Romanès

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Aquest article tracta sobre la llengua. Si cerqueu el grup ètnic, vegeu «romanesos».
Romanès
Română
Altres denominacions: Moldau (nom oficial a la República de Moldàvia)
Parlat a: Romania, República de Moldàvia, Voivodina (Sèrbia), Hongria
Regió: Europa de l'est
Parlants: 24 milions
Rànquing: 36
Classificació genètica: Indoeuropea

  Itàlica
    Romànica
      Balcàno-romànica
        Romanès

estatus oficial
Llengua oficial de: Romania, República de Moldàvia, Voivodina
Regulat per: Acadèmia Romanesa (Academia Română)
codis de la llengua
ISO 639-1 ro
ISO 639-2 rum (B), ron (T)
ISO 639-3 RUM
Mapa ètnic del romanès
Globe of letters.svg Visiteu el Portal:Llengües Globe of letters.svg

El romanès o romanés[1] és una llengua romànica parlada per uns 24 milions de persones arreu del món. La majoria, uns 20 milions es concentren a Romania i més de dos milions i mig a Moldàvia, on s'anomenava oficialment moldau, tot i que el tribunal Constitucional de Moldàvia ha sentenciat que s'ha d'anomenar romanès.[2] El romanès té un 73% de semblança amb el català i un 77% amb l'italià.[3] Oficialment s'escriu amb l'alfabet llatí, tot i que a Moldàvia encara molta gent fa servir l'alfabet ciríl·lic.

Arran del seu aïllament respecte la resta de llengües romàniques (està envoltat per llengües eslaves, úgriques i turqueses), el romanès és una de les llengües romàniques més desconegudes i diferents respecte a la resta de la família, mostrant influències lèxiques eslaves, del turc i de l'hongarès. És una llengua molt estable i conservadora des del punt de vista evolutiu.

Història[modifica | modifica el codi]

Prehistòria[modifica | modifica el codi]

Vegeu també: llengües romàniques orientals i Protoromanès

Eastern Romance languages, like the other branches of Romance languages, descend from Vulgar Latin, adopted in Dacia by a process of Romanization during early centuries AD.[4][5] The influence of the military in Dacia is due to the distribution of the military units in this bridgehead of the Roman Empire's defense, contrary, e.g., to that of the Rhenish army, which was concentrated at the Germanic limes and so left little influence on the local spoken Gallo-Latin. The identification of numerous words of military (Dacian-)Roman usage – 52 semantic specific changes and inherited military Latin words with their classical meanings – is at the heart of the hypothesis that the Romanian language is the continuation of the military Latin spoken in the north-eastern frontier region of the Roman Empire. These vestiges of military usage are unique to Romanian in its language family. Thus, Romanian is scientifically very interesting from a linguistic and historical viewpoint, since Romance languages did not prevail in the other frontier regions of the Roman Empire in Europe, Asia and Africa. Also, the conservation in Romanian of these numerous vestiges of Latin military slang (sermo castrensis) - a (se)aţine, coif, împărat, a împresura, a (se) (în)cumeta, a înşela, a înţina, aţinat, mire, a peţi, a purcede, a răpune, rost, a sumete, a supune, tindă, a trepăda, treapăd, ţară (“patrie”) şi val (“meterez”), for example - and their absence in Aromanian (Balkan Romanian dialect) indicates the continuity of Latin speakers in the northern Danubian region, this despite dire and constant defensive wars with Germanic, Turanian and Slavic populations who entered and eventually settled there. This linguistic evidence challenges the Roeslerian theory.[6] The Roman Empire withdrew from Dacia in AD 271-5, leaving it to the Goths.[7][8]

The history of Eastern Romance between the 3rd century and the development of Proto-Romanian by the 10th century, when the area came under the influence of the Byzantine Empire, is unknown. It is a matter of debate whether Proto-Romanian developed among Romanized people who were left behind in Dacia by the Roman withdrawal or among Latin-speakers in the Balkans south of the Danube.

During the Middle Ages, Romanian became influenced by the Slavic languages[9] and to some degree by Greek. Romanian remains unattested throughout the Middle Ages, and only enters the historical record in the early 16th century.

Història primerenca[modifica | modifica el codi]

The use of the denomination Romanian (română) for our beautiful language (limba noastră cea frumoasă[10]) as well as for the usage of the demonym Romanians (români), so as to designate the speakers of this language, didn't await for the foundation of the modern Romanian state. Although the followers of the former Romanian voievodships used to designate themselves as "Ardeleni" (or "Ungureni"), "Moldoveni" or "Munteni", the name of "rumână" or "rumâniască" for the Romanian language itself is attested as earlier as of the 16th century by various foreign travellers into the Carpathian Romance-speaking space.[11] as well as in other historical documents written in Romanian at that time such as Palia de la Orǎștie or Letopisețul Țării Moldovei (The Chronicles of the land of Moldavia) Grigore Ureche.

