Racialisme

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El racialisme és la creença que l'espècia humana es divideix de manera natural en races, diferenciant-les en categories biològiques. La majoria dels diccionaris defineixen el concepte racialisme com un sinònim de racisme.[1]

Definicions i diferències[modifica]

El 1903, W. E. B. Du Bois va exposar que el racialisme era la posició filosòfica que defensava l'existència de races, i que existien diferències col·lectives entre aquestes categories. També va desenvolupar que el racisme defensava que una raça era superior a una altra. En l'obra In My Father’s House (1992), Kwame Anthony Appiah resumia el concepte filosòfic de Du Bois exposant que "racialisme" era un valor neutral, mentre que el concepte "racisme" estava carregat de valors.

Avui dia, alguns antropòlegs i genetistes realitzen estudis que suggereixen que les creences racialistes poden ser tant compatibles com incompatibles amb la genètica de poblacions moderna.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Articles relacionats[modifica]

Referències i bibliografia[modifica]

Referències[modifica]

  1. Chester L. Quarles (2004). Christian Identity: The Aryan American Bloodline Religion. McFarland. [1]
  2. Race Is Real, but not in the way Many People Think, Agustín Fuentes, Psychology Today.com, April 09, 2012
  3. Kuzawa and Sweet. «Epigenetics and the embodiment of race: Developmental origins of US racial disparities in cardiovascular health». American Journal of Human Biology. DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.20822/pdf. [Consulta: 13 desembre 2014]. «We conclude that environmentally responsive phenotypic plasticity, in combination with the better-studied acute and chronic effects of social-environmental exposures, provides a more parsimonious explanation than genetics for the persistence of CVD disparities between members of socially imposed racial categories.»
  4. «Genetic variation, classification and 'race'». Nature. [Consulta: 18 novembre 2014]. «Ancestry, then, is a more subtle and complex description of an individual's genetic makeup than is race. This is in part a consequence of the continual mixing and migration of human populations throughout history. Because of this complex and interwoven history, many loci must be examined to derive even an approximate portrayal of individual ancestry.»
  5. Fine, MJ; Ibrahim, SA; Thomas, SB «The Role of Race and Genetics in Health Disparities Research». Am J Public Health, 95, 12, 2005, pàg. 2125–8. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.076588. PMC: 1449495. PMID: 16257933. «Genes appear to have no role in existing first-generation health disparities research, which typically relies on self-reported race (defined according to US Census Bureau categories) as collected in retrospective or prospective cohort studies or from administrative databases. Second-generation health disparities research has identified numerous patient, provider, health care system, and environmental factors that are independent of human biology as contributors to health disparities among racial minorities.»
  6. Michael White. «Why Your Race Isn’t Genetic». Pacific Standard. [Consulta: 13 desembre 2014]. «[O]ngoing contacts, plus the fact that we were a small, genetically homogeneous species to begin with, has resulted in relatively close genetic relationships, despite our worldwide presence. The DNA differences between humans increase with geographical distance, but boundaries between populations are, as geneticists Kenneth Weiss and Jeffrey Long put it, "multilayered, porous, ephemeral, and difficult to identify." Pure, geographically separated ancestral populations are an abstraction: "There is no reason to think that there ever were isolated, homogeneous parental populations at any time in our human past."»
  7. «The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States». The American Journal of Human Genetics. [Consulta: 22 desembre 2014]. «The relationship between self-reported identity and genetic African ancestry, as well as the low numbers of self-reported African Americans with minor levels of African ancestry, provide insight into the complexity of genetic and social consequences of racial categorization, assortative mating, and the impact of notions of "race" on patterns of mating and self-identity in the US. Our results provide empirical support that, over recent centuries, many individuals with partial African and Native American ancestry have "passed" into the white community, with multiple lines of evidence establishing African and Native American ancestry in self-reported European Americans.»
  8. Carl Zimmer. «White? Black? A Murky Distinction Grows Still Murkier». The New York Times. [Consulta: 24 desembre 2014]. «On average, the scientists found, people who identified as African-American had genes that were only 73.2 percent African. European genes accounted for 24 percent of their DNA, while .8 percent came from Native Americans. Latinos, on the other hand, had genes that were on average 65.1 percent European, 18 percent Native American, and 6.2 percent African. The researchers found that European-Americans had genomes that were on average 98.6 percent European, .19 percent African, and .18 Native American. These broad estimates masked wide variation among individuals.»

Bibliografia[modifica]