Lactobacil

De Viquipèdia
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Infotaula d'ésser viuLactobacil
Lactobacillus Modifica el valor a Wikidata
Lactobacillus sp 01.png
Lactobacillus Modifica el valor a Wikidata
Dades
Tinció de GramGrampositiu Modifica el valor a Wikidata
Taxonomia
Super-regneProkaryota
RegneBacteria
FílumFirmicutes
ClasseBacilli
OrdreLactobacillales
FamíliaLactobacillaceae
GènereLactobacillus Modifica el valor a Wikidata
Tipus taxonòmicLactobacillus delbrueckii Modifica el valor a Wikidata

Els lactobacils (Lactobacillus) són un grup de bacteris que pertanyen als bacteris làctics. Es caracteritzen per ser cocs o bacils Gram positius, no formadors d'espores, catalasa negatius, normalment immòbils i ocasionalment tenen la capacitat de reduir el nitrat. Són neutròfils, és a dir, el seu interval de pH òptim de creixement és entre 5-8. Poden créixer entre 2 i 53 ºC, però l'interval òptim de temperatura està comprès entre 30 i 40 ºC. Són ubics, és a dir, es poden trobar en qualsevol ambient i alguns d'ells són: el tracte gastrointestinal (cavitat bucal, estómac i intestí), l'aparell genitourinari masculí, la microbiota vaginal, vegetals, productes carnis, productes lactis, entre d'altres. Poden tenir un metabolisme homofermentatiu o heterofermentatiu tant estricte com facultatiu.

Industrialment són utilitzats com a cultius iniciadors per la producció de diversos tipus de productes fermentats com el iogurt i com a probiòtics en aliments i suplements alimentaris.[1][2]

Fins al març del 2020, el gènere Lactobacillus comprenia 262 espècies, però després de la seqüenciació completa del genoma de totes elles, un grup de científics de diversos països, treballant coordinadament, van proposar la reclassificació del gènere Lactobacillus i s'han establert 23 nous gèneres: Lactobacillus, Amylolactobacillus, Holzapfelia, Bombilactobacillus, Companilactobacillus, Lapidilactobacillus, Agrilactobacillus, Schleiferilactobacillus, Lacticaseibacillus, Latilactobacillus, Loigolactobacillus, Dellaglioa, Liquorilactobacillus, Ligilactobacillus, Lactiplantibacillus, Furfurilactobacillus, Paucilactobacillus, Limosilactobacillus, Secundilactobacillus, Levilactobacillus, Fructilactobacillus, Acetilactobacillus, Apilactobacillus i Lentilactobacillus.[2][3][4]

Comparació entre la nomenclatura del gènere Lactobacillus establerta fins al 2020 i la nova proposta feta per Zheng et al. 2020:[4][5]

1901-2020 Zheng et al. 2020

Característiques

Lactobacillaceae Lactobacillaceae
Homofermentatius
Lactobacillus Lactobacillus
Lactobacillus delbrueckii

(Beijerinck 1901)

Lactobacillus delbrueckii Bacils Gram positius, termòfils, homofermentatius i no formadors d'espores.

Capaces de fermentar gran diversitat de glúcids i tenen soques amb l'habilitat de fermentar fructans extracel·lulars, midó, glicogen o mannitol.

S'adapten a l'hoste.

P. ex. Lactobacillus melliventris està adaptat a les abelles.

Gènere rellevant a l'ecosistema intestinal i vaginal.

Presents en la fermentació de productes lactis i de cereals.

Utilitzats com a cultius iniciadors per a la fabricació de productes lactis fermentats.

Lactobacillus acetotolerans

(Etani et al. 1986)

Lactobacillus acetotolerans
Lactobacillus acidophilus

(Handsen and Mocquot 1970)

Lactobacillus acidophilus
Lactobacillus amylolyticus

(Bohak et al. 1999)

Lactobacillus amylolyticus
Lactobacillus amylovorus

(Nakamura 1981)

Lactobacillus amylovorus
Lactobacillus apis

(Killer et al. 2014)

Lactobacillus apis
Lactobacillus bombicola

(Praet et al. 2015)

Lactobacillus bombicola
Lactobacillus colini

(Zhang et al. 2017)

Lactobacillus colini
Lactobacillus crispatus

(Moore and Holdeman 1970)

