Lethrinus harak

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Infotaula d'ésser viuLethrinus harak
Lethrinus harak.jpg
XRF-Lethrinus harak.png
Estat de conservació
Status iucn3.1 LC-ca.svg
Risc mínim
IUCN 16720022
Taxonomia
Super-regneEukaryota
RegneAnimalia
FílumChordata
ClasseActinopterygii
OrdrePerciformes
FamíliaLethrinidae
GènereLethrinus
EspècieLethrinus harak
(Forsskål, 1775)[1][2]
Nomenclatura
Sinònim taxonòmic
  • Lethrinus azureus (Valenciennes, 1830)
  • Lethrinus bleekeri (Klunzinger, 1884)
  • Lethrinus bonhamensis (Günther, 1874)
  • Lethrinus johnii (Castelnau, 1873)
  • Lethrinus papuensis (Alleyne & Macleay, 1877)
  • Lethrinus rhodopterus (Bleeker, 1852)
  • Sciaena harak (Forsskål, 1775)[3]
Modifica les dades a Wikidata

Lethrinus harak és una espècie de peix pertanyent a la família dels letrínids.[4]

Descripció[modifica]

  • Pot arribar a fer 50 cm de llargària màxima (normalment, en fa 30).
  • Boca lleugerament protràctil.
  • 10 espines i 9 radis tous a l'aleta dorsal i 3 espines i 8 radis tous a l'anal.
  • Llavis gruixuts i molsuts.
  • És de color verd oliva al dors, més pàl·lid al ventre.
  • Les aletes pectorals, pèlviques, dorsal i anal són entre blanques i rosades. L'aleta caudal és ataronjada o vermellosa.[5][6][7]

Alimentació[modifica]

Menja poliquets, crustacis, mol·luscs, equinoderms i peixets.[5][8]

Hàbitat[modifica]

És un peix marí i d'aigua salabrosa, associat als esculls[9] i de clima tropical (32°N-22°S) que viu fins als 20 m de fondària.[5][10]

Distribució geogràfica[modifica]

Es troba des del mar Roig i l'Àfrica Oriental[11][12][13][14][15] fins a Samoa,[16] el sud del Japó[17] i el nord-est d'Austràlia.[18][5][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49] [50][51][52][53]

Longevitat[modifica]

La seua esperança de vida és de 15 anys.[54]

Observacions[modifica]

És inofensiu per als humans i es comercialitza fresc, tot i que la seua carn es fa malbé ràpidament.[5][55]

Referències[modifica]