In 1534, Tranquillo Andronico notes: "Valachi nunc se Romanos vocant" ("se numesc români" - are calling themselves Romanians).[12] Francesco della Valle writes in 1532 that Romanians "se denumesc Romei în limba lor" (are calling themselves Romanians in their own language), and he subsequently quotes the expression: "Sti rominest?" (Do you know Romanian?).[13]

After travelling through Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania Ferrante Capecci accounts in 1575 that the indigenous population of these regions call themselves “românești” ("romanesci").[14]

Pierre Lescalopier writes in 1574 that those who live in Moldavia, Wallachia and the vast part of Transylvania, “se consideră adevărați urmași ai romanilor și-și numesc limba “românește”, adică romana” (they consider themselves as the descendants of the Romans and they name their language Romanian).[15]

The Transylvanian Saxon Johann Lebel writes in 1542 that «Vlachi» se numeau între ei «Romuini»[16] and the Polish chronicler Stanislaw Orzechowski (Orichovius) notes in 1554 that în limba lor «walachii» se numesc «romini » (In their language the Wallachians call themselves Romanians).[17]

The Croatian Ante Verančić precises in 1570 that «Vlahii» din Transilvania, Moldova și Țara Românească se desemnează ca «romani»[18] and the Transylvanian Hungarian Martinus Szent-Ivany in 1699 quotes the following: «Si noi sentem Rumeni» ("Și noi suntem români" - "We are Romanians as well) and «Noi sentem di sange Rumena» ("Noi suntem de sânge român" - We are of Romanian blood).[19]

In Palia de la Orǎștie (1581) stands written «.[...] că văzum cum toate limbile au și înfluresc întru cuvintele slǎvite a lui Dumnezeu numai noi românii pre limbă nu avem. Pentru aceia cu mare muncǎ scoasem de limba jidoveascǎ si greceascǎ si srâbeascǎ pre limba româneascǎ 5 cărți ale lui Moisi prorocul si patru cărți și le dăruim voo frați rumâni și le-au scris în cheltuială multǎ... și le-au dăruit voo fraților români,... și le-au scris voo fraților români»[20] and in Letopisețul Țării Moldovei written by the Moldavian chronicler Grigore Ureche we can read: «În Țara Ardialului nu lăcuiesc numai unguri, ce și sași peste seamă de mulți și români peste tot locul...».[21]

Nevertheless, the oldest extant document written in Romanian remains Neacșu's letter (1521) and was written using Cyrillic letters (which remained in use up until the late 19th century). There are no records of any other documents written in Romanian from before 1521.

The language remains poorly attested during the Early Modern period.

Miron Costin, in his De neamul moldovenilor (1687), while noting that Moldavians, Wallachians, and the Romanians living in the Hungarian Country have the same origin, says that although people of Moldavia call themselves Moldavians, they name their language Romanian (românește) instead of Moldavian (moldovenește).[22]

Dimitrie Cantemir, in his Descriptio Moldaviae (Berlin, 1714), points out that the inhabitants of Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania spoke the same language. He notes, however, some differences in accent and vocabulary.[23] Cantemir's work provides one of the earliest histories of the language, in which he notes, like Ureche before him, the evolution from Latin and notices the Greek, Turkish and Polish borrowings. Additionally, he introduces the idea that some words must have had Dacian roots. Cantemir also notes that while the idea of a Latin origin of the language was prevalent in his time, other scholars considered it to have derived from Italian.

Història moderna[modifica | modifica el codi]

Vegeu també: Despertar nacional de Romania

The first Romanian grammar was published in Vienna in 1780.[24] Following the annexation of Bessarabia by Russia (after 1812), Moldavian was established as an official language in the governmental institutions of Bessarabia, used along with Russian,[25] The publishing works established by Archbishop Gavril Bănulescu-Bodoni were able to produce books and liturgical works in Moldavian between 1815–1820.[26]

The linguistic situation in Bessarabia from 1812 to 1918 was the gradual development of bilingualism. Russian continued to develop as the official language of privilege, whereas Romanian remained the principal vernacular.

The period from 1905 to 1917 was one of increasing linguistic conflict, with the re-awakening of Romanian national consciousness. In 1905 and 1906, the Bessarabian zemstva asked for the re-introduction of Romanian in schools as a "compulsory language", and the "liberty to teach in the mother language (Romanian language)". At the same time, Romanian-language newspapers and journals began to appear, such as Basarabia (1906), Viața Basarabiei (1907), Moldovanul (1907), Luminătorul (1908), Cuvînt moldovenesc (1913), Glasul Basarabiei (1913). From 1913, the synod permitted that "the churches in Bessarabia use the Romanian language". Romanian finally became the official language with the Constitution of 1923.

