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Aquest article tracta sobre the ritualistic suicide practice. Si cerqueu the record company, vegeu «Self Immolation».


Aquest article tracta sobre the ritualistic suicide practice. Si cerqueu the record company, vegeu «Self Immolation».

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Thích Quảng Đức self-immolating in protest of persecution of Buddhists.

Self-immolation refers to setting oneself on fire, often as a form of protest or for the purposes of martyrdom or suicide. It has centuries-long traditions in some cultures, while in modern times it has become a type of radical political protest. Michael Biggs compiled a list of 533 "self-immolations" reported by Western media from the 1960s to 2002, though in this work his definition is generalized to any intentional suicide "on behalf of a collective cause."[1]

Thích Quảng Đức self-immolating En protesta de persecució de Budistes.

Self-immolation refereix a posar oneself en foc, sovint com a forma de protesta o pels propòsits de Martiri o suïcidi. Té segles-tradicions llargues en algunes cultures, mentre en temps moderns ha esdevingut un tipus de protesta política radical. Michael Biggs va compilar una llista de 533 "self-immolations" informat per mitjans de comunicació Occidentals del 1960s a 2002, tanmateix en aquesta feina la seva definició és generalitzada a qualsevol intencionat Suïcidi "en nom d'una causa col·lectiva." [1]

Etymology[modifica]

The English word immolation originally meant (1534) "killing a sacrificial victim; sacrifice" and came to figuratively mean (1690) "destruction, especially by fire." Its etymology was from Latin immolare "to sprinkle with sacrificial meal (mola salsa); to sacrifice" in ancient Roman religion. Self-immolation "setting oneself on fire, especially as a form of protest" was first recorded in Lady Morgan's (1817) France.[2][3]

Etimologia[modifica]

La paraula anglesa immolation al principi significat (1534) "matant un sacrificial víctima; sacrifici" i va venir a figuratively roí (1690) "destrucció, especialment per foc." La seva etimologia era de Llatí immolare "a sprinkle amb sacrificial àpat ( mola salsa ); per sacrificar" en Religió Romana antiga . Self-immolation "posant oneself en foc, especialment com a la forma de protesta" era primer enregistrat en Senyora Morgan és (1817) França. [4] [5]

It was Western media coverage of Buddhist monk Thich Quang Duc immolating himself in protest of the Vietnamese Ngo Dinh Diem regime in 1963 that introduced the word "self-immolation" to a wide English-speaking audience and gave it a strong association with fire.[6][7] The alternative name bonzo comes from the same era, because the Buddhist monks who immolated themselves were often referred to by the term bonze in English literature before the mid-20th century, particularly when describing monks from East Asia and French Indochina. This term is derived via French from the Japanese word bōzu (坊主) for a priest or monk, and has become less common in modern literature.[8]

Era cobertura de mitjans de comunicació Occidentals de monjo budista Thich Quang Duc immolating ell en protesta del vietnamita Ngo Dinh Diem règim en 1963 que va introduir la paraula "self-immolation" a un ample audiència que parla anglesa i el va donar una associació forta amb foc.[9][10][nt 3] </ref> El nom alternatiu bonzo ve de la mateixa era, perquè el Monjos budistes qui immolated ells era sovint referred a per el terme bonze en literatura anglesa abans del mid-20è segle, particularment quan descrivint monjos d'Àsia De l'est i francès Indochina. Aquest terme és derivat via francès de la paraula japonesa bōzu (坊主) per un sacerdot o monjo, i ha esdevingut menys comú en literatura moderna. [11]

History[modifica]

Self-immolation is tolerated by some elements of Mahayana Buddhism and Hinduism, and it has been practiced for many centuries, especially in India, for various reasons, including Sati, political protest, devotion, and renouncement. Certain warrior cultures, such as in the Charans and Rajputs, also practiced self-immolation.

The self-immolation (jauhar) of the Rajput women, during the siege of Chittorgarh in 1568

Història[modifica]

Self-immolation és tolerat per alguns elements de Mahayana Budisme i Hinduisme, i ha estat practicat per molts segles, especialment en Índia, per diverses raons, incloent Sati, protesta política, devoció, i renouncement. Cultures de guerrer segur, com en el Charan s i Rajput s, també practicat self-immolation.

El self-immolation (jauhar) del Rajput dones, durant el Setge de Chittorgarh en 1568

Two well-known Jataka tales, Buddhist myths about previous incarnations of the Buddha, concern self-immolation. In the "Hungry Tigress" Jataka, Prince Sattva looked down from a cliff and saw a starving tigress that was going to eat her newborn cubs, and compassionately sacrificed his body in order to feed the tigers and spare their lives. In the "Sibi Jataka", King Śibi or Shibi was renowned for unselfishness, and the Hindu gods Śakra and Vishvakarman tested him by transforming into a hawk and a dove. The dove fell on the king's lap while trying to escape the hawk, and sought refuge. Rather than surrender the dove, Śibi offered his own flesh equivalent in weight to the dove, and the hawk agreed. They had rigged the balance scale, and King Śibi continued cutting off his flesh until half his body was gone, when the gods revealed themselves, restored his body, and blessed him.

