Diferència entre revisions de la pàgina «Mamelucs de Delhi»

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== Llista de Soldanssoldans Mamlukmamelucs ==
* [[Qutb-ad-Din Àybak]] 1206-1210
 
* [[Aram-Xah]], 1210-1211
 
* [[Xams-ad-Din Iltutmix]], 1211-1236
 
* [[Rukn-ad-Din Firuz-Xah]] 1236
{| width=100% class="wikitable"
* [[Razia-ad-Din]] (reina) 1235-1240
! style="background-color:#F0DC88" width=7% | Titular Name
* [[Muïzz-ad-Din Bahram-Xah]] 1240-1242
! style="background-color:#F0DC88" width=7% | Personal Name
* [[Alà-ad-Din Massud-Xah]] 1242-1246
! style="background-color:#F0DC88" width=7% | Reign
* [[Nàssir-ad-Din Mahmud-Xah]] 1246-1266
! style="background-color:#F0DC88" width=27% | Notes
* [[Balban|Giyas-ad-Din Balban]] 1266-1287/1288
|-
* [[Muïzz-ad-Din Qaiqabad]] 1287/1288-1290
|align="center"|''Sultan''<br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
* [[Kayumarth|Xams-ad-Din Kayumarth]] 1290
|align="center"| [[Qutb-ud-din Aibak]]<br>{{Nastaliq|قطب الدین ایبک}}
|align="center"|1206 – 1210
|align="center"|''Temporarily quelled the rebellions of [[Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha]] of [[Multan]] and [[Tajuddin Yildoz]] of [[Ghazni]]. He made [[Lahore]] his capital and consolidated his control over North India through administrative hold over [[Delhi]]. He also initiated the construction of Delhi's earliest Muslim monuments, the [[Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque]] and the [[Qutub Minar]]. Died accidentally in 1210 while he was playing a game of [[polo]] in Lahore on horseback: his horse fell and he was impaled on the pommel of his saddle. He was buried near the [[Anarkali bazaar]] in [[Lahore]].''
|-
|align="center"|''Sultan''<br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
|align="center"| [[Aram Shah]]<br>{{Nastaliq|آرام شاہ}}
|align="center"|1210 – 1211
|align="center"|''The rise of ''Chihalgani'' (The Forty); an elite group of 40 nobles. They conspired against Aram Shah and invited Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, then Governor of [[Badaun]], to replace Aram. Iltutmish defeated Aram in the plain of Jud near Delhi in 1211. What became of Aram is not quite certain.''
|-
|align="center"|''Nasir Amir-ul-Mu'minin''<br>{{Nastaliq|ناصرامیر المؤمنین }}
|align="center"| [[Shams-ud-din Iltutmish]]<br>{{Nastaliq|شمس الدین التتمش}}
|align="center"|1211 – 1236
|align="center"|''He shifted Capital from [[Lahore]] to [[Delhi]]. He defeated [[Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha]] of [[Multan]] and [[Tajuddin Yildoz]] of [[Ghazni]], who had declared themselves contenders of Delhi. [[Mongol]]s invaded India in pursuit of [[Jalal-ud-din Mangabarni]] who was defeated at the [[Battle of Indus]] by [[Genghis Khan]] in 1221. After [[Genghis Khan]]'s death Iltutmish consolidated his hold on northern India by retaking many of the lost territories. He built the [[Hauz-i-Shamsi]] reservoir in [[Mehrauli]] in [[1230]]. In 1231, he built [[Sultan Ghari]], the first Islamic Mausoleum in [[Delhi]].''
|-
|align="center"|''Sultan''<br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
|align="center"| [[Rukn ud din Firuz|Rukn-ud-din Feroze]]<br>{{Nastaliq|رکن الدین فیروز}}
|align="center"|April 1236 – November 1236
|align="center"|''Ruled for just seven months. His mother [[Shah Turkan]] for all practical purposes was running the government. He abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery, to the considerable outrage of the citizenry. On [[November 9]], [[1236]], both Rukn-ud-din Feroze and his mother Shah Turkan were assassinated by the '''Chihalgani''' .''