Gramàtica històrica[modifica | modifica el codi]

Romanian has preserved a part of the Latin declension, but whereas Latin had six cases, from a morphological viewpoint Romanian has only three: the nominative-accusative, the genitive-dative, and marginally the vocative. Romanian nouns also preserve the neuter gender, although instead of functioning as a separate gender with its own forms in adjectives, the Romanian neuter became a mixture of masculine and feminine. The verb morphology of Romanian has shown the same move towards a compound perfect and future tense as the other Romance languages. Compared with the other Romance languages, during its evolution, Romanian simplified the original Latin tense system in extreme ways,[27]Plantilla:Unreliable source? in particular the absence of sequence of tenses.[28]

Romanian is spoken mostly in Central and the Balkan region of Southern Europe, although speakers of the language can be found all over the world, mostly due to emigration of Romanian nationals and the return of immigrants to Romania back to their original countries. Romanian speakers account for 0.5% of the world's population,[29] and 4% of the Romance-speaking population of the world.[30]

Romanian is the single official and national language in Romania and Moldova, although it shares the official status at regional level with other languages in the Moldovan autonomies of Gagauzia and Transnistria. Romanian is also an official language of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina in Serbia along with five other languages. Romanian minorities are encountered in Serbia (Timok Valley), Ukraine (Chernivtsi and Odessa oblasts), and Hungary (Gyula). Large immigrant communities are found in Italy, Spain, France, and Portugal.

In 1995, the largest Romanian-speaking community in the Middle East was found in Israel, where Romanian was spoken by 5% of the population.[31][32] Romanian is also spoken as a second language by people from Arabic-speaking countries who have studied in Romania. It is estimated that almost half a million Middle Eastern Arabs studied in Romania during the 1980s.[33] Small Romanian-speaking communities are to be found in Kazakhstan and Russia. Romanian is also spoken within communities of Romanian and Moldovan immigrants in the United States, Canada and Australia, although they do not make up a large homogeneous community state-wide.

Legal status[modifica | modifica el codi]

In Romania[modifica | modifica el codi]

According to the Constitution of Romania of 1991, as revised in 2003, Romanian is the official language of the Republic.[34]

Romania mandates the use of Romanian in official government publications, public education and legal contracts. Advertisements as well as other public messages must bear a translation of foreign words,[35] while trade signs and logos shall be written predominantly in Romanian.[36]

The Romanian Language Institute (Institutul Limbii Române), established by the Ministry of Education of Romania, promotes Romanian and supports people willing to study the language, working together with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' Department for Romanians Abroad.[37]

In Moldova[modifica | modifica el codi]

Article principal: Moldovan language

Romanian is the official language of the Republic of Moldova. The 1991 Declaration of Independence names the official language Romanian.[38][39] The Constitution of Moldova names the state language of the country Moldovan. In December 2013, a decision of the Constitutional Court of Moldova ruled that the Declaration of Independence takes precedence over the Constitution and the state language should be called Romanian.[40]

Scholars agree that Moldovan and Romanian are the same language, with the glottonym "Moldovan" used in certain political contexts.[41] It has been the sole official language since the adoption of the Law on State Language of the Moldavian SSR in 1989.[42] This law mandates the use of Moldovan in all the political, economical, cultural and social spheres, as well as asserting the existence of a "linguistic Moldo-Romanian identity".[43] It is also used in schools, mass media, education and in the colloquial speech and writing. Outside the political arena the language is most often called "Romanian". In the breakaway territory of Transnistria, it is co-official with Ukrainian and Russian.

In the 2004 census, out of the 3,383,332 people living in Moldova, 16.5% (558,508) stated Romanian as their native language, whereas 60% stated Moldovan. While 40% of all urban Romanian/Moldovan speakers identified their native tongue as Romanian, in the countryside under 12% of Romanian/Moldovan speakers indicated Romanian as their native language.[44] However, the group of experts from the international census observation Mission to the Republic of Moldova concluded that the items in the questionnaire dealing with nationality and language proved to be the most sensitive ones, particularly with reference to the recording of responses to these questions as being "Moldovan" or "Romanian", and therefore it concluded that special care would need to be taken in interpreting them.[45]

In Vojvodina, Serbia[modifica | modifica el codi]

Official usage of Romanian language in Vojvodina, Serbia
Romanian language in entire Serbia (see also Romanians of Serbia), census 2002
  •  1–5%
  •  5–10%
  •  10–15%
  •  15–25%
  •  25–35%
  •  over 35%

The Constitution of the Republic of Serbia determines that in the regions of the Republic of Serbia inhabited by national minorities, their own languages and scripts shall be officially used as well, in the manner established by law.[46]

The Statute of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina determines that, together with the Serbo-Croat language and the Cyrillic script, and the Latin script as stipulated by the law, the Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian and Rusyn languages and their scripts, as well as languages and scripts of other nationalities, shall simultaneously be officially used in the work of the bodies of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, in the manner established by the law.[47] The bodies of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina are: the Assembly, the Executive Council and the Provincial administrative bodies.[48]