Dos bé-sabut Jataka Contes , mites budistes sobre anterior incarnations del Buddha, preocupació self-immolation. En el "Afamat Tigress" Jataka, Príncep Sattva mirava avall d'un penya-segat i va veure un starving tigress que anava a menjar el seu nadó cubs, i compassionately va sacrificar el seu cos per tal d'alimentar els tigres i estalviar les seves vides. En el " Sibi Jataka ", Rei Śibi o Shibi era renowned per unselfishness, i el Hindu déus Śakra i Vishvakarman li va provar per transformar a un hawk i un dove. El dove va caure en el rei és lapidar mentre intentant fugir el hawk, i va buscar refuge. Més que rendició el dove, Śibi va oferir el seu equivalent de carn propi en pes al dove, i el hawk va acordar. Van haver rigged l'escala d'equilibri, i Rei Śibi va continuar tallar de la seva carn fins a mig el seu cos va ser anat, quan els déus es van revelar, va restaurar el seu cos, i li va beneir.

The Buddhist god of healing, the "Medicine King" or "Medicine Buddha" (Bhaisajyaguru) was associated with auto-cremation. The Lotus Sutra describes the Medicine King drinking scented oils, wrapping his body in an oil-soaked cloth, and burning himself as an offering to the Buddha. His body flamed for 1,200 years, he was reincarnated, burned off his forearms for 72,000 years, which enabled many to achieve enlightenment, and his arms were miraculously restored.

El déu budista de healing, el "Rei de Medicina" o "Medicina Buddha" ( Bhaisajyaguru ) va ser associat amb cotxe-cremació. El Lotus Sutra descriu el Rei de Medicina que beu scented olis, embolicant el seu cos en un oli-tela remullada, i cremant ell com a oferir al Buddha. El seu cos flamed per 1,200 anys, era reincarnated, cremat dels seus avantbraços per 72,000 anys, el qual va habilitar molts per aconseguir enlightenment, i les seves armes eren miraculosament va restaurar.

Zarmanochegas was a monk of the Sramana tradition (possibly, but not necessarily a Buddhist) who, according to ancient historians such as Strabo and Dio Cassius, met Nicholas of Damascus in Antioch around 13 AD and burnt himself to death in Athens shortly thereafter.[12][13]

Zarmanochegas era un monjo del Sramana tradició (possiblement, però no necessàriament un budista) que, segons historiadors antics com Strabo i Dio Cassius, va conèixer Nicholas de Damasc en Antioch al voltant de 13 ANUNCI i es va cremar a mort en Atenes en breu després. [14] [15]

Self-immolation has a long history in Chinese Buddhism. The relevant Chinese terms are: wangshen 亡身 "lose the body" or 忘身 "forget the body", yishen 遺身 "abandon the body", and sheshen 捨身 "give up the body". James A. Benn explains the semantic range of Chinese Buddhist self-immolation.

But "abandoning the body" also covers a broad range of more extreme acts (not all of which necessarily result in death): feeding one's body to insects; slicing off one's flesh; burning one's fingers or arms; burning incense on the skin; starving, slicing, or drowning oneself; leaping from cliffs or trees; feeding one's body to wild animals; self-mummification (preparing for death so that the resulting corpse is impervious to decay); and of course, auto-cremation.[16]

Self-immolation Té una història llarga en Budisme xinès . El pertinent Xinès termes són: wangshen 亡身 "perdre el cos" o 忘身 "oblidar el cos", yishen 遺身 "abandonar el cos", i sheshen 捨身 "deixar el cos". James Un. Benn Explica la gamma semàntica de budista xinès self-immolation.

Però "abandonant el cos" també cobreix una gamma ampla d'actes més extrems (no tot del qual necessàriament resultat en mort): alimentant un és cos a insectes; slicing d'un carn; cremant un és dits o armes; encens ardent en la pell; starving, slicing, o ofegant-se oneself; saltant de penya-segats o arbres; alimentant un és cos a animals salvatges; self-momificació (preparant per mort de manera que el cadàver de resultar és impervious a decadència); i naturalment, cotxe-cremació. [17]

The monk Fayu 法羽 (d. 396) carried out the earliest recorded Chinese self-immolation.[18] He first informed the "illegitimate" prince Yao Xu 姚緒 – brother of Yao Chang who founded the non-Chinese Qiang state Later Qin (384-417) – that he intended to burn himself alive. Yao tried to dissuade Fayu, but he publically swallowed incense chips, wrapped his body in oiled cloth, and chanted while setting fire to himself. The religious and lay witnesses were described as being "full of grief and admiration."

