De Viquipèdia
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Jocs de color per a metacaixes[modifica]


Proves de metacaixa[modifica]

Nuvola apps kuickshow.png 1 d'abril
 2 d'abril
2 d'abril:

Haile Selassie

Dies recents: 1 d'abril31 de març30 de març

Directori comprimit italià[modifica]

Altres proves: traduccions[modifica]

La primera obra sobre substàncies medicinals va ser el Sushruta Samhita, un tractat ayurvèdic hindú atribuït a Sushruta, el pare de la cirurgia, al segle VI aC. Encara que els texts conservats daten dels segles III o IV dC. També s'han trobat tauletes d'argila cuneïformes sumèrics sobre els voltants de finals del 6é mil·leni aC i començaments del 2n que contenien receptes mèdiques.[1] El coneixement farmacològic a l'antic Egipte està

Ancient Egyptian pharmacological knowledge was recorded in various papyri such as the Ebers Papyrus of 1550 BC, and the Edwin Smith Papyrus of the 16th century BC.

The earliest known Chinese manual on materia medica is the Shennong Bencao Jing (The Divine Farmer's Herb-Root Classic), dating back to the 1st century AD. It was compiled during the Han dynasty and was attributed to the mythical Shennong. Earlier literature included lists of prescriptions for specific ailments, exemplified by a manuscript "Recipes for 52 Ailments", found in the Mawangdui tomb, sealed in 168 BC. Further details on Chinese pharmacy can be found in the Pharmacy in China article.

The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides is famous for writing a five volume book in his native Greek Περί ύλης ιατρικής in the 1st century AD. The Latin translation De Materia Medica (Concerning medical substances) was used a basis for many medieval texts, and was built upon by many middle eastern scientists during the Islamic Golden Age. The title coined the term materia medica.

In Japan, at the end of the Asuka period (538-710) and the early Nara period (710-794), the men who fulfilled roles similar to those of modern pharamacists were highly respected. The place of pharmacists in society was expressly defined in the Taihō Code (701) and re-stated in the Yōrō Code (718). Ranked positions in the pre-Heian Imperial court were established; and this organizational structure remained largely intact until the Meiji Restoration (1868). In this highly stable hierarchy, the pharmacists -- and even pharmacist assistants -- were assigned status superior to all others in health-related fields such as physicians and acupuncturists. In the Imperial household, the pharmacist was even ranked above the two personal physicians of the Emperor.[2]

There is a stone sign for a pharmacy with a tripod, a mortar, and a pestle opposite one for a doctor in the Arcadian Way in Ephesus near Kusadasi in Turkey. has photos. The current Ephesus dates back to 400BC and was the site of the Temple of Artemis one of the seven wonders of the world, the home of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra, Mary Magdalen and where St Paul read his letter to the Ephesians.

In Baghdad the first pharmacies were established in 754[3]under the Abbasid Caliphate during the Islamic Golden Age. By the 9th century, these pharmacies were state-regulated.[4]

The advances in made in the Middle East in botany and chemistry led medicine in medieval Islam substantially to develop pharmacology. Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) (865-915), for instance, acted to promote the medical uses of chemical compounds. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) (936-1013) pioneered the preparation of medicines by sublimation and distillation. His Liber servitoris is of particular interest, as it provides the reader with recipes and explains how to prepare the `simples’ from which were compounded the complex drugs then generally used. Sabur Ibn Sahl (d 869), was, however, the first physician to initiate pharmacopoedia, describing a large variety of drugs and remedies for ailments. Al-Biruni (973-1050) wrote one of the most valuable Islamic works on pharmacology entitled Kitab al-Saydalah (The Book of Drugs), where he gave detailed knowledge of the properties of drugs and outlined the role of pharmacy and the functions and duties of the pharmacist. Ibn Sina (Avicenna), too, described no less than 700 preparations, their properties, mode of action and their indications. He devoted in fact a whole volume to simple drugs in The Canon of Medicine. Of great impact were also the works by al-Maridini of Baghdad and Cairo, and Ibn al-Wafid (1008-1074), both of which were printed in Latin more than fifty times, appearing as De Medicinis universalibus et particularibus by `Mesue' the younger, and the Medicamentis simplicibus by `Abenguefit'. Peter of Abano (1250-1316) translated and added a supplement to the work of al-Maridini under the title De Veneris. Al-Muwaffaq’s contributions in the field are also pioneering. Living in the 10th century, he wrote The foundations of the true properties of Remedies, amongst others describing arsenious oxide, and being acquainted with silicic acid. He made clear distinction between sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, and drew attention to the poisonous nature of copper compounds, especially copper vitriol, and also lead compounds. He also describes the distillation of sea-water for drinking.[5]

In Europe pharmacy-like shops began to appear during the 12th century. In 1240 emperor Frederic II issued a decree by which the physician's and the apothecary's professions were separated.[6]

In Europe there are old pharmacies still operating in Dubrovnik Croatia located inside the Franciscan monastery, opened in 1317 ; and one in the Square Tallinn Estonia dating from at least 1422. The oldest is claimed to be set up in 1221 in the Church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence Itlay, which now houses a perfume museum. Another in Llívia few kilometres from Puigcerdà is a Catalan enclave in Spain almost within France which is also now a museum dating back to the 15 century.

  1. John K. Borchardt «The Beginnings of Drug Therapy: Ancient Mesopotamian Medicine». Drug News & Perspectives, vol. 15, 3, 2002, pàg. 187–192. ISSN: 0214-0934. PMID: 12677263.
  2. Titsingh, Isaac. (1834) Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 434.
  3. Hadzovic, S «Pharmacy and the great contribution of Arab-Islamic science to its development» (en croatian). Medicinski Arhiv, vol. 51, 1-2, 1997, pàg. 47–50. ISSN: 0025-8083. OCLC: 32564530. PMID: 9324574.
  4. al-Ghazal, Sharif Kaf «The valuable contributions of Al-Razi (Rhazes) in the history of pharmacy during the Middle Ages» (pdf). Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, vol. 2, 4, October 2003, pàg. 9–11. ISSN: 1303-667X. OCLC: 54045642.
  5. Levey M. (1973), ‘ Early Arabic Pharmacology’, E. J. Brill; Leiden.
  6. History of Pharmacy Web Pages - Sweden´s oldest pharmacies