  1. Cuvier G., 1829. Le Règne Animal, distribué d'après son organisation, pour servir de base à l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction à l'anatomie comparée. Edition 2. Règne Animal (ed. 2) v. 2. i-xv + 1-406.
  2. Forsskål, P., 1775. Descriptiones animalium avium, amphibiorum, piscium, insectorum, vermium; quae in itinere orientali observavit... Post mortem auctoris edidit Carsten Niebuhr. Hauniae. Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis terras per annos 1772 1773 et 1774 suscepto, ...: 1-20 + i-xxxiv + 1-164, map.
  3. Catalogue of Life (anglès)
  4. The Taxonomicon (anglès)
  5. 5,0 5,1 5,2 5,3 5,4 FishBase (anglès)
  6. Sommer, C., W. Schneider i J.-M. Poutiers, 1996. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of Somalia. FAO, Roma. 376 p.
  7. Carpenter, K.E. i G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Species Synop. Núm. 125(9):118 p.
  8. Walker, M.H., 1978. Food and feeding habits of Lethrinus chrysostomus Richardson (Pisces: Perciformes) and other Lethrinids on the Great Barrier Reef. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 29(5):623-30.
  9. Hardy, J.D. Jr., 2003. Coral reef fish species. NOAA\National Oceanographic Data Center. NODC Coral Reef Data and Information Management System. Estats Units. 537 p.
  10. Lieske, E. i R. Myers, 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p.
  11. Sousa, M.I. i M. Dias, 1981. Catálogo de peixes de Moçambique - Zona Sul. Instituto de Desenvolvimento Pesqueiro, Maputo. 121 p.
  12. Gell, F.R. i M.W. Whittington, 2002. Diversity of fishes in seagrass beds in the Quirimba Archipelago, northern Mozambique. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 53:115-121.
  13. Garpe, K.C. i M.C. Öhman, 2003. Coral and fish distribution patterns in Mafia Island Marine Park, Tanzania: fish-habitat interactions. Hydrobiologia 498: 191-211.
  14. Fischer, W., I. Sousa, C. Silva, A. de Freitas, J.M. Poutiers, W. Schneider, T.C. Borges, J.P. Feral i A. Massinga, 1990. Fichas FAO de identificaçao de espécies para actividades de pesca. Guia de campo das espécies comerciais marinhas e de águas salobras de Moçambique. Publicaçao preparada em collaboraçao com o Instituto de Investigaçao Pesquiera de Moçambique, com financiamento do Projecto PNUD/FAO MOZ/86/030 e de NORAD. Roma, FAO. 1990. 424 p.
  15. Bianchi, G., 1985. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine and brackish-water species of Tanzania. Prepared and published with the support of TCP/URT/4406 and FAO (FIRM) Regular Programme. FAO, Roma. 199 p.
  16. Wass, R.C., 1984. An annotated checklist of the fishes of Samoa. Natl. Ocean. Atmos. Adminis. Tech. Rept., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., Spec. Sci. Rept. Fish. (781).
  17. Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno i T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tòquio, Japó. 437 p.
  18. Hoese, D.F., D.J. Bray, J.R. Paxton i G.R. Allen, 2006. Fishes. A Beasley, O.L. i A. Wells (eds.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volum 35. ABRS & CSIRO Publishing: Australia Part 1, pp. xxiv 1-670; Part 2, pp. xxi 671-1472; Part 3, pp. xxi 1473-2178.
  19. Allen, G.R. i M. Adrim, 2003. Coral reef fishes of Indonesia. Zool. Stud. 42(1):1-72.
  20. Allen, G.R. i P.L. Munday, 1994. Kimbe Bay rapid ecological assessment: the coral reefs of Kimbe Bay (West New Britain, Papua New Guinea), Volum 3: Fish diversity of Kimbe Bay. The Nature Conservancy, South Pacific program Office, Auckland, Nova Zelanda. 107 p.
  21. Allen, G.R. i W.F. Smith-Vaniz, 1994. Fishes of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Atoll Res. Bull. 412:21 p.
  22. Bouhlel, M., 1988. Poissons de Djibouti. Placerville (Califòrnia, els Estats Units): RDA International, Inc. 416 p.
  23. Chen, C.-H., 2004. Checklist of the fishes of Penghu. FRI Special Publication. Núm. 4. 175 p.
  24. Chen, J.-P., K.-T. Shao i C.-P. Lin, 1995. A checklist of reef fishes from the Tungsha Tao (Pratas Island), South China Sea. Acta Zoologica Taiwanica 6(2):13-40.
  25. Chen, J.-P., R.-Q. Jan i K.-T. Shao, 1997. Checklist of reef fishes from Taiping Island (Itu Aba Island), Spratly Islands, South China Sea. Pac. Sci. 51(2):143-166.
  26. Dela Paz, R. i N. Aragones, 1985. Mangrove fishes of Pagbilao (Quezon Province, Luzon Island), with notes on their abundance and seasonality. Natural and Applied Sci. Bull. 37(2):171-190.
  27. Ganaden, S.R. i F. Lavapie-Gonzales, 1999. Common and local names of marine fishes of the Philippines. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Filipines. 385 p.
  28. Herre, A.W.C.T., 1953. Check list of Philippine fishes. Res. Rep. U.S. Fish Wild. Serv., (20): 977 p.