Lactobacillus crispatus
Lactobacillus equicursoris

(Morita et al. 2010)

Lactobacillus equicursoris
Lactobacillus fornicalis

(Dicks et al. 2000)

Lactobacillus fornicalis
Lactobacillus gallinarum

(Fujisawa et al. 1992)

Lactobacillus gallinarum
Lactobacillus gasseri

(Lauer and Kandler 1980)

Lactobacillus gasseri
Lactobacillus gigeriorum

(Cousin et al. 2012)

Lactobacillus gigeriorum
Lactobacillus hamsteri Lactobacillus hamsteri
Lactobacillus helsingborgensis

(Olofsson et al. 2014)

Lactobacillus helsingborgensis
Lactobacillus helveticus

(Bergey et al. 1925)

Lactobacillus helveticus
Lactobacillus hominis

(Cousin et al. 2013)

Lactobacillus hominis
Lactobacillus iners

(Falsen et al. 1999)

Lactobacillus iners
Lactobacillus intestinalis

(Fujisawa et al. 1990)

Lactobacillus intestinalis
Lactobacillus jensenii

(Gasser et al. 1970)

Lactobacillus jensenii
Lactobacillus johnsonii

(Fujisawa et al. 1992)

Lactobacillus johnsonii
Lactobacillus kalixensis

(Roos et al. 2005)

Lactobacillus kalixensis
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens

(Fujisawa et al. 1988)

Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens
Lactobacillus kimbladii

(Olofsson et al. 2014)

Lactobacillus kimbladii
Lactobacillus kitasatonis

(Mukai et al. 2003)

Lactobacillus kitasatonis
Lactobacillus kullabergensis

(Olofsson et al. 2014)

Lactobacillus kullabergensis
Lactobacillus melliventris

(Olofsson et al. 2014)

Lactobacillus melliventris
Lactobacillus mulieris

(Rocha et al. 2020)

Lactobacillus mulieris
Lactobacillus panisapium

(Wang et al. 2018)

Lactobacillus panisapium
Lactobacillus paragasseri

(Tanizawa et al. 2018)

Lactobacillus paragasseri
Lactobacillus pasteurii

(Cousin et al. 2013)

Lactobacillus pasteurii
Lactobacillus porci

(Kim et al. 2018)

Lactobacillus porci
Lactobacillus psittaci

(Lawson et al. 2001)

Lactobacillus psittaci
Lactobacillus rodentium

(Killer et al. 2014)

Lactobacillus rodentium
Lactobacillus taiwanensis

(Wang et al. 2009)

Lactobacillus taiwanensis
Lactobacillus ultunensis

(Roos et al. 2005)

Lactobacillus ultunensis
Lactobacillus xujianguonis

(Meng et al. 2020)

Lactobacillus xujianguonis
Amylolactobacillus
Lactobacillus amylophilus (Nakamura and Crowell 1981) Amylolactobacillus amylophilus Bacils Gram positius immòbils, catalasa negatius, oxidasa negatius i no formadors d'espores. Homofermentatius i tenen activitat enzimàtica amilolítica extracel·lular.
Lactobacillus amylotrophicus (Naser et al. 2006) Amylolactobacillus amylotrophicus
Holzapfelia
Lactobacillus floricola (Kawasaki et al. 2011) Holzapfelia floricola Bacils Gram positius, catalasa negatius, homofermentatius i aerotolerants. Fermenten únicament la glucosa i la fructosa.
Bombilatobacillus
Lactobacillus mellifer (Olofsson et al. 2014) Bombilactobacillus mellifer Bacils Gram positius, homofermentatius i termòfils.

El B. mellifer fermenta algunes hexoses, sacarosa i rafinosa.

El B. bombi fermenta una gran diversitat de glúcids.