El monjo Fayu 法羽 (d. 396) va dur a terme el més primerenc enregistrat xinès self-immolation. [19] Ell primer informat el "príncep" il·legítim Yao Xu 姚緒 – germà de Yao Chang qui va fundar el no-xinès Qiang estatal Més tardà Qin (384-417) – que es va pretendre cremar viu. Yao Provat a dissuade Fayu, però ell publically xips d'encens empassat, va embolicar el seu cos en oiled tela, i chanted mentre calant foc a ell. El religiós i posar els testimonis van ser descrits com ser "ple de grief i admiració."

Following Fayu's example, many Buddhist monks and nuns have used self-immolation for political purposes. Based upon analysis of Chinese historical records from the 4th to the 20th centuries, Benn discovered, "Although some monks did offer their bodies in periods of relative prosperity and peace, we have seen a marked coincidence between acts of self-immolation and times of crisis, especially when secular powers were hostile towards Buddhism."[20] For example, Daoxuan's (c. 667) Xu gaoseng zhuan 續高僧傳 "Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks" records five monastics who self-immolated on the Zhongnan Mountains in response to the 574-577 persecution of Buddhism by Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou (known as the "Second Disaster of Wu").[21]

Següent Fayu exemple, molts monjos budistes i nuns ha utilitzat self-immolation per propòsits polítics. Basat a anàlisi de rècords històrics xinesos del 4t als 20ns segles, Benn descobert, "Tot i que alguns monjos van oferir els seus cossos en períodes de pau i prosperitat relativa, hem vist una coincidència marcada entre actes de self-immolation i temps de crisi, especialment quan els poders seculars eren hostils cap a budisme." [20] Per exemple, Daoxuan és (c. 667) Xu gaoseng zhuan 續高僧傳 "les Biografies Continuades de Monjos Eminents" enregistra cinc monastics que self-immolated en el Zhongnan Muntanyes en resposta al 574-577 persecució de budisme per Emperor Wu De Del nord Zhou (sabut com el " Segon Desastre de Wu "). [22]

While self-immolation practices in China were based upon Indian Buddhist traditions, they acquired some distinctively Chinese aspects. An "unburned tongue" (cf. Anthony of Padua), which supposedly remained pink and moist owing to self-immolation while chanting the Lotus Sutra, was based on the belief in Śarīra "Buddhist relics; purportedly from a master's remains after cremation".[23] "Burning off fingers" was a kind of gradual self-immolation, often in commemoration of relics or textual recitations. The Tang Dynasty monk Wuran 無染 (d. c. 840) had a spiritual vision in which Manjusri told him to support the Buddhist community on Mount Wutai. After organizing meals for one million monks, Wuran burned off a finger in sacrifice, and eventually after ten million meals, had burned off all his fingers.[24] Xichen 息塵 (d. c. 937; with two fingers left) became a favorite of Emperor Gaozu of Later Jin for practicing finger burning to memorialize sutra recitions.[25] "Buddhist mummies" refers to monks and nuns who practiced self-mummification through extreme self-mortification, for instance, Daoxiu 道休 (d. 629).[26] "Spontaneous human combustion" was a rare form of self-immolation that Buddhists associated with samādhi "consciously leaving one's body at the time of enlightenment". The monk Ningyi 寧義 (d. 1583) stacked up firewood to burn himself, but, "As soon the torch was raised, his body started to burn 'like a rotten root' and was soon completely consumed. A wise person declared, 'He has entered the fiery samādhi." [27]

Mentre self-immolation les pràctiques en Xina van ser basades a tradicions budistes índies, van adquirir algun distinctively aspectes xinesos. Un "unburned llengua" (cf. Anthony de Padua ), el qual presumptament quedat rosa i moist per causa de self-immolation mentre chanting el Lotus Sutra, va ser basat en la creença en Śarīra "budista relics; suposadament de les restes d'un mestre després de cremació". [28] "Cremant dels dits" era una classe de gradual self-immolation, sovint en commemoration de relics o textual recitations. El Tang monjo de Dinastia Wuran 無染 (d. c. 840) va tenir una visió espiritual en el qual Manjusri li va dir per donar suport la comunitat budista en Mont Wutai . Després d'organitzar àpats per un milió de monjos, Wuran cremat d'un dit en sacrifici, i finalment després de deu milions d'àpats, havia cremat de tots els seus dits. [29] Xichen 息塵 (d. c. 937; amb dos dits deixats) esdevenia un favorit de Emperor Gaozu De més Tardà Jin per practicar el dit que crema a memorialize sutra recitions. [30] " Mòmies budistes " refereix a monjos i nuns que van practicar self-momificació a través d'extrem self-mortification, per exemple, Daoxiu 道休 (d. 629). [31] " Combustió humana espontània " era una forma rara de self-immolation que els budistes van associar amb samādhi "conscientment deixant un és cos al temps de enlightenment". El monjo Ningyi 寧義 (d. 1583) stacked cap amunt de llenya per cremar ell, però, "Mentre aviat el torch va ser aixecat, el seu cos començat per cremar 'com un rotten arrel' i era aviat completament va consumir. Una persona assenyada va declarar, 'ha entrat al fiery samādhi." [32]