The Romanian language and script are officially used in eight municipalities: Alibunar, Biserica Albă (Plantilla:Lang-sr), Zitiște (Žitište), Zrenianin (Zrenjanin), Kovăcița (Kovačica), Cuvin (Kovin), Plandiște (Plandište) and Sečanj. In the municipality of Vârșeț (Vršac), Romanian is official only in the villages of Voivodinț (Vojvodinci), Marcovăț (Markovac), Straja (Straža), Jamu Mic (Mali Žam), Srediștea Mică (Malo Središte), Mesici (Mesić), Jablanka, Sălcița (Salčica), Râtișor (Ritiševo), Oreșaț (Orašac) and Coștei (Kuštilj).[49]

In the 2002 Census, the last carried out in Serbia, 1.5% of Vojvodinians stated Romanian as their native language.

Regional language status in Ukraine[modifica | modifica el codi]

In parts of Ukraine where Romanians constitute a significant share of the local population (districts in Chernivtsi, Odessa and Zakarpattia oblasts) Romanian is taught in schools as a primary language and there are Romanian-language newspapers, TV, and radio broadcasting.[50][51] The University of Chernivtsi in western Ukraine trains teachers for Romanian schools in the fields of Romanian philology, mathematics and physics.[52]

In Hertsa Raion of Ukraine as well as in other villages of Chernivtsi Oblast and Zakarpattia Oblast, Romanian has been declared a "regional language" alongside Ukrainian as per the 2012 legislation on languages in Ukraine.

In other countries and organizations[modifica | modifica el codi]

Vegeu també: Romanian diaspora

Romanian is an official or administrative language in various communities and organisations, such as the Latin Union and the European Union. Romanian is also one of the five languages in which religious services are performed in the autonomous monastic state of Mount Athos, spoken in the monk communities of Prodromos and Lacu.

Distribution of first-language native Romanian speakers by country (Altele means 'other')

Algunes característiques lingüístiques[modifica | modifica el codi]

Els noms i adjectius romanesos tenen tres gèneres (masculí, femení i neutre) i flexió de nombre. Els articles definits són enclítics respecte al nom (formen un sol bloc, com els pronoms àtons i el verb al castellà), característica única entre les llengües romàniques. La conjugació verbal és més complexa que la dels seus parents, puix que té fins a 5 modes diferents i una àmplia varietat de formes impersonals.

És la sola llengua romànica important que té el fonema /h/ (transcripció de l'AFI), amb l'occità gascó i algunes varietats de castellà i de francès. L'ortografia és bastant simple. Pel que fa al lèxic, el 75% és d'origen llatí, entre el 10% i el 20% eslau i la resta, manlleus d'altres llengües, entre les quals destaquen el turc, l'italià i els derivats del traci.

Dialectes[modifica | modifica el codi]

Descripció lingüística[modifica | modifica el codi]

Fonologia[modifica | modifica el codi]

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Postalveolar Velar Glotal
Nasal m n
Oclusiva p   b t   d k   ɡ
Africada ʦ      ʧ   ʤ
Fricativa f   v s   z ʃ   ʒ h     
Vibrant r
Aproximant l

Existeixen 7 vocals en oposició fonològica en romanès:[53]

anterior central posterior
Tancada i ɨ u
Mitjana e ə o
Oberta a

Escriptura[modifica | modifica el codi]

L'alfabet romanès està basat en l'alfabet llatí, i té les lletres següents:

  • A, Ă, Â, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, Î, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, Ș, T, Ț, U, V, X, Z.

Les lletres Q, W i Y només es troben en paraules prestades d'altres llengües, com quasar, watt i yacht.

L'alfabet romanès és gairebé completament fonètic, amb dues excepcions principals:

  • Les lletres â i î representen el mateix so, el de la vocal central tancada no labialitzada /ɨ/. Es distingeixen en què î s'empra a principi i a final del mot (începe > començar / omorî > matar), i â als altres casos (mâna > mà).
  • Diverses formes dels pronoms personals i del verb couplatiu a fi (ser) que comencen per e- es pronuncien diftongades [je]: per exemple eu (jo), este (és), pronunciades respectivament: [jeu], [jeste].
  • La c i la g oferixen un comportament semblant a l'italià. És a dir, per a escriure els fonemes /k/ i /g/ davant de les vocals e i i s'empren els dígraf ch i gh respectivament.

