Extorsió sexual

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"Special Agent Nickolas Savage discusses "sextortion" and the dangers kids face online."
A speech by Federal Bureau of Investigation Special Agent Nickolas Savage on "sextortion" (extorting sexual images) and other hazards that children using the internet may face

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L'extorsió sexual (també es fa servir en anglès, sextortion) és una forma d'explotació sexual que empra formes no físiques de coacció per aconseguir favors sexuals de la víctima. Fa referència a aquelles explotacions sexuals en què l'abús de poder o l'amenaça de la publicació d'informació o imatges sexuals són el mitjà de coacció.[1]

L'extorsió sexual també és una forma de corrupció en què una part amb poder (com ara oficials del Govern, jutges, professors, empresaris, etc.) busca favors sexuals a canvi de concedir o aturar quelcom sota la seva autoritat.[2][3][4][5][6][7] Aquests abusos de poder poden ser, per exemple: oficials del govern que demanen favors sexuals per obtenir llicències o permisos; professors que posen bones notes a canvi de sexe amb estudiants; o empresaris que proporcionen favors sexuals amb la condició d'obtenir una feina.[8][9][10][11][12]

L'extorsió sexual també és una forma de xantatge sexual en què s'utilitzen informacions o imatges sexuals per aconseguir favors sexuals de la víctima.[13] Normalment, les fonts del material sexual són les xarxes socials i els missatges de text, i qui coacciona amenaça de fer públics aquests materials sexuals. Aquest tipus d'extorsió sexual sovint es dóna amb amenaces de fer públiques imatges de la persona nua que havia compartir per internet fent sexting. Més tard, aquestes persones fins i tot poden ser coaccionades a realitzar actes sexuals amb la persona que extorsiona o a actuar dins àmbits pornogràfics.[14]

Història[modifica]

Els primers usos del terme anglès sextortion apareixen a Califòrnia durant els anys 50.[15]

L'any 2009, l'Associació Internacional de Jutges de Dones (IAWJ), juntament amb l'Associació de Dones Jutges de Bòsnia i Hercegovina, les Dones Filipines Jutja Associació, i les Dones de Tanzània Jutja Associació, i amb finançament del Govern dels països Baixos, es va llançar un programa de tres anys anomenat "Stopping the Abuse of Power through Sexual Exploitation: Naming, Shaming, and Ending Sextortion (Aturant l'Abús de poder a través de l'Explotació Sexual: Anomenar, Avergonyir i Aturar l'Extorsió Sexual)."[16] També es van fer presentacions sobre l'extorsió sexual pels jutges que el 2010 i el 2012 van assistir a les Conferències Mundials Biennals del IAWJ i a diverses ONG, i el 2011 i el 2012 a les reunions de la Comissió de l'ONU sobre l'Estat de les Dones.[3][17][18][19][20]

A Andorra es van trobar múltiples casos d'extorsió sexual utilitzant les xarxes socials d'Internet el 2015.[21]

Casos[modifica]

Els casos d'extorsió sexual han estat perseguits sota diversos estatuts criminals, incloent l'extorsió, el suborn, la ruptura de confiança, la corrupció, la coerció sexual, l'explotació sexual, l'agressió sexual, la pornografia infantil, i la pirateria informàtica i l'escolta telefònica.[22][23][24][25][26][27][23][28][14][24][24][29][30]

Referències[modifica]