A Hindu widow burning herself with the corpse of her husband, 1657

James A. Benn concludes that, "for many monks and laypeople in Chinese history, self-immolation was a form of Buddhist practice that modeled and expressed a particular bodily or somatic path that led towards Buddhahood."[20]

Un Hindu widow cremant ella amb el cadàver del seu marit, 1657

James Un. Benn Conclou que, "per molts monjos i laypeople en història xinesa, self-immolation era una forma de pràctica budista que modeled i va expressar un particular bodily o somatic camí que va dirigir cap a Buddhahood." [20]

Jan Yun-Hua explains the medieval Chinese Buddhist precedents for self-immolation.[33]

Jan Yun-Hua explica els precedents budistes xinesos medievals per self-immolation. [33]


Wikiquote A Viquidites hi ha citacions, dites populars i frases fetes relatives a [[Q:Relying exclusively on authoritative Chinese Buddhist texts and, through the use of these texts, interpreting such acts exclusively in terms of doctrines and beliefs (e.g., self-immolation, much like an extreme renunciant might abstain from food until dying, could be an example of disdain for the body in favor of the life of the mind and wisdom) rather than in terms of their socio-political and historical context, the article allows its readers to interpret these deaths as acts that refer only to a distinct set of beliefs that happen to be foreign to the non-Buddhist.[33]|Anskarbot/Traduccions/Self-immolation]]
« Relying exclusively on authoritative Chinese Buddhist texts and, through the use of these texts, interpreting such acts exclusively in terms of doctrines and beliefs (e.g., self-immolation, much like an extreme renunciant might abstain from food until dying, could be an example of disdain for the body in favor of the life of the mind and wisdom) rather than in terms of their socio-political and historical context, the article allows its readers to interpret these deaths as acts that refer only to a distinct set of beliefs that happen to be foreign to the non-Buddhist.[33] »

Jimmy Yu has shown that self-immolation cannot be interpreted based on Buddhist doctrine and beliefs alone but the practice must be understood in the larger context of the Chinese religious landscape. He examines many primary sources from the 16th and 17th century and demonstrates that bodily practices of self-inflicted violence, including self-immolation, was ritually performed not only by Buddhists but also by Daoists and literati officials who either exposed their naked body to the sun in a prolonged period of time as a form of self-sacrifice or burned themselves as a method of procuring rain [34] In other words, self-immolation was a sanctioned part of Chinese culture that was public, scripted, and intelligible both to the person doing the act and to those who viewed and interpreted it, regardless of their various religion affiliations.

Jimmy Yu Ha mostrat que self-immolation no pot ser va interpretar basat en creences i doctrina budista sol però la pràctica ha de ser entesa en el context més gran del paisatge religiós xinès. Examina moltes fonts primàries del 16è i 17è segle i demostra que bodily pràctiques de self-violència infligida, incloent self-immolation, era ritually va actuar no només per budistes però també per Daoists i literati oficials que tampoc exposat el seu cos despullat al sol en un prolonged període de temps com a forma de self-sacrifici o cremat ells com a mètode de procuring pluja [35] En altres paraules, self-immolation era una part sancionada de cultura xinesa que era públic, scripted, i intel·ligible tant a la persona que fa l'acte i als qui van veure i el va interpretar, malgrat tot de la seva diverses religió affiliations.

During the Great Schism of the Russian Church, entire villages of Old Believers burned themselves to death in an act known as "fire baptism".[36] Scattered instances of self-immolation have also been recorded by the Jesuit priests of France in the early 17th century.[cal citació] However, their practice of this was not intended to be fatal: they would burn certain parts of their bodies (limbs such as the forearm or the thigh) to symbolise the pain Jesus endured while upon the cross.[cal citació] A 1973 study by a prison doctor suggested that people who choose self-immolation as a form of suicide are more likely to be in a "disturbed state of consciousness", such as epilepsy.[37]

Durant el Gran Schism de l'Església russa, pobles sencers de Creients vells els va cremar a mort en un acte sabut com "baptisme de foc". [38] casos Escampats de self-immolation també ha estat enregistrat pel Jesuit sacerdots de França en el primerenc 17è segle.[cal citació] Tanmateix, la seva pràctica d'això no va ser pretès per ser fatal: cremarien parts segures dels seus cossos ( limbs com l'avantbraç o el thigh) a symbolise el dolor Jesús endured mentre al Creu.[cal citació] Un 1973 estudi per un doctor de presó va suggerir que persones que escullen self-immolation com a la forma de suïcidi és més probablement per ser en un "estat destorbat de consciència", com Epilèpsia . [37]

In her article "Can the Subaltern Speak?", philosopher Gayatri Spivak discusses how self-immolation is a way Hindu law regulated women in pre-colonial India. According to Spivak, the necessity to commit self-immolation imprisons women in a double bind in colonial and postcolonial India.[39] In Spivak's postcolonial framework, the woman who commits self-immolation takes the form of the subaltern.