Pronunciació[modifica | modifica el codi]

La següent taula il·lustra la pronunciació del romanès:

Lletra So Pronunciació aproximada Exemple
a [a] a en casa
ă [ə] Vocal neutra, en casa o Barcelona, en català oriental.
â, î [ɨ] So intermedi entre /i/ i /u/ mână ['mɨnə] "mà"
b [b] b en Badalona
c /k/ (davant -a, -o, -u) c en casa
[ʧ] (davant -e, -i) tx en cotxe face ['faʧe] "fer"
ch [k] qu en que chip [kip] "visatge, cara"
d [d] d en Dinamarca
e [e] e en néixer
[e̯] ([e] semivocal) seară ['se̯arə] "tarda"
[je] ie- (en alguns casos a començ de mot) el ['jel] "ell"
f [f] f en Figueres foc [fok] "foc"
g [ɡ] (davant-a, -o, -u) g en gos galben ['galben] "groc"
[ʤ] (davant-e, -i) g en Girona ger [ʤer] "gebre"
gh [g] gu en Guissona ghid [gid] "guia"
h [h] Aspirada, com en anglès hat hârtie [hɨr'tie] "paper"
i [i] i en Figueres mic [mik] "petit"
[j] i en iogurt iarbă ['jarbə] "herba"
[ʲ] Palatalització de la consonant final bani ['banʲ] "diners"
j [ʒ] g en Gironella jos [ʒos] "sota"
k [k] k en "kilo" kilogram [kilo'gram] "kilogram"
l [l] l en lògica
m [m] m en Mallorca
n [n] n en Noguera nimic [ni'mik] "res"
o [o] o en Tarragona
[o̯] /o/ semivocal noapte ['no̯apte] "nit"
p [p] p en Pallars
r [r] r en cara
s [s] s en Sabadell
ș [ʃ] ix o x en vaixell, xocolata șapte ['ʃapte] "set"
t [t] t en Tarragona
ț [ʦ] zz en italià pizza țuică ['ʦujkə] "una mena d'aiguardent"
u [u] u en muntanya
[w] u semivocal en nàutic nouă ['nowə] "nou"
v [v] v (bianual francesa, anglesa, italiana) o catalana vaixell
x [ks] x en luxe
z [z] z en Sant Quirze zid [zid] "mur"

Gramàtica[modifica | modifica el codi]

El substantiu[modifica | modifica el codi]

Els noms es flexionen en gènere, nombre i cas.

Gènere[modifica | modifica el codi]

El romanès té també els dos gèneres comuns a les llengües llatines: masculí i femení; i un tercer, que en contexts generals molt sovint s'anomena "neutre" simbòlic i, tanmateix i més precisament es tracta del gènere ambigu: les paraules que pertanyen a aquest gènere s'empren com a masculines en singular i com a femenines en plural. No es tracta, doncs, del gènere neutre heretat del llatí. Per això, en dir "gènere neutre" cal entendre que es fa referència al "gènere ambigu".

La major part dels mots que acaben en ă són femenins, mentre que els noms amb final consonàntic són masculins o ambigus (neutres). Les paraules que acaben en e solen ser femenines, tot i que n'hi ha força de masculines, com pește (peix) i câine (gos).

De vegades es pot modificar el gènere emprant sufixos. De femení a masculí s'empra el sufix "-oi" (pisica (fem.) > pisoi (masc.) = gata/gat) i el procés oposat s'ateny amb el sufix "-ică" (lup (masc.) > lupoaică (fem.) = llop/lloba).

Número[modifica | modifica el codi]

El plural dels noms es forma mitjançant els sufixos -i, -e i -uri, acompanyats de vegades d'una modificació fonètica a l'arrel. Per exemple, stradă (carrer), en plural és străzi. Fată (noia), en plural és fete. Frate (germà), en plural és frați.

La distribució dels sufixos de plural s'exemplifica a la taula següent:

Gènere Singular Plural Eexemple
Femení -e casă (casa) > pl. case / măr (poma) > pl. mere
-i ușă (porta) > pl. uși
-e -i carte (llibre) > pl. cărți / familie (família) > pl. familii
-ea -ele stea (estel) > pl. stele
Masculí -Consonant -i pom (arbre) > pl. pomi / student (estudiant) > pl. studenți
-e, -u, -i pește (peix) > pl. pești / fiu (fill) > pl. fii / tată (pare) > pl. tați
Neutre -Consonant -e apartament (apartament) > pl. apartamente / oraș (ciutat) > pl. orașe
-uri drum (carretera) > pl. drumuri / pat (llit) > pl. paturi
-u -e teatru (teatre) > pl. teatre
-uri lucru (cosa) > pl. lucruri"
Articles[modifica | modifica el codi]

L'article indeterminat és:

  • Masculí = un > un student (un estudiant)
  • Femení = o > o noapte (una nit)

L'article definit s'expressa mitjançant un sufix del nom. Aquesta és una característica única entre les llengües llatines, però es troba també en una llengua balcànica veïna, el búlgar, cosa que fa pensar en una influència d'adstrat.