  1. De la Cerna, Madrilena «Sextortion». Cebu Daily News, 15-04-2012.
  2. «How to curb sextortion, violence against women – Amaechi». Punch [Nigeria], 02-07-2012. «'Sextortion is the currency of corruption and eats the fabric of society and it is in all sectors of the society,' [Justice Binta Nyako] said.»
  3. 3,0 3,1 «CSW Wraps up Second Week of Work». School Sisters of Notre Dame, 09-03-2012. [Consulta: 5 octubre 2012].
  4. «11th Biennial World Conference of the IAWJ, London 2012, Keeping Safe – Keeping Well» (PDF). Provincial Judges’ Journal. The Canadian Association of Provincial Court Judges, 35, 1, Summer 2012, pàg. 58. «Sextortion is a form of sexual exploitation and corruption that occurs when people in positions of authority – whether government officials, judges, educators, law enforcement personnel, or employers – seek to extort sexual favours in exchange for something within their power to grant or withhold.»
  5. Mayol, Ador Vincent; Matus, Carmel Loise «Lady judges: 'End sextortion'». Cebu Daily News, 04-03-2011. «When a boss asks an employee to have sex with him in exchange for a job promotion, that's 'sextortion,' a female magistrate said yesterday. So is a teacher seeking sexual favors from a student seeking better grades.»
  6. Soyingbe, Anthonia «Sextortion: Checkmating this new alias for bribe in Nigeria». Daily Independent [Nigeria], 04-07-2012. «Sextortion ... is basically about an element of abuse of power by somebody entrusted with authority and somebody who is seeking either an advantage or justice from that person who holds the clout. And sadly, it is in all spheres of life – the judiciary, executive, legislator, media, police, army and indeed, every sector of the Nigerian life.»
  7. Jundu, Hon. Fakihi A.R. «ILO – Speech by Hon. Fakihi A. R. Jundu, Principal Judge». Judiciary.go.tz, 02-12-2010. «Another global plight ... is the one dubbed 'Sextortion' … [t]hese harassers insist on sexual favours in exchange for benefits they can dispense because of their positions in hierarchies including getting or keeping a job, favourable grades, recommendations, credentials, projects, promotion, orders, and other types of opportunities.»
  8. Ozler, Berk. «When it comes to female education, have we gotten it all backwards?». Blogs.worldbank.com, 16-02-2012. «Mary Hallward-Driemeier … quantifie[d] the stories we all heard working in Africa: running a small business as a woman is also treacherous business. Many say they had to exchange sex with a person of authority (person in charge of a permit, border police, etc.) or a supplier in order to be able to go about their business.»
  9. «2012 State of the Field in Youth Economic Opportunities – A Guide for Programming, Policymaking, and Partnership Building» (PDF) p. 84. Making Cents International, 2012. «'Sextortion,' researched by Mary Hallward Driemeier, Lead Economist for Financial and Private Sector Development at the World Bank Group, is where sexual favors are traded instead of money for routine business dealings.»
  10. Fatoorehchi, Cléo «Time to Drag Sextortion into the Light». Inter Press Service, 27-02-2011. «In their 2010 book 'Half the Sky', Pulitzer Prize-winners Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn write about a disturbing but not uncommon problem in Southern Africa – male teachers who trade good grades for sex with students. … There’s a word for this – 'sextortion'.»
  11. Kujenya, Joke «How randy judge killed five women, wife, by Justice Nyako». The Nation [Nigeria], 28-06-2012. «It is no longer a hidden complaint how students complain about lecturers demanding for sex for them to get good grades. So, if these instances are something that have been with us, then sextortion is also an age-long problem within our society ...»
  12. Raftree, Linda. «Barriers to girls' economic opportunities». The Ethnos Project, 13-09-2011. «'Sextortion' ... refers to the sexual harassment that girls and women often face when trying to get a job, e.g., 'I'll give you a job but you must provide sexual favors if you want it.'»
  13. «What Is Sextortion?». Child Refuge. «Sextortion is basically a type of extortion with a twist. Instead of extorting money or material goods from a victim, a sextortionist will extract sexual favors from the victim by using intimidation, fear, and blackmail.»
