Ajuda:AFI

De Viquipèdia
(S'ha redirigit des de: Ajuda:IPA)
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Aquí teniu una clau bàsica per a la comprensió dels símbols de l'Alfabet Fonètic Internacional. Per al subconjunt de símbols del català, visiteu Ajuda:AFI per al català. D'altra banda, no s'hi inclouen diversos símbols rars, que trobareu en l'article principal de l'AFI.

Per a cada símbol AFI, es dóna un exemple en anglès sempre que sigui possible; aquí "RP" es refereix a la pronunciació rebuda. Els idiomes que s'utilitzen per il·lustrar els sons addicionals són principalment els més propensos a ser familiar per a parlants d'anglès, francès, alemany i espanyol. Per als símbols que no estan coberts per aquells, el recurs es pren als idiomes populosos de Xinès Mandarí, Hindustani, àrab i rus. Per sons encara no cobertes, s'utilitzen altres més petites, però ben coneguts idiomes, com el swahili, turc i zulu.

La columna de l'esquerra mostra els símbols d'aquesta manera: '(i) altaveu [a]'. Feu clic en la icona de l'altaveu per sentir el so; feu clic en el símbol en si mateix per a un article dedicat amb una descripció més completa i exemples de diversos idiomes. Tots els sons es parlen més d'una vegada, i els sons de les consonants es pronuncien una vegada seguides per una vocal i una vegada entre vocals.

Contingut: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  Altres 

Símbols principals[modifica]