L'article definit varia segons el gènere gramatical del nom, d'acord amb la següent taula:

Nombre Gènere Sufix Exemples
Singular Masculí / Neutre Cons. + -ul bărbat (home) → bărbatul (l'home)
-i + -ul ochi (ull) → ochiul (l'ull)
-u + -l muzeu (museu) → muzeul (el museu)
-e + -le câine (gos) → câinele (el gos)
Femení -a casă (casa) → casa (la casa)
-e + -a noapte (nit) → noaptea (la nit)
-ie-ia femeie (dona)" → femeia (la dona)
-a, -ea, -i + -ua stea (estel) → steaua (l'estel) / zi (dia) → ziua (el dia)
Plural Masculí Plural + -i prieteni (amics) → prietenii (els amics)
Femení / Neutre Plural + -le cărți (llibres) → cărțile (els llibres) / teatre (teatres) → teatrele (els teatres)

Quan el nom va precedit d'un adjectiu, l'article es sufixa normalment a l'adjectiu:

  • Bun student (bon estudiant)
  • Bunul student (el bon estudiant)

Possessió[modifica | modifica el codi]

La possessió s'expressa mitjançant el cas genitiu/datiu de l'article:

  • Cartea profesorului
    • El llibre del professor
  • Presiunea cauciucurilor
    • La pressió dels pneumàtics
  • Acoperișul casei
    • El sostre de la casa

Hi ha també un adjectiu determinatiu possessiu:

  • Masculí/neutre singular: al
  • Masculí/neutre plural: ai
  • Femení singular: a
  • Femení plural: ale

Que s'empra quan hi ha un adjectiu entre el nom i el posseïdor, entre altres casos. És molt comú, sobretot de forma col·loquial, posar el sufix "lui" o "lei" davant del substantiu per facilitar la pronunciació. Concorda amb el nom que indica l'objecte posseït. Per exemple:

  • Telefonul nou al profesorului
    • El telèfon nou del professor
  • Casa cea mare a părinților mei
    • La casa gran dels meus pares

La possessió pronominal s'expressa mitjançant adjectius possessius que segueixen el nom, que ha de ser en forma definida:

  • Fratele meu este student
    • Mon germà és estudiant
  • El vorbește cu prietenul său
    • Ell parla amb el seu amic

Demostratius[modifica | modifica el codi]

El romanès té un sistema de dos demostratius, un més proper "aquest" i un més llunyà "aquell". Solen estar darrere del nom, que ha d'aparèixer en forma definida.

Adjectius qualificatius[modifica | modifica el codi]

Com en altres llengües romàniques, l'adjectiu concorda en gènere i nombre amb el nom que modifica. La seva posició normal és després del nom. Quan el precedeix, pren l'article sufixat.

  • Un profesor bun
    • Un professor bo
  • O casă bună
    • Una casa bona
  • Niște profesori buni
    • Alguns professors bons
  • Niște case bune
    • Algunes cases bones

Pronoms personals[modifica | modifica el codi]

Els pronoms personals en funció de subjecte s'ometen, tret dels casos d'èmfasi o d'enfocament informatiu. Les formes d'aquests pronoms es recullen en la següent taula:

Casos Primera persona Segona Persona Tercera persona
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
masc fem masc fem
Nominatiu eu noi tu voi el ea ei ele
Acusatiu (àton) (m-) ne te (v-) îl (l-) o îi (i-) le
Acusatiu (tònic) mine noi tine voi el ea ei ele
Datiu (àton) îmi (-mi) ne (-ni) îți (-ți) (v-, -vi) îi (-i) le, li
Datiu (tònic) mie nouă ție vouă lui ei lor

Les formes entre parèntesis de la taula són les que s'empren com a clítics, units fonèticament a un verb o a un altre pronom:

  • Mi-a explicat despre ce este vorba
    • M'ha explicat de què tracta
  • Așteaptă-l la stație
    • Espera'l a l'estació

Les formes tòniques dels pronoms d'acusatiu s'empren amb preposicions:

  • Cine te-a învățat pe tine să te porți astfel?
    • Qui t'ha ensenyat a tu a portar-te així?
  • Ion este cu mine
    • Ion està amb mi

El verb[modifica | modifica el codi]

El romanès ha heretat del llatí els seus quatre grups verbals. Per una altra banda, el romanès té sis formes diferents d'expressar el temps futur. Els infinitius acaben en -are, -eare, -ere i -ire, com en italià, i, com en les altres llengües llatines, es poden emprar com a substantius. Normalment, els diccionaris ofereixen els infinitius curts, és a dir, sense el sufix -re, tot i que també és correcte emprar l'infinitiu complet en enunciats, tant com a verbs com a substantius.

Lèxic[modifica | modifica el codi]

Quant al vocabulari representantiu (bàsic) del romanès, la situació es presenta d'aquest mode:

  • Elements romànics 91% dels quals
    • 80% llatins heretats
    • 5% francesos
    • 4% llatins erudits
    • 2% italians
  • Formacions internes 3% (la major part provenen del llatí)
  • Eslaus 4%
  • Altres 2%

La influència eslava fou a causa no sols de les migracions, sinó també del període d'adscripció dels ortodoxos romanesos a l'Església controlada pel patriarcat búlgar. Una petita influència eslava s'observa tant al component lèxic com al fonètic de la llengua. Per exemple, en no tenir el llatí una paraula per expressar "sí", el romanès va prendre l'expressió eslava "da". A més, el romanès és l'única llengua llatina amb el fonema /h/.