  29. Herre, A.W.C.T. i A.F. Umali, 1948. English and local common names of Philippine fishes. U. S. Dept. of Interior and Fish and Wildl. Serv. Circular Núm. 14, U. S. Gov't Printing Office, Washington. 128 p.
  30. Huang, Z., 2001. Marine species and their distribution in China's seas. p. 404- 463. Vertebrata. Smithsonian Institution, Florida, Estats Units. 598 p.
  31. Kailola, P.J., 1987. The fishes of Papua New Guinea: a revised and annotated checklist. Vol. II Scorpaenidae to Callionymidae. Research Bulletin Núm. 41, Research Section, Dept. of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Papua Nova Guinea.
  32. Kapoor, D., R. Dayal i A.G. Ponniah, 2002. Fish biodiversity of India. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources Lucknow, Índia. 775 p.
  33. Kim, I.S., Y. Choi, C.L. Lee, Y.J. Lee, B.J. Kim i J.H. Kim, 2005. Illustrated book of Korean fishes. Kyo-Hak Pub Co. Seül, Corea del Sud. 615 p.
  34. Kulbicki, M. i J.T. Williams, 1997. Checklist of the shorefishes of Ouvea Atoll, New Caledonia. Atoll Res. Bull. 444: 26 p.
  35. Kulbicki, M., Y.-M. Bozec, P. Labrosse, Y. Letourneur, G. Mou-Tham i L. Wantiez, 2005. Diet composition of carnivorous fishes from coral reef lagoons of New Caledonia. Aquat. Living Resour. 18:231-250.
  36. Letourneur, Y., M. Kulbicki i P. Labrosse, 1998. Length-weight relationships of fish from coral reefs and lagoons of New Caledonia, southwestern Pacific Ocean: an update. Naga ICLARM Q. 21(4): 39-46.
  37. Letourneur, Y., P. Chabanet, P. Durville, M. Taquet, E. Teissier, M. Parmentier, J.-C. Quéro i K. Pothin, 2004. An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean. Cybium 28(3):199-216.
  38. Masuda, H. i G.R. Allen, 1993. Meeresfische der Welt - Groß-Indopazifische Region. Tetra Verlag, Herrenteich, Melle. 528 p.
  39. Mohsin, A.K.M. i M.A. Ambak, 1996. Marine fishes and fisheries of Malaysia and neighbouring countries. University of Pertanian Malaysia Press, Serdang, Malàisia. 744 p.
  40. Murdy, E.O., C.J. Ferraris, Jr., D.I. Hoese i R.C. Steene, 1981. Preliminary list of fishes from Sombrero Island, Philippines, with fifteen new records. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 94(4):1163-1173.
  41. Nguyen, N.T. i V.Q. Nguyen, 2006. Biodiversity and living resources of the coral reef fishes in Vietnam marine waters. Science and Technology Publishing House, Hanoi.
  42. Pereira, M.A.M., 2000. Preliminary checklist of reef-associated fishes of Mozambique. Maputo, Ministry for the Coordination of Environmental Affairs (MICOA). 21 pp.
  43. Randall, J.E., 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 439 p.
  44. Randall, J.E. i C. Anderson, 1993. Annotated checklist of the epipelagic and shore fishes of the Maldives Islands. Ichthyol. Bull. of the J.L.B. Smith Inst. of Ichthyol. 59:47.
  45. Rau, N. i A. Rau, 1980. Commercial marine fishes of the Central Philippines (bony fish). German Agency for Technical Cooperation, Alemanya. 623 pp.
  46. Shao, K.-T., J.-P. Chen, P.-H. Kao i C.-Y. Wu, 1993. Fish fauna and their geographical distribution along the western coast of Taiwan. Acata Zoologica Taiwanica 4(2): 113-140.
  47. Shen, S.C. (ed.), 1993. Fishes of Taiwan. Department of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei. 960 p.
  48. Smith, J.L.B. i M.M. Smith, 1963. The fishes of Seychelles. Rhodes University, Grahamstown. 215 p.
  49. Talwar, P.K. i R.K. Kacker, 1984. Commercial sea fishes of India. Zoological Survey of India, Calcuta. 997 p.
  50. Taquet, M. i A. Diringer, 2007. Poissons de l'Océan Indien et de la Mer Rouge. Éditions Quæ, Versalles, França.
  51. Werner, T.B. i G.R. Allen, 2000. A rapid marine biodiversity assessment of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan province, Philippines. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 17. Washington DC, Estats Units:Conservation International.
  52. Winterbottom, R. i R.C. Anderson, 1997. A revised checklist of the epipelagic and shore fishes of the Chagos Archipelago, Central Indian Ocean. Ichthyol. Bull. Smith. Inst. (66):1-28.
  53. Zajonz, U., M. Khalaf i F. Krupp, 2000. Coastal fish assemblages of the Socotra Archipelago. p.127-170. A Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity of Socotra Archipelago: marine habitat, biodiversity and fisheries surveys and management. Progress Report of Phase III. Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum, Frankfurt, Alemanya.
  54. Loubens, G., 1980. Biologie de quelques espèces de poissons du lagon Néo-Calédonien. II. Sexualité et reproduction. Cah. Indo-Pac. 2(1):41-72.
  55. Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba i K.E. Carpenter, 1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). Núm. 9. Roma, Itàlia, FAO. 103 p.


Bibliografia[modifica]


Enllaços externs[modifica]

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