En el seu article " Pot el Subaltern Parla? ", filòsof Gayatri Spivak parla que self-immolation és una manera Hindu llei dones regulades en pre-colonial Índia . Segons Spivak, el necessity per cometre self-immolation empresona dones en un Doble lliga en Colonial i postcolonial Índia. [39] En Spivak postcolonial marc, la dona que comet self-immolation agafa la forma del subaltern .

Political protest[modifica]

Vegeu també: List of political self-immolations

A number of Buddhist monks (including the most famous case of Thích Quảng Đức) immolated themselves in protest of the discriminatory treatment endured by Buddhists under the Roman Catholic administration of President Ngô Đình Diệm in South Vietnam — even though violence against oneself is prohibited by most interpretations of Buddhist doctrine. The twenty-third chapter of the Lotus Sutra recounts the life story of the Bodhisattva Medicine King, which served as the main inspiration for the monks and nuns who self-immolated. In the Sutra, the Medicine King demonstrates his insight into the selfless nature of his body by ritualistically setting his body aflame, spreading the "light of the Dharma" for twelve hundred years. Thich Nhat Hanh adds: "The bodhisattva shone his light about him so that everyone could see as he could see, giving them the opportunity to see the deathless nature of the ultimate."[40]

Protesta política[modifica]

Vegeu també: List of political self-immolations

Un número de monjos budistes (incloent-hi el cas més famós de Thích Quảng Đức ) immolated ells en protesta del tractament discriminatori endured per budistes sota l'administració catòlica Romana de President Ngô Đình Diệm en Vietnam del sud — fins i tot encara que violència contra oneself és prohibited per la majoria d'interpretacions de doctrina budista. El vint-tercer capítol del Lotus Sutra recounts la història de vida del Bodhisattva Rei de medicina, el qual va servir com la inspiració principal pels monjos i nuns que self-immolated. En el Sutra, el Rei de Medicina demostra la seva idea al Desinteressat naturalesa del seu cos per ritualistically posant el seu cos aflame, estenent la "llum del Dharma" per mil dos-cents anys. Thich Nhat Hanh afegeix: "El bodhisattva shone la seva llum sobre ell de manera que tothom podria veure mentre podria veure, donant-los l'oportunitat de veure el deathless naturalesa del definitiu." [41]

The widespread coverage of the self-immolations of the Buddhist monks in western media established the practice as a type of a political protest. Self-immolations are often public, dramatic, political, and thus newsworthy. They can be seen as a type of altruistic suicides for the collective cause. Unlike suicide attacks, self-immolations are not intended to inflict physical harm or material damage.[1] They attract attention and become glorified as martyrdom, because of the perception of great pain, but they do not guarantee death for the burned. While the burning of vital tissue can be very painful during self-immolation, shock or asphyxiation quickly make the event painless,[37] as do the onset of third-degree burns which destroy the nerve endings. Suicides by self-immolation have led to numerous copycat suicides: researchers have counted almost 100 self-immolations covered by the New York Times and The Times between 1963 and 1971.[42] Most of these suicides occurred in the United States protesting the Vietnam War and Asia. In 1968 the practice spread to the Soviet bloc with self-immolation of Polish accountant and Armia Krajowa veteran Ryszard Siwiec, as well as that of Czech student Jan Palach. As a protest against a Soviet rule in Lithuania, 19-year-old Romas Kalanta set himself on fire in Kaunas. Non-political suicides by fire also became more prevalent.

La cobertura estesa del self-immolations dels monjos budistes en mitjans de comunicació occidentals van establir la pràctica com a tipus d'una protesta política. Self-immolations És sovint públic, dramàtic, polític, i per això newsworthy. Poden ser vists com a tipus de Suïcidi altruista s per la causa col·lectiva. Diferent Atac de suïcidi s, self-immolations no és pretès per infligir mal físic o dany material. [1] atreuen atenció i esdevenir glorified tan Martiri, a causa de la percepció de dolor gran, però no garanteixen mort pel cremat. Mentre l'ardent del teixit vital pot ser molt dolorós durant self-immolation, xoc o asphyxiation de pressa fer l'esdeveniment indolor, [37] mentre fer el onset de Tercer-cremades de grau quins destrueixen el Final de nervi s. Suïcidis per self-immolation ha portat a nombrós copycat Suïcidi s: els investigadors han comptat gairebé 100 self-immolations cobert pel Temps de Nova York i Els Temps entre 1963 i 1971. [43] La majoria d'aquests suïcidis van ocórrer en els Estats Units que protesten el Guerra de Vietnam i Àsia. En 1968 la pràctica estesa al Soviètic bloc amb self-immolation de comptable polonès i Armia Krajowa veterà Ryszard Siwiec, així com que de Czech estudiant Jan Palach . Com a protesta contra una regla soviètica en Lituània, de 19 anys Romas Kalanta posat ell en foc en Kaunas . Suïcidis no polítics pel foc també esdevenia més prevalent.