Lactobacillus bombi

(Killer et al. 2014)

Bombilactobacillus bombi
Lactobacillus mellis (Olofsson et al. 2014) Bombilactobacillus mellis
Companilactobacillus
Lactobacillus alimentarius (Reuter 1983) Companilactobacillus alimentarius Bacils Gram positius, homofermentatius, no formadors d'espores. Creixen entre els 25-30 ºC, algunes soques poden créixer a 45 ºC i algunes a 15 ºC.
Lactobacillus allii

(Jung et al. 2017)

Companilactobacillus allii
Lactobacillus baiquanensis (Wei and Gu 2019) Companilactobacillus baiquanensis
Lactobacillus bobalius

(Mañes‐Lázaro et al. 2008)

Companilactobacillus bobalius
Lactobacillus crustorum (Scheirlinck et al. 2007) Companilactobacillus crustorum
Lactobacillus farciminis (Reuter 1983) Companilactobacillus farciminis
Lactobacillus formosensis (Chang et al. 2015) Companilactobacillus formosensis
Lactobacillus furfuricola (Irisawa et al. 2014) Companilactobacillus furfuricola
Lactobacillus futsaii

(Chao et al. 2012)

Companilactobacillus futsaii
Lactobacillus ginsenosidimutans

(Jung et al. 2013)

Companilactobacillus ginsenosidimutans
Lactobacillus halodurans (Schuster et al. 2019) Companilactobacillus halodurans
Lactobacillus heilongjiangensis (Gu et al. 2013) Companilactobacillus heilongjiangensis
Lactobacillus huachuanensis (Fu and Gu 2019) Companilactobacillus huachuanensis
Lactobacillus hulinensis (Wei and Gu) Companilactobacillus hulinensis
Lactobacillus insicii (Ehrmann et al. 2016) Companilactobacillus insicii
Lactobacillus jidongensis (Wei and Gu 2019) Companilactobacillus jidongensis
Lactobacillus kedongensis

(Wei and Gu 2019)

Companilactobacillus kedongensis
Lactobacillus keshanensis

(Wei and Gu 2019)

Companilactobacillus keshanensis
Lactobacillus kimchiensis

(Kim et al. 2013)

Companilactobacillus kimchiensis
Lactobacillus kimchii

(Yoon et al. 2000)

Companilactobacillus kimchii
Lactobacillus metriopterae

(Chiba et al. 2018)

Companilactobacillus metriopterae
Lactobacillus mindensis

(Ehrmann et al. 2003)

Companilactobacillus mindensis
Lactobacillus mishanensis

(Wei and Gu 2019)

Companilactobacillus mishanensis
Lactobacillus musae

(Chen et al. 2017)

Companilactobacillus musae
Lactobacillus nantensis

(Valcheva et al. 2006)

Companilactobacillus nantensis
Lactobacillus nodensis

(Kashiwagi et al. 2009)

Companilactobacillus nodensis
Lactobacillus nuruki

(Heo et al. 2018)

Companilactobacillus nuruki
Lactobacillus paralimentarius

(Cai et al. 1999)

Companilactobacillus paralimentarius
Lactobacillus salsicarnum

(Schuster et al. 2019)

Companilactobacillus salsicarnum
Lactobacillus suantsaicola

(Lin et al. 2019)

Companilactobacillus suantsaicola
Lactobacillus tucceti

(Chenoll et al. 2009)

Companilactobacillus tucceti
Lactobacillus versmoldensis

(Kröckel et al. 2003)

Companilactobacillus versmoldensis
Lactobacillus zhachilii

(Zhang et al. 2019)

Companilactobacillus zhachilii
Lactobacillus zhongbaensis (Wei and Gu 2019) Companilactobacillus zhongbaensis
Lapidilactobacillus
Lactobacillus concavus

(Tong and Dong 2005)

Lapidilactobacillus concavus Bacils o cocs Gram positius immòbils, homofermentatius, no formadors d'espores, catalasa negatius i anaerobis facultatius. L'interval de pH òptim de creixement i per fer ús de la pentosa depèn de la soca, normalment entre 6-7. L'interval de temperatura òptim de creixement és entre els 30-37 ºC. El producte principal de la fermentació és l'àcid L-làctic. 
Lactobacillus bayanensis

(Wei and Gu 2019)

Lapidilactobacillus bayanensis
Lactobacillus dextrinicus

(Haakensen et al. 2009)

Lapidilactobacillus dextrinicus
Agrilactobacillus
Lactobacillus composti

(Endo and Okada 2007)

Agrilactobacillus composti Bacils Gram positius, catalasa negatius, homofermentatius i aerotolerants.
Lactobacillus yilanensis

(Wei and Gu 2019)

Agrilactobacillus yilanensis
Schleiferilactobacillus
Lactobacillus perolens

(Back et al. 2000)

Schleiferilactobacillus perolens Bacils Gram positius, catalasa negatius, homofermentatius i aerotolerants.