 (i) listen [ a ] Mandarin 他 tā, German Mann For many English speakers, the first part of the ow sound in cow. Found in some dialects of English in cat or father.
 (i) listen [ ä ] American English ah, Spanish casa, French patte
 (i) listen [ aː ] German Aachen, French gare Long [a].
 (i) listen [ ɐ ] RP cut, German Kaiserslautern (In transcriptions of English, [ɐ] is usually written ʌ.)
 (i) listen [ ɑ ] Finnish Linna, Dutch bad
 (i) listen [ ɑː ] RP father, French pâte Long [ɑ].
 (i) listen [ ɑ̃ ] French Caen, sans, temps Nasalized [ɑ].
 (i) listen [ ɒ ] RP cot Like [ɑ], but with the lips slightly rounded.
 (i) listen [ ʌ ] American English cut Like [ɔ], but without the lips being rounded. (When ʌ is used for English, it may really be [ɐ] or [ɜ].)
 (i) listen [ æ ] RP cat
B
 (i) listen [ b ] English babble
 (i) listen [ ɓ ] Swahili bwana Like a [b] said with a gulp. See implosive consonants.
 (i) listen [ ʙ ] Like the brrr sound made when cold.
 (i) listen [ β ] Spanish la Bamba, Kinyarwanda abana "children" Like [b], but with the lips not quite touching.
C
 (i) listen [ c ] Turkish kebap "kebab", Czech stín "shadow", Greek και "and" Between English tune (RP) and cute. Sometimes used instead for [tʃ] in languages like Hindi.
 (i) listen [ ç ] German Ich More of a y-coloration (more palatal) than [x]. Some English speakers have a similar sound in huge. To produce this sound, try whispering loudly the word "ye" as in "Hear ye!".
 (i) listen [ ɕ ] Mandarin Xi'an, Polish ściana More y-like than [ʃ]; something like English she.
 (i) listen [ ɔ ] see under O
D
 (i) listen [ d ] English dad
 (i) listen [ ɗ ] Swahili Dodoma Like [d] said with a gulp.
 (i) listen [ ɖ ] American English harder Like [d] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (i) listen [ ð ] English the, bathe
 (i) listen [ dz ]1 English adds, Italian zero
 (i) listen [ dʒ ]1 English judge
 (i) listen [ dʑ ]1 Polish niewiedź "bear" Like [dʒ], but with more of a y-sound.
 (i) listen [ dʐ ]1 Polish em "jam" Like [dʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
E
 (i) listen [ e ] Spanish fe; French clé
 (i) listen [ eː ] German Klee Long [e]. Similar to English hey, before the y sets in.
 (i) listen [ ə ] English above, Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" (Only occurs in English when not stressed.)
 (i) listen [ ɚ ] American English runner
 (i) listen [ ɛ ] English bet
[ ɛ̃ ] French Agen, vin, main; Polish mięso Nasalized [ɛ].
 (i) listen [ ɜ ] RP bird (long)
[ ɝ ] American English bird
F
 (i) listen [ f ] English fun
 (i) listen [ ɟ ] see under J
 (i) listen [ ʄ ] see under J
G
 (i) listen [ ɡ ] English gag (Should look like Opentail g.svg. No different from a Latin "g")
 (i) listen [ ɠ ] Swahili Uganda Like [ɡ] said with a gulp.
 (i) listen [ ɢ ] Like [ɡ], but further back, in the throat. Found in Persian and some Arabic dialects for /q/, as in Gaddafi.
 (i) listen [ ʒ ] see under Z English beige.
H
 (i) listen [ h ] American English house
 (i) listen [ ɦ ] English ahead, when said quickly.
[ ʰ ] The extra puff of air in English top [tʰɒp] compared to stop [stɒp], or to French or Spanish [t].
 (i) listen [ ħ ] Arabic محمد Muhammad Far down in the throat, like [h], but stronger.
 (i) listen [ ɥ ] see under U
[ ɮ ] see under L
I
 (i) listen [ i ] French ville, Spanish Valladolid
 (i) listen [ iː ] English sea Long [i].
 (i) listen [ ɪ ] English sit
 (i) listen [ ɨ ] Russian ты "you" Often used for unstressed English roses.
J
 (i) listen [ j ] English yes, hallelujah, German Junge
[ ʲ ] Russian Ленин [ˈlʲenʲɪn] Indicates a sound is more y-like.
 (i) listen [ ʝ ] Spanish cayo (some dialects) Like [j], but stronger.
 (i) listen [ ɟ ] Turkish gör "see", Czech díra "hole" Between English dew (RP) and argue. Sometimes used instead for [dʒ] in languages like Hindi.
 (i) listen [ ʄ ] Swahili jambo Like [ɟ] said with a gulp.
K
 (i) listen [ k ] English kick, skip
L
 (i) listen [ l ] English leaf
 (i) listen [ ɫ ] English wool
Russian малый [ˈmɑɫɨj] "small"
"Dark" el.
 (i) listen [ ɬ ] Welsh llwyd [ɬʊɪd] "grey"
Zulu hlala [ɬaːla] "sit"
By touching roof of mouth with tongue and giving a giving a quick breath out. Found in Welsh placenames like Llangollen and Llanelli and Nelson Mandela's Xhosa name Rolihlahla.
 (i) listen [ ɭ ] Like [l] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (i) listen [ ɺ ] A flapped [l], like [l] and [ɾ] said together.
 (i) listen [ ɮ ] Zulu dla "eat" Rather like [l] and [ʒ], or [l] and [ð], said together.
M
 (i) listen [ m ] English mime
 (i) listen [ ɱ ] English symphony Like [m], but lips touch teeth as they do in [f].
[ ɯ ] see under W
 (i) listen [ ʍ ] see under W
N
 (i) listen [ n ] English nun
 (i) listen [ ŋ ] English sing
 (i) listen [ ɲ ] Spanish Peña, French champagne Rather like English canyon.
 (i) listen [ ɳ ] Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳ] Varuna Like [n] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (i) listen [ ɴ ] Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [ŋ], but further back, in the throat.
O
 (i) listen [ o ] Spanish no, French eau
 (i) listen [ oː ] German Boden, French Vosges Long [o]. Somewhat reminiscent of English no.
 (i) listen [ ɔ ] German Oldenburg, French Garonne
 (i) listen [ ɔː ] RP law, French Limoges Long [ɔ].
 (i) listen [ ɔ̃ ] French Lyon, son; Polish wąż Nasalized [ɔ].
 (i) listen [ ø ] French feu, bœufs Like [e], but with the lips rounded like [o].
 (i) listen [ øː ] German Goethe, French Dle, neutre Long [ø].
 (i) listen [ ɵ ] Swedish dum Halfway between [o] and [ø]. Similar to [ʊ] but with the tongue slightly more down and front.