The practice continues with India leading – as many as 1,451 and 1,584 self-immolations have been reported in 2000 and 2001, respectively.[44] A particularly high wave of self-immolations in India has been recorded in 1990 protesting the Reservation in India.[1]Tamil Nadu has the highest number of self-immolations in India till date.It is considered to be the capital of Self-immolation in India

La pràctica Continua amb Índia davantera – mentre molts com 1,451 i 1,584 self-immolations ha estat informat en 2000 i 2001, respectivament. [45] Una ona particularment alta de self-immolations en Índia ha estat enregistrada en 1990 protestant el Reserva en Índia . [1] Tamil Nadu té el número més alt de self-immolations en Índia till data.És considerat per ser la capital de Self-immolation en Índia

Since 2009, at least 94 [46] Tibetans have self-immolated, more than 40 have died [47][48][49] in parts of China since 2011.[50] [51] [52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61] The Dalai Lama has said he does not encourage the protests, but he has praised the courage of those who engage in self-immolation. However, the Chinese government claims that he and the Tibetan exiled government are inciting these acts.[62]

Des de 2009, com a mínim 94 [63] Tibetans Ha self-immolated, més de 40 ha mort [64][65][nt 4][66][nt 5] en parts de Xina des de 2011.[67][68][69][nt 6][70][71][nt 7][72][nt 8][73][nt 9][74][75][76][77][78] El Dalai Lama ha dit no anima les protestes, però ha elogiat el valor dels qui comprometen en self-immolation. Tanmateix, les reclamacions de govern xineses que ell i el Tibetan va exiliar el govern està incitant aquests actes.[79][nt 10]

A wave of self-immolation protests occurred in conjunction with the Arab Spring protests in the Middle East and North Africa, with at least 14 recorded incidents. These actions helped inspire the Arab Spring, including the 2010–2011 Tunisian revolution, the main catalyst of which was the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi, the 2011 Algerian protests (including many self-immolations in Algeria), and the 2011 Egyptian revolution. There have also been self-immolation protests in Saudi Arabia, Mauritania, and Syria.[80][81]

Una ona de self-immolation les protestes van ocórrer conjuntament amb el Primavera àrab protestes en el Orient Mitjà i Àfrica Del nord, amb com a mínim 14 incidents enregistrats. Aquestes accions van ajudar inspirar el Primavera àrab, incloent el 2010–2011 Tunisian revolució, el catalitzador principal del qual era el self-immolation de Mohamed Bouazizi, el 2011 protestes argelines (incloent-hi molts self-immolations En Algèria ), i el 2011 revolució egípcia . també hi ha hagut self-immolation protestes en Aràbia Saudita, Mauritània, i Síria.[82] [83]

References[modifica]

