtenstein, M. H. C. 1822. Die Werke von Marcgrave und Piso Über die Naturgeschichte Brasiliens, erläutert aus den wieder aufgefundenen Original-Abbildungen. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1820-21: 267-288.
  • Loftus, W.F. i Kushlan, J.A., 1987. Freshwater fishes of southern Florida. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 31(4): 147-344.
  • Moyle, P. i J. Cech.: Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology, 4a edició, Upper Saddle River, Nova Jersey, Estats Units: Prentice-Hall. Any 2000.
  • Musick, J.A., Harbin, M.M., Berkeley, S.A., Burgess, G.H., Eklund, A.M., Findley, L., Gilmore, R.G., Golden, J.T., Ha, D.S., Huntsman, G.R., McGovern, J.C., Parker, S.J., Poss, S.G., Sala, E., Schmidt T.W., Sedberry, G.R., Weeks, H. i Wright, S.G., 2000. Marine, estuarine, and diadromous fish stocks at risk of extinction in North America (Exclusive of Pacific Salmonids). Fisheries 25(11): 6-30.
  • Nelson, J.: Fishes of the World, 3a edició. Nova York, Estats Units: John Wiley and Sons. Any 1994.
  • Nelson, J.S., Crossman, E.J., Espinosa-Perez, H., Findley, L.T., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N. i Williams, J.D., 2001. Recommended change in the common name for a marine fish: goliath grouper to replace jewfish (Epinephelus itajara). Fisheries ? American Fisheries Society 26(5): 31-34.
  • Porch, C.E., Eklund, A.M. i Scott, G.P., 2003. An assessment of rebuilding times for goliath grouper. SEDAR Goliath Grouper Data Workshop Report, març del 2003, 11pp.
  • Sadovy, Y. i Eklund, A.-M., 1999. Synopsis of biological data on the Nassau grouper, Epinephelus striatus (Bloch, 1792) and the Jewfish, Epinephelus itijara (Lichtenstein, 1822). U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Technical Report NMFS 146, i FAO Fisheries Synopsis 157.
  • Sala, E., Aburto-Oropeza, O., Paredes, G. i Thompson, G., 2003. Spawning aggregations and reproductive behavior of reef fishes in the Gulf of California. Bulletin of Marine Science 72(1): 103-121.
  • Sluka, R., Chiappone, M., Sullivan, K.M. i Wright, R., 1996. Habitat and Life in the Exuma Cays, the Bahamas: The status of groupers and coral reefs in the northern cays. Media Publishing, Nassau, Bahames. 83 pp.
  • Sluka, R.D. i Sullivan, K.M., 1998. The influence of spear fishing on species composition and size of groupers on patch reefs in the upper Florida Keys. Fishery Bulletin 96(2): 388-392.
  • Smith, G.B., 1976. Ecology and distribution of eastern Gulf of Mexico reef fishes. Florida Marine Research Publications Núm. 19, 78pp.
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Enllaços externs[modifica]

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