 (i) listen [ œ ] French bœuf, seul, German Göttingen Like [ɛ], but with the lips rounded like [ɔ].
 (i) listen [ œː ] French œuvre, heure Long [œ].
 (i) listen [ œ̃ ] French brun, parfum Nasalized [œ].
 (i) listen [ θ ] see under other
 (i) listen [ ɸ ] see under other
P
 (i) listen [ p ] English pip
Q
 (i) listen [ q ] Arabic Qur’ān Like [k], but further back, in the throat.
R
 (i) listen [ r ] Spanish perro, Scots borrow "Rolled R". (Generally used for English [ɹ] when there's no need to be precise.)
 (i) listen [ ɾ ] Spanish pero, Tagalog daliri, Malay kabar, American English kitty/kiddie "Flapped R".
 (i) listen [ ʀ ] Dutch rood and German rot (some speakers) A trill in the back of the throat. Found for /r/ in some conservative registers of French.
 (i) listen [ ɽ ] Hindi साड़ी [sɑːɽiː] "sari" Like flapped [ɾ], but with the tongue curled back.
 (i) listen [ ɹ ] RP borrow
 (i) listen [ ɻ ] American English borrow, butter Like [ɹ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back, as pronounced by many English speakers.
 (i) listen [ ʁ ] French Paris, German Riemann Said back in the throat, but not trilled.
S
 (i) listen [ s ] English sass
 (i) listen [ ʃ ] English shoe
 (i) listen [ ɧ ] Swedish sju
 (i) listen [ ʂ ] Mandarin 少林 (Shàolín), Russian Пушкин (Pushkin) Acoustically similar to [ʃ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
T
 (i) listen [ t ] English tot, stop
 (i) listen [ ʈ ] Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" Like [t], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (i) listen [ ts ]2 English cats, Russian царь tsar
 (i) listen [ tʃ ] 2 English church
 (i) listen [ tɕ ]2 Mandarin 北京  (i) listen Běijīng, Polish ciebie "you" Like [tʃ], but with more of a y-sound.
 (i) listen [ tʂ ]2 Mandarin zh, Polish czas Like [tʃ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
U
 (i) listen [ u ] French vous "you"
 (i) listen [ uː ] French Rocquencourt, German Schumacher, close to RP food Long [u].
 (i) listen [ ʊ ] English foot, German Bundesrepublik
 (i) listen [ ʉ ] Australian English food (long) Like [ɨ], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
 (i) listen [ ɥ ] French lui Like [j] and [w] said together.
 (i) listen [ ɯ ] see under W
V
 (i) listen [ v ] English verve
 (i) listen [ ʋ ] Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳə] "Varuna" Between [v] and [w]. Used by some Germans and Russians for v/w, and by some speakers of British English for r.
 (i) listen [ ɣ ] Arabic / Swahili ghali "expensive", Spanish suegro Sounds rather like French [ʁ] or between [ɡ] and [h].
 (i) listen [ ɤ ] Mandarin Hénán Like [o] but without the lips rounded, something like a cross of [ʊ] and [ʌ].
[ ʌ ] see under A
W
 (i) listen [ w ] English wow
[ ʷ ] English rain [ɹʷeɪn] Indicates a sound has lip rounding, quick.
 (i) listen [ ʍ ] what (some dialects) like [h] and [w] said together
 (i) listen [ ɯ ] Turkish kayık "caïque" Like [u], but with the lips flat; something like [ʊ].
 (i) listen [ ɰ ] Spanish agua
X
 (i) listen [ x ] Scottish English loch, German Bach, Russian хороший [xɐˈroʂɨj] "good", Spanish joven between [k] and [h]
 (i) listen [ χ ] northern Standard Dutch Scheveningen, Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [x], but further back , in the throat. Some German and Arabic speakers have [χ] for [x].
Y
 (i) listen [ y ] French rue Like [i], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
 (i) listen [ yː ] German Bülow, French sûr Long [y].
 (i) listen [ ʏ ] German Eisenhüttenstadt Like [ɪ], but with the lips rounded as for [ʊ].
 (i) listen [ ʎ ] Italian tagliatelle Like [l], but more y-like. Rather like English volume.
 (i) listen [ ɥ ] see under U
 (i) listen [ ɤ ] see under V
[ ɣ ] see under V
Z
 (i) listen [ z ] English zoos
 (i) listen [ ʒ ] English vision, French journal
 (i) listen [ ʑ ] formal Russian жжёшь [ʑːoʂ] "you burn", Polish źle More y-like than [ʒ], something like beigey.
 (i) listen [ ʐ ] Mandarin 人民日报 Rénmín Rìbào "People's Daily", Russian жир "fat" Like [ʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ ɮ ] see under L
Altres
 (i) listen [ θ ] English thigh, bath
 (i) listen [ ɸ ] Japanese 富士 [ɸɯdʑi] Fuji, Māori [ˌɸaːɾeːˈnuiː] wharenui Like [p], but with the lips not quite touching
 (i) listen [ ʔ ] English uh-oh, Hawaii, German die Angst The 'glottal stop', a catch in the breath. For some people, found in button [ˈbʌʔn̩], or between vowels across words: Deus ex machina [ˌdeɪəsˌʔɛksˈmɑːkɨnə]; in some nonstandard dialects, in a apple [ʌˈʔæpl̩].
 (i) listen [ ʕ ] Arabic عربي carabī "Arabic" A light sound deep in the throat.
 (i) listen [ ǀ ] English tsk-tsk! or tut-tut!, Zulu icici "earring" (The English click used for disapproval.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǀ ], [ ɡǀ ], [ ŋǀ ]. The Zimbabwean MP Ncube has this click in his name, as did Cetshwayo.
 (i) listen [ ǁ ] English tchick! tchick!, Zulu ixoxo "frog" (The English click used to urge on a horse.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǁ ], [ ɡǁ ], [ ŋǁ ]. Found in the name of the Xhosa.
 (i) listen [ ǃ ] Zulu iqaqa "polecat" (The English click used to imitate the trotting of a horse.) A hollow popping sound, like a cork pulled from a bottle. Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǃ ], [ ɡǃ ], [ ŋǃ ].
  • ^1 ^2 Aquests símbols s'escriuen oficialment amb un llaç que uneix ells (per exemple t͡ʃ), i també de vegades s'escriuen com a caràcters individuals (per exemple ʧ) encara que aquesta última convenció ja no és oficial. Estan escrits sense lligadures aquí per garantir la correcta visualització en tots els navegadors.