|-
|align="center"|''Jalâlat-ud-dîn Raziyâ Sultana''<br>{{Nastaliq|جلالۃ الدین رضیہ سلطانہ }}
|align="center"| [[Razia Sultana|Razia al-Din]]<br>{{Nastaliq|رضیہ الدین }}
|align="center"|1236 – 1240
|align="center"|''First Female Muslim Ruler in India. Initially she managed to impress the nobles and she administratively handled the Sultanate well before associating with the African [[Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut]] provoking racial antagonism amongst the nobles and clergy, who were primarily Turkish and already resented the rule of a female monarch. She was defeated by the powerful nobleman [[Malik Altunia]] whom she agreed to marry. However, her brother [[Muiz ud din Bahram|Muiz-ud-din Bahram]] usurped the throne with the help of the ''Chihalgani'' and defeated the combined forces of the Sultana and her husband. Both fled and reached [[Kaithal]], where their remaining forces abandoned them. They both fell into the hands of [[Jat]]s and were robbed and killed on [[October 14]], [[1240]].''
|-
|align="center"|''Sultan''<br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
|align="center"| [[Muiz ud din Bahram|Muiz-ud-din Bahram]]<br>{{Nastaliq|معز الدین بہرام}}
|align="center"|1240 - May 15, 1242
|align="center"|''During his reign the '''Chihalgani''' became disorderly and constantly bickered among each other. It was during this period of unrest that the Mongols invaded the [[Punjab, India|Punjab]] & sacked [[Lahore]]. The sultan was too weak to take any step against them. The ''Chihalgani'' besieged him in the White Fort of [[Delhi]] and put him to death in 1242.''
|-
|align="center"|''Sultan''<br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
|align="center"| [[Ala ud din Masud|Ala-ud-din Masud]]<br>{{Nastaliq|علاءالدین مسعود}}
|align="center"|1242 - 1246
|align="center"|''He was more of a puppet for the '''Chihalgani''' (the forty chiefs) and did not actually have much power or influence in the government. Instead, he became infamous for his fondness of entertainment and wine. By [[1246]], the chiefs became upset with Sultan's increasing hunger for more power, and replaced him with [[Nasir ud din Mahmud|Nasir-ud-din Mahmud]], another son of [[Iltutmish]].''
|-
|align="center"|''Nasir-ud-din Feroze Shah''<br>{{Nastaliq|نصیر الدین فیروز شاہ}}
|align="center"| [[Nasir ud din Mahmud|Nasir-ud-din Mahmud]]<br>{{Nastaliq|نصیر الدین محمود }}
|align="center"|1246 – 1266
|align="center"|''As a ruler, Mahmud was known to be very religious, spending most of his time in prayer and renowned for aiding the poor and the distressed. However, it was actually his Deputy Sultan, [[Ghiyas ud din Balban|Ghiyath-ud-din Balban]], who primarily dealt with the state affairs. ''
|-
|align="center"|''Sultan''<br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
|align="center"| [[Ghiyas ud din Balban|Ghiyath-ud-din Balban]] <br>{{Nastaliq|غیاث الدین بلبن}}
|align="center"|1266 – 1286
|align="center"|''Balban ruled with an iron fist. He broke up the '''Chihalgani''' group of nobleman. He tried to establish peace and order in India. He built many outposts in areas where there had been disorder and garrisoned them with soldiers. Balban wanted to make sure everyone was loyal to the crown, so he established an efficient espionage system.''
