Resolució de problemes

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La resolució de problemes consisteix a fer servir mètodes genèrics o ad hoc, d'una manera ordenada, per tal de trobar solucions als problemes. Algunes de les tècniques per a resoldre problemes s'han desenvolupat i usat en intel·ligència artificial, informàtica, enginyeria, matemàtica, o medicina estan relacionades ambles tècniques de resoldre problemes mentals estudiades en la psicologia.

Definició[modifica | modifica el codi]

El terme resolució de problemes es fa servir en moltes disciplines científiques, de vegades amb perspectives diferents, i sovnt amb terminologies diferents. Per exemple, és un procés mental en psicologia i i un procés computeritzat en informàtica. També els problemes es poden classificar dins dos tipus diferents (mal-definits i ben-definits). Els problemes mal definits són aquells que no tenen objectus clars, vies de solució o solució esperable. En canvi els problemes ben definits tenen objectius específics, vies de solució clarament definides i solucions clarament esperables.[1] Ésser capaç de resoldre problemes de vegades implica tractar am la pragmàtica (lògica) i la semàntica (interpretació del problema). La capacitat d'entendre quin és l'objectiu delnproblema i quines regles es poden aplicar representa la clau per a resoldre el problema. De vegades el problema requereix part de pensament abstracte i es resol am una solució creativa.

Psicologia[modifica | modifica el codi]

En psicologia, la resolució de problemes es refereix a un estat de desitjar arribar a un 'encert' desdela condició actual que no va en la direcció de l'encert («goal»).[2] En psicologia el resoldre problemes és la part que conclou un procésmés llarg el qual també inclou la recerca de problemes i el donar forma als problemes («problem finding i problem shaping»).

La resolució de problemes és considerada un ´procés cognitiu d'alt nivell.[3][4]

En psicologia els mètodes per resoldre elsproblemes s'han estudiat incloent la introspecció, behaviorisme, simulació, computer modeling, i l'experiment.[5]


Ciències cognitives[modifica | modifica el codi]

Des de la Gestalt d'Alemanya es van iniciar l'estudi de la resolució dels problemes (p.e., Karl Duncker el 1935 amb el seu llibre La psicologia del pensament productiu).[6] Més tard ontinuà a la dècada de 1960 amb proves de laboratori.[7][8] El treball fet per Allen Newell i Herbert A. Simon.[9] Altres experts han mostrat que el principi de descomposició informàtica és útil per resoldre problemes.[10]

Informàtica i algorismes[modifica | modifica el codi]

En informàtica i en part de la intel·ligència artificial que tracten amb algorismes, la resolució de problemes engloba moltes tècniques conegudes com a heurística d'algorismes, anàlisi de l'arrel de les causes («root cause analysis»), etc.

Caracterísitques dels problemes complexos[modifica | modifica el codi]

Com va evidenciar Dietrich Dörner i més tard va expandir Joachim Funke, els problemes complexos tenen algunes característiques típiques:

    • Connectivitat (relació jeràrquica, relació de comunicació, relació de distribució)
  • Consideracions de temps dinàmiques
    • inconvenients temporals
    • sensibilitat temporal
    • efectes de fase
    • dinàmica inpredectibilitat
  • Intransparència (manca de claredat de la situació)
    • opacitat de començament
    • opacitat de continuar
  • Politàlia (múltiples objectius)
    • inexpressivitat
    • oposició
    • transiència

La resolució de problemes complexos requereix un atac directe a cadascuna d'aquestes característiques. [11]

Estratègies per a la resolució de problemes[modifica | modifica el codi]

Els passos per a la resolució de problemes també s'anomenen «cicles per a la resolució». (Bransford & Stein, 1993) El motiu per anomenar-ho cicle és que normalment quan es completa un cicle n'emergeix un altre.

Les següents tècniques normalment s'anomenen «estratègies per a solucionar problemes» ( problem-solving strategies')[12]

Mètodes de resoldre problemes[modifica | modifica el codi]


Notes[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. Schacter, D.L. et al. (2009). Psychology, Second Edition. New York: Worth Publishers. pp. 376
  2. "In each case "where you want to be" is an imagined (or written) state in which you would like to be. We might use the term 'Problem Identification' or analysis in order to figure out exactly what the problem is. After we have found a problem we need to define what the problem is. In other words, a distinguished feature of a problem is that there is a goal to be reached and how you get there is not immediately obvious.", What is a problem? in S. Ian Robertson, Problem solving, Psychology Press, 2001, p. 2.
  3. Goldstein F. C., & Levin H. S. (1987). Disorders of reasoning and problem-solving ability. In M. Meier, A. Benton, & L. Diller (Eds.), Neuropsychological rehabilitation. London: Taylor & Francis Group.
  4. Bernd Zimmermann, On mathematical problem solving processes and history of mathematics, University of Jena
  5. Rubin, M.; Watt, S. E.; Ramelli, M. «Immigrants' social integration as a function of approach-avoidance orientation and problem-solving style». International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36, 2012, pàg. 498–505. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.12.009.
  6. Duncker, K. (1935). Zur Psychologie des produktiven Denkens [La psicologia del pensament productiu]. Berlin: Julius Springer.
  7. Per exemple el «problema dels raigs X de Duncker»; el problema del disk de Ewert & Lambert's de 1932, més tard conegut com la Torre de Hanoi.
  8. Mayer, R. E. (1992). Thinking, problem solving, cognition. Second edition. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
  9. *Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  10. J. Scott Armstrong, William B. Denniston, Jr. and Matt M. Gordon «The Use of the Decomposition Principle in Making Judgments». Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 14, 1975, pàg. 257–263. DOI: 10.1016/0030-5073(75)90028-8.
  11. [1]
  12. Wang, Y., & Chiew, V. (2010). On the cognitive process of human problem solving. Cognitive Systems Research, 11(1), 81-92.
  13. Ivan Fantin (2014). Applied Problem Solving. Method, Applications, Root Causes, Countermeasures, Poka-Yoke and A3. How to make things happen to solve problems. Milan, Italy: Createspace, an Amazon company. ISBN 978-1499122282

Tahir muhdi-ul-din from GC university fsd

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Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]