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'''Yvonne Madelaine Brill''' (de soltera '''Claeys'''; 30 de desembre de 1924 – 27 de març del 2013) fou una enginyera de propulsió canadenca-americana, coneguda habitualment pel seu desenvolupament de tecnologies de propulsió de coets i de reacció.<ref name=Weil_Brill /> Durant la seva carrera ha participat en una àmplia gamma de programes espacials nacionals als Estats Units, incloent la [[NASA]] i la [[International Mobile Satellite Organization]].<ref name=SunObit>QMI AGENCY, [http://www.torontosun.com/2013/03/30/pioneer-canadian-rocket-scientist-dead-at-age-88 "Pioneer Canadian rocket scientist dead at age 88"], ''[[The Toronto Sun]]'', 27 de març del 2013</ref><ref>Invent Now, [http://www.invent.org/hall_of_fame/407.html "HALL OF FAME/ Inventor Profile"] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130407220237/http://www.invent.org/hall_of_fame/407.html |date= 7 d'abril de 2013 }}, ''Invent Now'', consultat el 27 de març de 2013</ref>
==Early Life==
Yvonne Madelaine Claeys was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Her parents were immigrants from Belgium.<ref name=Weil_Brill>{{cite news|last=Weil|first=Martin|title=Yvonne Brill, pioneer in spacecraft propulsion, dies at 88|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/yvonne-brill-pioneer-in-spacecraft-propulsion-dies-at-88/2013/03/31/f8f77d38-99c7-11e2-b68f-dc5c4b47e519_story.html|publisher=The Washington Post|accessdate=12 March 2014|date=March 31, 2013}}</ref> She attended the University of Manitoba, but was barred from studying engineering because of her gender, so she studied chemistry and mathematics.<ref name=space.com_brill>{{cite web|last=Gannon|first=Megan|title=Pioneering Rocket Scientist Yvonne Brill Dies at 88|url=http://www.space.com/20467-yvonne-brill-rocket-scientist-obituary.html|publisher=Space.com|accessdate=12 March 2014}}</ref>
Brill's work in satellite propulsion systems resulted in a number of significant developments. She developed the concept for a new rocket engine, the [[hydrazine]] [[resistojet rocket|resistojet]], and she proposed the use of a single propellant because of the value and simplicity that it would provide. Her invention resulted in not only higher engine performance but also increased reliability of the propulsion system. Due to the reduction this created in propellant weight requirements this resulted in either increased payload capability or extended mission life.<ref name=USPTO>United States Patent and Trademark Office, [http://www.uspto.gov/about/nmti/recipients/brill.jsp "Yvonne C. Brill, RCA Astro Electronics"], [[United States Patent and Trademark Office]], Accessed March 30, 2013.</ref>
As a result of her innovative concepts for satellite propulsion systems and her breakthrough engineering solutions, Brill earned an international reputation as a pioneer in space exploration and utilization. Brill invented the hydrazine resistojet propulsion system in 1967 for which she holds U.S. Patent No. 3,807,657.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect2=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&d=PALL&RefSrch=yes&Query=PN/3807657|title=Dual Thrust Level Monopropellant Spacecraft Propulsion System|author= Brill; Yvonne Claeys|publisher=USPTO|year=1972}}</ref> Her invention became a standard in the industry, and has translated into millions of dollars of increased revenue for commercial communications satellite owners.<ref name=USPTO/>
Brill contributed to the propulsion systems of [[TIROS]], the first weather satellite; [[Nova (rocket)|Nova]], a series of rocket designs that were used in American moon missions; [[Explorer 32]], the first upper-atmosphere satellite; and the [[Mars Observer]], which in 1992 almost entered a Mars orbit before losing communication with Earth.<ref name=NYTObit>Martin, Douglas. [https://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/31/science/space/yvonne-brill-rocket-scientist-dies-at-88.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 "Yvonne Brill, a Pioneering Rocket Scientist, Dies at 88"], ''[[The New York Times]]'', March 31, 2013. Accessed March 31, 2013.</ref>
==Awards and honors==
