Usuària:Luna92/Egypt Exploration Society

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Infotaula d'organitzacióLuna92/Egypt Exploration Society
Dades bàsiques
Tipus entitat societat científica i institució cultural
Història
Fundació 1882
Fundadors Amelia Edwards
Organització i govern
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Bust inacabat de Nefertiti. Museu Egipci del Caire.

L'Egypt Exploration Society o EES (en català: Societat per a l'Exploració d'Egipte) va ser fundada el 1882 per l'escriptora anglesa Amelia Edwards[1] i l'arqueòleg anglès Reginald Stuart Poole[2][3] amb el nom d'Egypt Exploration Fund (en català: Fundació per a l'Exploració d'Egipte). Aquesta organització es va crear amb la finalitat d'examinar i excavar els jaciments del Sudan i d'Egipte. La intenció era estudiar i analitzar els resultats de les excavacions i publicar la informació per al món acadèmic.[4] La EES ha treballat en les excavacions i localitzacions egípcies més rellevants. Entre els descobriments que han fet destaquen un santuari dedicat a Hathor, una estàtua d'una vaca a Deir el-Bahari, el temple funerari de la reina Hatshepsut i un bust inacabat de Nefertiti a Amarna. The Society has made major contributions to the study of the ancient Egyptian world and many of their discoveries have allowed for other great discoveries.[5] The Society is based in London and is a registered charity under English law.[6]

Història[modifica]

Amelia Edwards a Amèrica, 1890

El 1873, l'escriptora anglesa Amelia Edwards was led to the sites of Egypt while encountering cold, wet climates in Europe. Ella i diversos amics seus van acabar viatjant pel riu Nil des del Caire fins a Abu Simbel. Edwards va enregistrar els fets i els descobriments d'aquest viatge i els va acabar publicant amb el nom de A Thousand Miles up the Nile el 1876, publicat en castellà amb el nom Mil millas Nilo arriba.[7] The book became well renowned for its description of the 19th century Egypt and the largely unexcavated antiques that she encountered. Edward's descriptions changed the world's perspective on both moderns and Ancient Egypt. This attracted the attention of both the scholarly society and the rest of the world. It ended up becoming a bestseller due to this increased interest, which prompted Edwards to think about continuing her studies of Ancient Egypt. In 1882, Amelia Edwards and Reginald Stuart Poole, an employee from the Department of Coins and Medals at the British Museum, decided to create the Egypt Exploration Fund as a way to raise funds for more excavations in the Delta, which had been noted as being rarely visited.[4] After announcing their intentions in The Times, they started off being funded by individuals such as the Archbishop of Canterbury. the poet Robert Browning and Sir Erasmus Wilson. Wilson, in particular, showed enough interest to pledge £500 to the Egypt Exploration Fund. This marked the start of the Egypt Exploration Society.[5]

Els inicis[modifica]

El primer excavador que va treballar per la Egypt Exploration Fund va ser n'Edouard Naville, un egiptòleg suís i estudiós de la Bíblia. El gener del 1883, Naville va partir cap a Tell el-Maskhuta. His goal was to find the route of the Biblical exodus as the Fund had decided to broaden its interests in order to appeal to a wider audience. Naville's work attracted much interest from the public and at the first General Meeting of the Fund, which happened on 3 July 1883, the society was seen to have a good amount of funds in its accounts. A copy of Naville's work was distributed to the subscribers of the Fund. Eventually the Fund decided to have the subscribers become members instead.[5]

La segona excavació[modifica]

Durant la segona excavació, la Fundació va enviar a l'egiptòleg anglès Flinders Petrie. Petrie va viatjar a Tanis, un jaciment relacionat amb la ciutat bíblica de Zoan. Petrie focussed much of his work on the ordinary dwellings of the site. This presented a new array of discoveries for the society. Petrie was among the first to understand that there was more than aesthetically appealing objects. Rather, he understood that many objects could provide information about the society of that time. He developed many techniques in which he could excavate and record the objects he found and his overall findings. At the end of his excavation, Petrie was able to bring back many valuable findings and items that he donated to the British Museum. The society became one of the first to provide scientifically excavated objects around Britain as well as overseas.[5]

La tercera excavació[modifica]

By the time of the third excavation, and the third year since the Fund was established, the society was able to send Edouard Naville, Flinders Petrie and Francis Llewellyn Griffith to Egypt. During this time and for the next few years, the Fund was able to bring back many findings, which resulted in the advancement of knowledge on Ancient Egypt. Some of the sites included the fortified camp and Tell Dafana and the temple of Bastet.[5]

Actualment[modifica]

El 1919, a finals de la Primera Guerra Mundial, l'Egypt Exploration Fund es va canviar el nom per l'actual d'Egypt Exploration Society.[8] Avui dia, l'EES continua publicant la revista anual, el Journal of Egyptian Archaeology (o JEA), amb articles d'especialistes, notícies sobre les últimes investigacions i excavacions, i ressenyes de llibres.[9] They also publish a newsletter bi-annually called Egyptian Archaeology.[10] La seu de l'Egypt Exploration Society és a Doughty Mews, Londres WC1N des del 1969.[11]

Vegeu també[modifica]

Referències[modifica]

  1. Amelia Edwards. Museu Petrie. (anglès)
  2. Reginald Stuart Poole. Dictionary of Art Historians. (anglès)
  3. Reginald Stuart Poole. Enciclopèdia Britànica. Edició del 1911. (anglès)
  4. 4,0 4,1 History. Egypt Exploration Society.(anglès)
  5. 5,0 5,1 5,2 5,3 5,4 http://www.world-archaeology.com/features/egypt-exploration-society-2/
  6. Plantilla:EW charity
  7. Amelia Edwards, Mil millas Nilo arriba, Ed. Alderaban, 2014, ISBN 978-84-95414-52-6 (castellà)
  8. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/bloomsbury-project/institutions/egypt_exploration.htm
  9. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Pàgina oficial de la EES, es poden consultar algunes de les darreres publicacions de la revista. (anglès)
  10. "http://www.ees.ac.uk/publications/index.html
  11. Mews News. Lurot Brand. Publicat la tardor del 2010. Consultat el 16 de setembre del 2013. (anglès)

Enllaços externs[modifica]