|-
|align="center"|''Sultan''<br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
|align="center"| [[Muiz ud din Qaiqabad|Muiz-ud-din Muhammad Qaiqabad]]<br>{{Nastaliq|معز الدین قیق آباد}}
|align="center"|1286 – 1290
|align="center"|''Being still young at the time, he ignored all state affairs. After four years, he suffered from a paralytic stroke and was later on murdered in 1290 by a [[Khilji dynasty|Khilji]] chief. His three year old son, [[Kayumars_of_Delhi|Kayumars]] (1290), nominally succeeded him. But the Slave dynasty had ended with the rise of the [[Khilji dynasty|Khiljis]]
|}
 
{| width=100%class="wikitable"
! style="background-color:#F0Dc88" width=7%.3. Nom Titular
! style="background-color:#F0Dc88" width=7%.3. Antropònim
! style="background-color:#F0Dc88" width=7%.3. Regnat
! style="background-color:#F0Dc88" width=27%.3. Notes
|-
|align="center"|''Soldà'' <br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
|align="center"| [[Qutb-ad-Din Àybak|Qutb-ud-din Aibak]]<br>{{Nastaliq|قطب الدین ایبک}}
|align="center"|1206 ?? 1210
|align="center"|''Temporalment reprimit les rebel·lions de [[Nasir-ud-din Qabacha]] de [[Multan]] i [[Tajuddin Yildoz]] de [[Gazni|Ghazni]]. Feia la seva capital a [[Lahore]] i consolidava el seu control sobre Índia del Nord a través d'agafador administratiu sobre [[Delhi]]. També iniciava la construcció dels primers monuments musulmans de Delhi, la [[Mesquita de]] QUWWAT-UL-ISLAM i el [[Qutub Minar]]. Mort accidentalment el 1210 mentre estava jugant un joc de [[polo]] a Lahore a cavall: el seu cavall queia i s'empalava en ell el colpejar de la seva sella. Estava enterrat prop del [[Basar d'anarkali]] en [[Lahore]].''
|-
|align="center"|''Soldà'' <br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
|align="center"| [[Aram-Xah|Aram Shah]]<br>{{Nastaliq|آرام شاہ}}
|align="center"|1210 ?? 1211
|align="center"|''La pujada de'' Chihalgani''(Els Quaranta); un grup d'elit de 40 nobles. Conspiraven contra Aram Shah i convidaven Iltutmish Shams-ud-xivarri, llavors Governador de [[Badaun]], per reemplaçar Aram. Iltutmish derrotava Aram a la plana de Jud prop de Delhi el 1211. El que passava amb Aram no està bastant segur.''
|-
|align="center"|''Nasir Amir-ul-Mu'minin'' <br>{{Nastaliq|قطب الدین ایبک}}
|align="center"| [[Iltutmix|Shams-ud-din Iltutmish]]<br>{{Nastaliq|قطب الدین ایبک}}
|align="center"|1211 ?? 1236
|align="center"|''canviava Capital des de [[Lahore]] fins a [[Delhi]]. Derrotava [[Nasir-ud-din Qabacha]] de [[Multan]] i [[Tajuddin Yildoz]] de [[Gazni|Ghazni]], que s'havien declarat adversaris de Delhi. [[Mongols]] envaïa l'Índia en la recerca de [[Djalal al-Din Manguberti|Jalal-ud-din Mangabarni]] que era derrotat a la [[Batalla Of Indus]] per [[Genguis Khan|Genghis Khan]] el 1221. Després de la mort de [[Genguis Khan|Genghis Khan]] Iltutmish consolidava el seu agafador en Índia del nord reconquerint molts dels territoris perduts. Incorporava el pantà d'[[Hauz-i-shamsi]] en [[Mehrauli]] [[1230]]. El 1231, construïa [[Sultan Ghari]], el primer Mausoleu islàmic a [[Delhi]].''
|-
|align="center"|''Soldà'' <br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
|align="center"| [[Rukn-ad-Din Firuz-Xah|Rukn-ud-din Feroze]]<br>{{Nastaliq|قطب الدین ایبک}}
|align="center"|Abril de 1236 - novembre de 1236
|align="center"|''Governat durant només set mesos. La seva mare [[Shah Turkan]] per a tots els propòsits pràctics estava dirigint el govern. S'abandonava a la recerca de plaer personal i debauchery, a l'atrocitat considerable de la ciutadania. EL [[9 de novembre]] [[1236]], tant Feroze Rukn-ud-xivarri com la seva mare Shah Turkan s'assassinaven pel '''Chihalgani''' .''
|-
|align="center"|''Jalâlat-ud-dîn Raziyâ Sultana'' <br>{{Nastaliq|جلالۃ الدین رضیہ سلطانہ }}
|align="center"| [[Razia al-din]]<br>{{Nastaliq|قطب الدین ایبک}}
|align="center"|1236 ?? 1240
|align="center"|''Primer Governant Musulmà Femení a l'Índia. Inicialment aconseguia impressionar els nobles i administrativament manejava el Sultanate bé abans d'associar-se amb el [[Jamal-ud-din Yaqut]] africà que provoca antagonisme racial entre els nobles i clergat, que era principalment turc i ja molestava la regla d'un monarca femení. Era derrotada pel noble poderós [[Malik Altunia]] amb qui acceptava casar-se. Tanmateix, el seu germà [[Muïzz-ad-Din Bahram-Xah|Muiz-ud-din Bahram]] usurpava el tron amb l'ajuda del'' Chihalgani''i derrotava les forces combinades del Sultana i el seu marit. Els dos fugien i arribaven a [[Kaithal]], on els abandonaven les seves forces restants. Tant Queien a les mans de [[Jat|Jats]] com es robaven i mataven el [[14 d'octubre|14 D'octubre]], [[1240]].''