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 Biggs, Michael. «Dying Without Killing: Self-Immolations, 1963–2002». A: Diego Gambetta. Making Sense of Suicide Missions. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-19-929797-9.  Error de citació: Etiqueta <ref> no vàlida; el nom «biggs» està definit diverses vegades amb contingut diferent.
  2. The Oxford English Dictionary, 2009, 2nd ed., v. 4.0, Oxford University Press.
  3. immolate, Oxford Dictionaries.
  4. L'Oxford Diccionari anglès, 2009, 2n ed., v. 4.0, Oxford Premsa Universitària.
  5. http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/immolate immolate], Diccionaris d'Oxford.
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  8. Dictionary.com: bonze
  9. Error en el títol o la url.«».
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  11. http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=bonze Diccionari.com: bonze]
  12. Strabo, xv, 1, on the immolation of the Sramana in Athens (Paragraph 73).
  13. Dio Cassius, liv, 9.
  14. Strabo, xv, 1, En el immolation del Sramana en Atenes (Paràgraf 73) .
  15. Dio Cassius, liv, 9 .
  16. Benn, James A. (2007), Burning for the Buddha: self-immolation in Chinese Buddhism, University of Hawaii Press, 9-10.
  17. Benn, James Un. (2007), Ardent pel Buddha: self-immolation en budisme xinès, Universitat de Premsa d'Hawaii, 9-10.
  18. Benn (2007), 33-34.
  19. Benn (2007), 33-34.
  20. 20,0 20,1 20,2 20,3 (2007), 199.
  21. Benn (2007), 80-82.
  22. Benn (2007), 80-82.
  23. Benn (2007), 144-147.
  24. Benn (2007), 135-6.
  25. Benn (2007), 149-150.
  26. Benn (2007), 97.
  27. Benn (2007), 179.
  28. Benn (2007), 144-147.
  29. Benn (2007), 135-6.
  30. Benn (2007), 149-150.
  31. Benn (2007), 97.
  32. Benn (2007), 179.
  33. 33,0 33,1 33,2 33,3 thichnhattu. «The Self-Immolation of Thich Quang Duc». Buddhismtoday.com. [Consulta: 15 març 2012]. Error de citació: Etiqueta <ref> no vàlida; el nom «jan» està definit diverses vegades amb contingut diferent.
  34. Yu, Jimmy (2012), Sanctity and Self-Inflicted Violence in Chinese Religions, 1500-1700, Oxford University Press, 115-130.
  35. Yu, Jimmy (2012), Sanctity I Self-Violència Infligida en Religions xineses, 1500-1700, Oxford Premsa Universitària, 115-130.
  36. Coleman, Loren. The Copycat Effect: How the Media and Popular Culture Trigger the Mayhem in Tomorrow's Headlines. New York: Paraview Pocket-Simon and Schuster, 2004, p. 46. ISBN 0-7434-8223-9. 
  37. 37,0 37,1 37,2 37,3 Prins, Herschel. Offenders, Deviants or Patients?: Explorations in Clinical Criminology. Taylor & Francis, 2010, p. 291.  Error de citació: Etiqueta <ref> no vàlida; el nom «Prins» està definit diverses vegades amb contingut diferent.
  38. . ISBN 0-7434-8223-9. 
  39. 39,0 39,1 Sharp, J. «Chapter 6, Can the Subaltern Speak?». A: Geographies of Postcolonialism. SAGE Publications, 2008.  Error de citació: Etiqueta <ref> no vàlida; el nom «sharp6» està definit diverses vegades amb contingut diferent.
  40. Nhá̂t Hạnh. (2003). Opening the heart of the cosmos: Insights on the Lotus Sutra. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press. p. 144.
  41. Nhá̂t Hạnh. (2003). Obrint el cor del cosmos: Idees en el Lotus Sutra. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Premsa. p. 144.
  42. Maris, Ronald W.; Alan Lee Berman, Morton M. Silverman, Bruce Michael Bongar. Comprehensive textbook of suicidology. Guilford Press, 2000, p. 306. ISBN 978-1-57230-541-0. 
  43. . ISBN 978-1-57230-541-0. 
  44. Coleman, Loren. The Copycat Effect: How the Media and Popular Culture Trigger the Mayhem in Tomorrow's Headlines. New York: Paraview Pocket-Simon and Schuster, 2004, p. 66. ISBN 0-7434-8223-9. 
  45. . ISBN 0-7434-8223-9. 
  46. http://www.phayul.com/news/article.aspx?id=32626&t=1
  47. Hundreds Tibetans expelled from Lhasa: Human Rights Watch, The Central News Agency of Taiwan, 2012/06/20
  48. Jacobs, Andrew «China: Tibetan Dies in Protest Fire». The New York Times, 15-06-2012.
  49. «Teenage Tibetan monk dies after setting himself on fire in China». The Guardian [London], 18-07-2012.
  50. «China's Tibetan Buddhists 'in vicious cycle'». Sinodaily.com. [Consulta: 15 març 2012].
  51. http://www.rfa.org/english/news/tibet/dies-07312012145644.html
  52. Johnson, Ian «China: A Ranking Monk's Protest Suicide». The New York Times, 17-02-2012.
  53. [1][Enllaç no actiu]
  54. Reuters in Beijing «Tibetan woman dies after setting herself on fire in protest at Chinese rule | World news | guardian.co.uk». The Guardian [UK], 04-03-2012 [Consulta: 15 març 2012].
  55. 7:04 am GMT 6 Mar 2012 «Tibetan teenager becomes third person to self-immolate in three days». Telegraph [London], 06-03-2012 [Consulta: 15 març 2012].
  56. 6:27 am GMT 13 Mar 2012 «Teenage monk sets himself on fire on 53rd anniversary of failed Tibetan uprising». Telegraph [London], 13-03-2012 [Consulta: 15 març 2012].
  57. «AFP: Tibetan immolation prompts big gathering: groups». Google, 17-03-2012. [Consulta: 29 març 2012].
  58. Another Tibetan Monk Dies in Self-Immolation
  59. Kirti Monk Self-Immolates, Dies
  60. Self-immolations reflect rising Tibetan anger, Washington Post, April 2, 2012, Central Tibetan Administration
  61. http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/china-news/two-tibetans-die-in-self-immolation-in-western-china-276242.html/
  62. 6:27 am GMT 13 Mar 2012 «Teenage monk sets himself on fire on 53rd anniversary of failed Tibetan uprising». Telegraph [London], 13-03-2012 [Consulta: 29 març 2012].
  63. http://www.phayul.com/article/de notícia.aspx?id=32626&t=1
  64. Centenars Tibetans expulsat de Lhasa: Rellotge de Drets Humans, L'Agència de Notícia Central de Taiwan, 2012/06/20
  65. Jacobs, Andrew «China: Tibetan Dies in Protest Fire». The New York Times, 15-06-2012.
  66. «Teenage Tibetan monk dies after setting himself on fire in China». The Guardian [London], 18-07-2012.
  67. Error en el títol o la url.«».
  68. http://www.rfa.org/english/notícia/tibet/mor-07312012145644.html
  69. Johnson, Ian «China: A Ranking Monk's Protest Suicide». The New York Times, 17-02-2012.
  70. [2] [Enllaç no actiu]
  71. Reuters in Beijing «Tibetan woman dies after setting herself on fire in protest at Chinese rule | World news | guardian.co.uk». The Guardian [UK], 04-03-2012 [Consulta: 15 març 2012].
  72. 7:04 am GMT 6 Mar 2012 «Tibetan teenager becomes third person to self-immolate in three days». Telegraph [London], 06-03-2012 [Consulta: 15 març 2012].
  73. 6:27 am GMT 13 Mar 2012 «Teenage monk sets himself on fire on 53rd anniversary of failed Tibetan uprising». Telegraph [London], 13-03-2012 [Consulta: 15 març 2012].
  74. Error en el títol o la url.«».
  75. Un altre Tibetan el Monjo Mor en Self-Immolation
  76. Kirti Monjo Self-Immolates, Mor
  77. Self-immolations Reflecteix augmentar Tibetan ràbia, Correu de Washington, abril 2, 2012, Central Tibetan Administració
  78. http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/porcellana-notícia/dos-tibetans-dau-dins-self-immolation-dins-occidental-porcellana-276242.html/
  79. 6:27 am GMT 13 Mar 2012 «Teenage monk sets himself on fire on 53rd anniversary of failed Tibetan uprising». Telegraph [London], 13-03-2012 [Consulta: 29 març 2012].
  80. «Self-immolation spreads across Mideast inspiring protest».
  81. «Second Algerian dies from self-immolation: official».
  82. Error en el títol o la url.«».
  83. Error en el títol o la url.«».