També cal destacar que gairebé totes les activitats rurals tenen noms procedents del llatí, mentre que les relacionades amb la vida urbana foren generalment amprades d'altres llengües (francès, italià, alemany, anglès, hongarès, etc.). Durant el segle XIX, el romanès va manllevar lèxic del francès i de l'italià. Més endavant, de l'alemany i de l'anglès.

Lligams externs[modifica | modifica el codi]

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Romanès Modifica l'enllaç a Wikidata
  1. Romanés en pronúncia occidental i romanès en pronúncia oriental. Per a més informació, consulteu: el llibre d'estil.
  2. Decizie cu implicatii majore a Curtii Constitutionale de la Chisinau: Limba romana este limba de stat a Republicii Moldova / Declaratia de independenta prevaleaza in fata Constitutiei a Hotnews.ro
  3. Pàgina a ethnologue.com
  4. Matley, Ian. Romania; a Profile. Praeger, 1970, p. 85. 
  5. Giurescu, Constantin C. The Making of the Romanian People and Language. Bucharest: Meridiane Publishing House, 1972, p. 43, 98–101, 141. 
  6. Cristian Mihail, Military (Dacian-)Roman Jargon. Its Influence on Romanian Language and History, Editura militară, 2012, p. 154.
  7. Eutropius. Eutropius, Abridgment of Roman History. London: George Bell and Sons, 1886. 
  8. Watkins, Thayer. «The Economic History of the Western Roman Empire». «"The Emperor Aurelian recognized the realities of the military situation in Dacia and around AD 271 withdrew Roman troops from Dacia, leaving it to the Goths. The Danube once again became the northern frontier of the Roman Empire in eastern Europe"»
  9. Graham Mallinson, "Rumanian", in "The Romance Languages", Taylor & Francis, 1997, p. 413: "Much more substantial than the Germanic adstrate in the Western Romance Languages is the Slavic adstrate in Balkan Romance."
  10. "Limba noastră cea frumoasă" este imnul Republicii Moldova
  11. Ștefan Pascu, Documente străine despre români, ed. Arhivelor statului, București 1992, ISBN 973-95711-2-3
  12. Tranquillo Andronico în Endre Veress, Fontes rerum transylvanicarum: Erdélyi történelmi források, Történettudományi Intézet, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Budapest, 1914, S. 204
  13. "...si dimandano in lingua loro Romei...se alcuno dimanda se sano parlare in la lingua valacca, dicono a questo in questo modo: Sti Rominest ? Che vol dire: Sai tu Romano ?..." în: Claudiu Isopescu, Notizie intorno ai romeni nella letteratura geografica italiana del Cinquecento, în Bulletin de la Section Historique, XVI, 1929, p. 1- 90
  14. “Anzi essi si chiamano romanesci, e vogliono molti che erano mandati quì quei che erano dannati a cavar metalli...” în: Maria Holban, Călători străini despre Țările Române, București, Editura Stiințifică, 1970, vol. II, p.158 – 161
  15. "Tout ce pays: la Wallachie, la Moldavie et la plus part de la Transylvanie, a esté peuplé des colonies romaines du temps de Trajan l’empereur… Ceux du pays se disent vrais successeurs des Romains et nomment leur parler romanechte, c'est-à-dire romain … " în Voyage fait par moy, Pierre Lescalopier l’an 1574 de Venise a Constantinople, în: Paul Cernovodeanu, Studii și materiale de istorie medievală, IV, 1960, p. 444
  16. "Ex Vlachi Valachi, Romanenses Italiani,/Quorum reliquae Romanensi lingua utuntur.../Solo Romanos nomine, sine re, repraesentantes./Ideirco vulgariter Romuini sunt appelanti", Ioannes Lebelius, De opido Thalmus, Carmen Istoricum, Cibinii, 1779, p. 11 – 12
  17. "qui eorum lingua Romini ab Romanis, nostra Walachi, ab Italis appellantur" St. Orichovius, Annales polonici ab excessu Sigismundi, in I. Dlugossus, Historiae polonicae libri XII, col 1555
  18. „...Valacchi, qui se Romanos nominant...„ “Gens quae ear terras (Transsylvaniam, Moldaviam et Transalpinam) nostra aetate incolit, Valacchi sunt, eaque a Romania ducit originem, tametsi nomine longe alieno...“ De situ Transsylvaniae, Moldaviae et Transaplinae, in Monumenta Hungariae Historica, Scriptores; II, Pesta, 1857, p. 120
  19. "Valachos...dicunt enim communi modo loquendi: Sie noi sentem Rumeni: etiam nos sumus Romani. Item: Noi sentem di sange Rumena: Nos sumus de sanguine Romano" Martinus Szent-Ivany, Dissertatio Paralimpomenica rerum memorabilium Hungariae, Tyrnaviae, 1699, p. 39
  20. Palia de la Orǎștie (1581 – 1582), Bucuresti, 1968
  21. Grigore Ureche, Letopisețul Țării Moldovei, p. 133-134