  14. 14,0 14,1 «Feds: Online 'sextortion' of teens on the rise». Associated Press, 24-08-2010. «A stranger said he had captured her image on the webcam and would post the pictures to her MySpace friends unless she posed for more explicit pictures and videos for him. On at least two occasions, the teen did what her blackmailer demanded. Finally, police and federal authorities became involved and indicted a 19-year-old Maryland man in June on charges of sexual exploitation. ... One federal affidavit includes a special term for the crime: sextortion.»
  15. «Sextortion Charges To Come Up Next Week». Los Angeles Times, 05-04-1950 [Consulta: 14 agost 2010].
  16. «Stopping the Abuse of Power through Sexual Exploitation: Naming, Shaming and Ending Sextortion – Toolkit» (PDF) p. 5. International Association of Women Judges, 2012.
  17. «10th Biennial International Conference: 'Judicial Challenges in a Changing World'». International Association of Women Judges.
  18. Gibb, Frances «Attacks and threats: why judges need support». The Times [London], 31-05-2012. «Judges discussed 'sextortion' a mix of sex and corruption where people in authority demand sexual favours for anything, Hale says, from immigration to prosecution decisions.»
  19. «International forum encourages judges to 'mind the gap'». The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, 31-05-2012.
  20. «Ending the Abuse of Power through Sexual Exploitation: Naming, Shaming, and Ending Sextortion. IAWJ Panel @UN CSW». Inter Press Service, 23-02-2011 [Consulta: 5 octubre 2012].
  21. «Alerten de més extorsió sexual a les xarxes». SEGRE, 09-08-2015 [Consulta: 9 agost 2015].
  22. Leibowitz, Barry «Hacker Sex-tortion: FBI Alleges Man Blackmailed Women into Making Sex Videos». Associated Press, 23-06-2010. «The U.S. attorney's office in Los Angeles says 31-year-old Luis Mijangos hacked into computers to obtain personal data to extort sexually explicit videos, in exchange for keeping his victims' information private.»
  23. 23,0 23,1 Hickerson, Patrick «Alabama predator sentenced to 18 years for Facebook extortion attempts: How he got access». The Birmingham News, 17-04-2009. «Vance … pleaded guilty in January to several charges including enticing or coercing someone into illegal sexual activity and violating the interstate communications law by extorting something of value and threatening to ruin someone's reputation.»
  24. 24,0 24,1 24,2 Seibel, Jacqui; Johnson, Mike «New Berlin student charged with blackmailing students into sex acts in Facebook deception». Journal Sentinel [Milwaukee], 04-02-2009. «A criminal complaint filed today charges Stancl with the bomb threats plus repeated sexual assault of same child (at least three violations of first or second degree sexual assault), possession of child pornography, second and third degree sexual assaults and five counts of child enticement.»
  25. Bernstein, Nina «Immigration Officer Guilty in Sexual Coercion Case». New York Times, 14-04-2010. «A federal immigration officer who was caught on tape demanding sex in exchange for a green card pleaded guilty to ... felony charges of receiving a bribe and receiving a reward for official misconduct, and to misdemeanor charges of sexual misconduct, coercion and official misconduct.»
  26. Kari, Shannon «Sex scandal gets immigration judge 18-month jail sentence». National Post [Toronto], 29-07-2010. «A former immigration adjudicator in Toronto who promised to approve the refugee claim of a South Korean woman in exchange for sex, has been sentenced to 18 months in jail. … Ellis, 50, was convicted this spring of breach of trust under the Criminal Code and of violating the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act.»
  27. «Stopping the Abuse of Power for Purposes of Sexual Exploitation: Naming, Shaming, and Ending Sextortion – a Toolkit» (PDF). Iawj.org p. 14. Tanzania Women Judges Association, 2011. «… Michael Ngilangwa … was charged under Section 25 of the Prevention of Corruption Act No. 11 of 2007 for demanding … sexual intercourse as a condition for favouring [the complainant] in English and Divinity examination results and other preferential treatment. He was convicted and sentenced to pay a fine of Tshs. 500,000/= or serve a term of imprisonment for one year.»
  28. Bernstein, Nina «Immigration Officer Sentenced in Sex-Coercion Case». New York Times, 23-07-2010.
  29. «FBI — Montgomery Man Accused of Online Sextortion Plot Jailed on Federal Child Pornography Charges». Fbi.gov.
  30. Risling, Greg «Luis Mijangos Sentenced To 6 Years For 'Sextortion'». Associated Press, 01-09-2011. «Mijangos … pleaded guilty to one count each of computer hacking and wiretapping in March ….»