|-
|align="center"|''Soldà'' <br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
|align="center"| [[Muïzz-ad-Din Bahram-Xah|Muiz-ud-din Bahram]]<br>{{Nastaliq|قطب الدین ایبک}}
|align="center"|1240 - 15 de maig, 1242
|align="center"|''Durant el seu regnat el '''Chihalgani''' convertia disorderly i constantment discutit l'un entre l'altre. Era durant aquest període de malestar que el Mongols envaïa el [[Panjab (Índia)|Punjab]] & acomiadava [[Lahore]]. El soldà era massa dèbil per prendre qualsevol pas contra ells. El'' Chihalgani''assetjat ell al Fort Blanc de [[Delhi]] i llançament ell a mort el 1242.''
|-
|align="center"|''Soldà'' <br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
|align="center"| [[Alà-ad-Din Massud-Xah|Ala-ud-din Masud]]<br>{{Nastaliq|آرام شاہ}}
|align="center"|1242 - 1246
|align="center"|''era més d'un titella pel '''Chihalgani''' (els quaranta caps) i no tenia de fet gaire poder o influeix en el govern. En canvi, es tornava infame pel seu fondness de diversió i vi. Per [[1246]], els caps es tornaven preocupats amb la gana creixent de Soldà per més poder, i el canviaven per [[Nàssir-ad-Din Mahmud-Xah|Nasir-ud-din Mahmud]], un altre fill d'[[Iltutmix|Iltutmish]].''
|-
|align="center"|''Feroze Shah Nasir-ud-xivarri'' <br>{{Nastaliq|نصیر الدین فیروز شاہ}}
|align="center"| [[Nàssir-ad-Din Mahmud-Xah|Nasir-ud-din Mahmud]]<br>{{Nastaliq|نصیر الدین فیروز شاہ}}
|align="center"|1246 ?? 1266
|align="center"|''Com a governant, Mahmud se sabia que era molt religiós, gastant-ne molts del seu temps en l'oració i cèlebre per ajudar els pobres i l'afligit. Tanmateix, era de fet el seu Suplent Sultan, [[Balban|Ghiyath-ud-din Balban]], qui principalment tractava amb els afers estatals. ''
|-
|align="center"|''Soldà'' <br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
|align="center"| [[Balban|Ghiyath-ud-din Balban]] <br>{{Nastaliq|قطب الدین ایبک}}
|align="center"|1266 ?? 1286
|align="center"|''Balban governava amb un puny de ferro. Es dividia el '''Chihalgani''' grup de noble. Intentava establir pau i ordre a l'Índia. Construïa molts outposts en àrees on hi havia hagut desordre i els garrisoned amb soldats. Balban volia assegurar-se que tothom fos lleial a la corona, així establís un sistema d'espionatge eficient.''
|-
|align="center"|''Soldà'' <br>{{Nastaliq|سلطان}}
|align="center"| [[Muïzz-ad-Din Qaiqabad|Muiz-ud-din Muhammad Qaiqabad]]<br>{{Nastaliq|نصیر الدین فیروز شاہ}}
|align="center"|1286 ?? 1290
|align="center"|' ' Sent encara jove a l'època, ignorava tots els afers estatals. Després de quatre anys, patia d'un cop paralític i estava més més tard assassinat el 1290 per un cap de [[Khalji|Khilji]]. El seu fill vell de tres anys, [[Kayumars]] (1290), nominalment el succeïa. Però la dinastia Esclava havia acabat amb la pujada del [[Khalji|Khiljis]]
|}
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[[File:Ghurid Empire in India.jpg|300px|left|thumb|Ghurid Empire in India]]
 
 
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