  22. Constantiniu, Florin, O istorie sinceră a poporului român (An honest history of the Romanian people), Univers Enciclopedic, București, 1997, ISBN 97-3924-307-X, p. 175
  23. From Descriptio Moldaviae: "Valachiae et Transylvaniae incolis eadem est cum Moldavis lingua, pronunciatio tamen rudior, ut dziur, Vlachus proferet zur, jur, per z polonicum sive j gallicum; Dumnedzeu, Deus, val. Dumnezeu: akmu, nunc, val. akuma, aczela hic, val: ahela."
  24. Error de citació: Etiqueta <ref> no vàlida; no s'ha proporcionat text per les refs amb l'etiqueta Elementa
  25. (rus)Charter for the organization of the Bessarabian Oblast, 29 April 1818, in "Печатается по изданию: Полное собрание законов Российской империи. Собрание первое.", Vol 35. 1818, Sankt Petersburg, 1830, pg. 222–227. Available online at hrono.info
  26. King, Charles, The Moldovans, Hoover Press, 2000, ISBN 08-1799-792-X, pg. 21–22
  27. Yves D'hulst, Martine Coene, Larisa Avram, "Syncretic and analytic tenses in Romanian", in Balkan Syntax and Semantics, pag. 366: "In its evolution, Romanian simplified the original Latin tense system in extreme ways."
  28. Yves D'hulst et al., "Syncretic and analytic tenses in Romanian", in Balkan Syntax and Semantics, p. 355: "general absence of consecutio temporum."
  29. «Latin Union – Languages and cultures online 2005». Dtil.unilat.org. [Consulta: 23 May 2010].
  30. MSN Encarta – Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People[Enllaç no actiu]
  31. According to the 1993 Statistical Abstract of Israel there were 250,000 Romanian speakers in Israel, of a population of 5,548,523 in 1995 (census).
  32. «Reports of about 300,000 Jews that left the country after WW2». Eurojewcong.org. [Consulta: 23 May 2010].
  33. «Evenimentul Zilei». Evz.ro. [Consulta: 23 May 2010].
  34. «Constitution of Romania». Cdep.ro. [Consulta: 23 May 2010].
  35. Legea "Pruteanu": 500/2004 – Law on the Protection of the Romanian Language
  36. Art. 27 (3), Legea nr. 26/1990 privind Registrul Comerțului
  37. Ministry of Education of Romania
  38. «Declaraţia de independenţa a Republicii Moldova, Moldova Suverană» (en romanian). Moldova-suverana.md. [Consulta: 9 October 2013].
  39. «A Field Guide to the Main Languages of Europe – Spot that language and how to tell them apart» (PDF). European Commission. Arxivat de l'original el 24 February 2007. [Consulta: 9 October 2013].
  40. Moldovan court rules official language is 'Romanian,' replacing Soviet-flavored 'Moldovan' at foxnews.com
  41. «Marian Lupu: Româna și moldoveneasca sunt aceeași limbă». Realitatea .NET. [Consulta: 7 October 2009].
  42. Dalby, Andrew. Dictionary of Languages. Bloomsbury Publishing, 1998, p. 518. ISBN 07-4753-117-X. 
  43. Legea cu privire la functionarea limbilor vorbite pe teritoriul RSS Moldovenesti Nr.3465-XI din 01.09.89 Vestile nr.9/217, 1989 (Law regarding the usage of languages spoken on the territory of the Republic of Moldova): "Moldavian RSS supports the desire of the Moldavian that live across the borders of the Republic, and – considering the existing Moldo-Romanian linguistic identity – of the Romanians that live on the territory of the USSR, of doing their studies and satisfying their cultural needs in their maternal language."
  44. National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova: Census 2004
  45. Experts Offering to Consult the National Statistics Bureau in Evaluation of the Census Data, Moldova Azi, 19 May 2005, story attributed to AP Flux. Retrieved 11 October 2005.
  46. Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia, No. 1/90
  47. Official Gazette of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
  48. "Official use of languages and scripts in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina" published by the Provincial Secretariat for Regulations, Administration and National Minorities
  49. Provincial Secretariat for Regulations, Administration and National Minorities: "Official use of the Romanian language in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (APV)"
  50. Ukrainian Center for Independent Political Research: [1], [2]
  51. Slovak Academy of Sciences in Kosice[Enllaç no actiu]
  52. Kramar Andriy. «University of Chernivtsi». Chnu.cv.ua. [Consulta: 23 May 2010].
  53. Chițoran, Ioana. The Phonology of Romanian: A Constraint-based Approach. Berlín: de Gruyter, 2001, p. 7. ISBN 3-11-016766-2. 
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