Referències[modifica]


{{Aquesta és la plantilla d'ordenaci}

Categoria:tàctica de Protesta 
Categoria:desobediència Civil 
Categoria:experiència i comportament Religiós 
Categoria:mètodes de Suïcidi

ca:Immolació

ar:حرق النفس

ca:Immolació 
cs:Sebeupálení 
cy:Hunanlosgi 
de:Selbstverbrennung 
es:Quemarse Un vet aquí bonzo 
eo:Sinbruligo 
fr:Cotxe-immolation 
Ell:הצתה עצמית 
lt:Susideginimas 
nl:Zelfverbranding 
ja:焼身自殺 
No:Selvpåtenning 
pl:Samospalenie (forma samobójstwa) 
pt:Autoimolação 
ru:Самосожжение 
fi:Polttoitsemurha 
sv:Självförbränning 
ta:தீக்குளிப்பு 
uk:Самоспалення 
vi:Tự thiêu 
zh:自焚 


Notes de traducció[modifica]

  1. La plantilla no existeix en català, o almenys, no s'ha pogut trobar automàticament. En cas que trobeu la corresponent plantilla ja traduda poseu-hi l'enllaç interviqui per poder trobar-la en següents traduccions.
  2. La plantilla no existeix en català, o almenys, no s'ha pogut trobar automàticament. En cas que trobeu la corresponent plantilla ja traduda poseu-hi l'enllaç interviqui per poder trobar-la en següents traduccions.
  3. La plantilla no existeix en català, o almenys, no s'ha pogut trobar automàticament. En cas que trobeu la corresponent plantilla ja traduïda poseu-hi l'enllaç interviqui per poder trobar-la en següents traduccions.
  4. La plantilla no existeix en català, o almenys, no s'ha pogut trobar automàticament. En cas que trobeu la corresponent plantilla ja traduda poseu-hi l'enllaç interviqui per poder trobar-la en següents traduccions.
  5. La plantilla no existeix en català, o almenys, no s'ha pogut trobar automàticament. En cas que trobeu la corresponent plantilla ja traduda poseu-hi l'enllaç interviqui per poder trobar-la en següents traduccions.
  6. La plantilla no existeix en català, o almenys, no s'ha pogut trobar automàticament. En cas que trobeu la corresponent plantilla ja traduda poseu-hi l'enllaç interviqui per poder trobar-la en següents traduccions.
  7. La plantilla no existeix en català, o almenys, no s'ha pogut trobar automàticament. En cas que trobeu la corresponent plantilla ja traduda poseu-hi l'enllaç interviqui per poder trobar-la en següents traduccions.
  8. La plantilla no existeix en català, o almenys, no s'ha pogut trobar automàticament. En cas que trobeu la corresponent plantilla ja traduda poseu-hi l'enllaç interviqui per poder trobar-la en següents traduccions.
  9. La plantilla no existeix en català, o almenys, no s'ha pogut trobar automàticament. En cas que trobeu la corresponent plantilla ja traduda poseu-hi l'enllaç interviqui per poder trobar-la en següents traduccions.
  10. La plantilla no existeix en català, o almenys, no s'ha pogut trobar automàticament. En cas que trobeu la corresponent plantilla ja traduda poseu-hi l'enllaç interviqui per poder trobar-la en següents traduccions.