Brill was awarded the [[American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics#Wyld Propulsion Award|AIAA Wyld Propulsion Award]] (2002)<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.aiaa.org/HonorsAndAwardsRecipientsList.aspx?awardId=fafe1346-7cb6-41fe-b5f8-4a3abe413059|title=Wyld Propulsion Award Recipients|publisher=[[American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics]]|accessdate=April 1, 2013}}</ref> and the [[American Association of Engineering Societies]] [[John Fritz Medal]] (2009).<ref name=SunObit/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.aaes.org/awards/Descriptionsofthesevenawards.docx |title=Award Guide and Past Recipients |publisher=[[American Association of Engineering Societies]]|accessdate={{Format date|2013|3|31}}}}</ref> In 1980, ''[[Harper's Bazaar]]'' and the [[DeBeers]] Corporation gave her their Diamond Superwoman award for returning to a successful career after starting a family. In 2001 she was awarded the [[NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal]].<ref name=NYTObit/> In 2011 President [[Barack Obama]] presented her with the [[National Medal of Technology and Innovation]].<ref name=SunObit/>
She was elected to the [[National Academy of Engineering]] in 1987.<ref name="NAE">{{cite web|url=http://www.nae.edu/MembersSection/Directory20412/27851.aspx |title=Deceased Members - Ms. Yvonne C. Brill
|publisher=[[National Academy of Engineering]] |accessdate={{Format date|2013|4|1}}}}</ref>
She received the Achievement Award, the highest honor of The Society of Women Engineers (SWE), in 1986 and was named a SWE Fellow in 1985.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://societyofwomenengineers.swe.org/index.php/awards/past-awards/187-individual-awards/achievement-award-recipients-booklet#past-awards |title=Past Award Recipients
|publisher=[[Society of Women Engineers]] |accessdate={{Format date|2014|5|15}}}}</ref>
The '''Yvonne C. Brill Lectureship''' of the [[American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics]] (AIAA) is named in her honor and presented annually.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.aiaa.org/SecondaryTwoColumn.aspx?id=24633 |title=Dr. Adam Steltzner Awarded Inaugural Yvonne C. Brill Lectureship |publisher=[[American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics]] |first=Duane |last=Hyland |date=August 11, 2014 |accessdate=August 12, 2014}}</ref>
A longtime resident of the [[Skillman, New Jersey|Skillman]] section of [[Montgomery Township, New Jersey]], Brill died of complications of [[breast cancer]] in [[Princeton, New Jersey]].<ref name=NYTObit/>
An obituary of Brill published in the March 30, 2013 issue of the ''[[New York Times]]'' originally began: "She made a mean beef stroganoff, followed her husband from job to job and took eight years off from work to raise three children".<ref name=":0">{{cite news|last=Gonzalez|first=Robert T.|title=The New York Times fails miserably in its obituary for rocket scientist Yvonne Brill|url=http://io9.com/the-new-york-times-fails-miserably-in-its-obituary-for-464140204|accessdate=31 March 2013|newspaper=[[io9]]|date=31 March 2013}}</ref> The obituary was heavily criticized for leading with and overemphasizing Brill's gender and family life, rather than her scientific and career accomplishments<ref>{{Cite web|title = NYT Leads Obit For Brilliant Rocket Scientist With A Nod To Her Cooking And Parenting|url = http://www.buzzfeed.com/shani/new-york-times-leads-obit-for-brilliant-rocket-scientist-wit#.fpYn7wvEO|website = BuzzFeed|accessdate = 2015-10-14}}</ref> and was cited as an example of an article that failed the [[Finkbeiner test]].<ref name=":0" /> The ''Times'' later dropped the reference to her cooking and changed the lead of the article.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/31/ny-times-yvonne-brill-obituary-criticism_n_2988690.html | work=Huffington Post | title=NY Times' Outrageous Obituary | date=March 31, 2013}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|title = NewsDiffs {{!}} Diffing: Yvonne Brill, a Pioneering Rocket Scientist, Dies at 88|url = http://www.newsdiffs.org/diff/192021/192137/www.nytimes.com/2013/03/31/science/space/yvonne-brill-rocket-scientist-dies-at-88.html|website = www.newsdiffs.org|accessdate = 2015-10-14}}</ref>
== Referències ==


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