Diaule

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Àmfora panatenaica amb una cursa de velocitat.

El Diaule o Diaulos (grec: Δίαυλος, traduït com "doble tub") era una antiga carrera a peu que formava part del programa dels antics Jocs Olímpics i els altres Jocs Panhelènics. Fou introduïda a la 14a Olimpíada, el 724 aC.

La seva distància era de dos estadis, al voltant de 400 metres.[1] Aquesta distància podia variar doncs la mesura de l'estadi a Olímpia era de 192.27 metres (630.81 peus) però a Delfos era de 177.50 metres (582.35 ft).[2] No es té certesa si els corredors tenien o no pals individuals de "gir" per a la tornada de la cursa, o si tots els corredors s'aproximaven a un lloc comú, giraven i tornaven a córrer cap a la línia de sortida.[3][4] Una inscripció a Delfos diu "pals de tornada" en lloc de "pal de tornada" el que suggereix que cada corredor tenia el seu propi punt de gir.[5] Aquests pals eren anomenats kampteres.[2] Les proves arqueològiques de Nemea també mostren que hi havia llocs de gir individual.[6]

Notes[modifica]

  1. Gardiner p.136
  2. 2,0 2,1 Sweet p.27
  3. Miller, p. 32. "The first addition to the Olympic program was the diaulos, or double-stadion, race in 724. This race, the functional equivalent of the modern 400-meters, is difficult to identify on the vase paintings, because the runners' gait is similar to that of stadion runners. By comparing runners whose knees are slightly lower than the others' (contrast the knees in figures 3 and 11 with those in figure 30), we may be able to distinguish between the two events. The only depiction of the diaulos of which we are certain, however, is on a fragment of a Panathenaic amphora labeled, "I am a diaulos runner"."
  4. Golden, pp. 51-52. "Diaulos, "double pipe" (see AULOS), one of the regular events at Greek competitive festivals. The diaulos was a footrace two lengths of the STADIUM (400 Greek feet) – up in lanes marked out by lime or gypsum, counter-clockwise around a post (KAMPTËR), and back in a parallel line. According to tradition, it joined the Olympic programme second, in 724; the first winner was HYPENUS of Pisa. Only men ran diaulos at Olympia, Isthmia and Nemea. At the Pythian games, however, it was on the original programme for both paides and men. Diaulos runners needed to be stronger than sprinters but lighter than HOPLITE racers (who ran the same distance, in armour); however (according to Galen), even a champion would be slower at this distance than a gazelle. Unchallenged by gazelles, some diaulos runners enjoyed success over many years: an Argive won at Olympia four times running (208-196), a feat matched and surpassed by LEONIDAS of Rhodes (164-152, adding victories in STADION and race in armour as well). Double victories in stadion and diaulos were not uncommon. The term is also used for a horse race of two lengths of the Greek HIPPODROME."
  5. Gardiner p.137
  6. Sweet p. 30

Referències[modifica]

  • Miller, Stephen G., Ben Schmidt, Ancient Greek Athletics: the events at Olympia, Delphi, Nemea, and Isthmia. Yale University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-300-11529-6
  • Golden, Mark. Sport in the Ancient World from A to Z. Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-24881-7
  • Gardiner, E. Norman. Athletics of the Ancient World. Oxford: Clarendon. Print. ISBN 978-0486424866.
  • Sweet, Waldo E. Sport and Recreation in Ancient Greece a Sourcebook with Translations. New York: Oxford UP, 1987. Print. ISBN 978-0300063127.