Creixen entre 15 i 42ºC. Fermenten una gran diversitat de glúcids com les pentoses, hexoses i oligosacàrids.

Lactobacillus harbinensis

(Miyamoto et al. 2006)

Schleiferilactobacillus harbinensis
Lactobacillus shenzhenensis

(Zou et al. 2013)

Schleiferilactobacillus shenzhenensis
Lacticaseibacillus
Lactobacillus casei

(Hansen and Lessel 1971)

Lacticaseibacillus casei Bacils Gram positius immòbils, oxidasa negatius, i homofermentatius.

Creixen entre 10 i 45 ºC.

Normalment produeixen àcid D- i L-làctic a partir de la glucosa. Són considerades de gran importància econòmica, ja que moltes espècies són utilitzades com a cultius iniciadors i com a probiòtics.

Lactobacillus baoqingensis

(Long and Gu 2019)

Lacticaseibacillus baoqingensis
Lactobacillus brantae

(Volokhov et al. 2012)

Lacticaseibacillus brantae
Lactobacillus camelliae

(Tanasupawat et al. 2007)

Lacticaseibacillus camelliae
Lactobacillus chiayiensis

(Huang et al. 2018)

Lacticaseibacillus chiayiensis
Lactobacillus hulanensis

(Zhao and Gu et al. 2019)

Lacticaseibacillus hulanensis
Lactobacillus jixianensis

(Long and Gu, 2019)

Lacticaseibacillus jixianensis
Lactobacillus manihotivorans

(Morlon‐Guyot et al. 1998)

Lacticaseibacillus manihotivorans
Lactobacillus nasuensis

(Cai et al. 2012)

Lacticaseibacillus nasuensis
Lactobacillus pantheris

(Liu and Dong 2002)

Lacticaseibacillus pantheris
Lactobacillus paracasei (Collins et al. 1989) Lacticaseibacillus paracasei
Lactobacillus porcinae (Nguyen et al. 2013) Lacticaseibacillus porcinae
Lactobacillus rhamnosus

(Collins et al. 1989)

Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus
Lactobacillus saniviri

(Oki et al. 2012)

Lacticaseibacillus saniviri
Lactobacillus sharpeae

(Weiss et al. 1981)

Lacticaseibacillus sharpeae
Lactobacillus songhuajiangensis

(Gu et al. 2013)

Lacticaseibacillus songhuajiangensis
Lactobacillus thailandensis

(Tanasupawat et al. 2007)

Lacticaseibacillus thailandensis
Latilactobacillus
Lactobacillus sakei

(Klein et al. 1996)

Latilactobacillus sakei Bacils Gram positius, homofermentatius.

Produeixen àcid D- i L-làctic a excepció de L. fuchuensis, el qual només produeix l'isòmer L-.

Són mesòfils encara que algunes soques són psicròtrofes i creixen per sota dels 8 ºC.

Lactobacillus curvatus

(Klein et al. 1996)

Latilactobacillus curvatus
Lactobacillus fuchuensis

(Sakala et al. 2002)

Latilactobacillus fuchuensis
Lactobacillus graminis

(Beck et al. 1989)

Latilactobacillus graminis
Loigolactobacillus
Lactobacillus coryniformis

(Abo‐Elnaga and Kandler 1965)

Loigolactobacillus coryniformis Bacils Gram positius immòbils, catalasa negatius, no formadors d'espores. Els bacils normalment es troben sols o per parelles.

Homofermentatius i produeixen àcid D- i L-làctic. L'habilitat per fermentar pentoses depèn de l'espècie; moltes espècies produeixen àcid de la D-manosa i el D-mannitol.

Lactobacillus backii

(Tohno et al. 2013)

Loigolactobacillus backii
Lactobacillus bifermentans

(Kandler et al. 1983)

Loigolactobacillus bifermentans
Lactobacillus iwatensis

(Tohno et al. 2013)

Loigolactobacillus iwatensis
Lactobacillus jiayinensis

(Long and Gu 2019)

Loigolactobacillus jiayinensis
Lactobacillus rennini

(Chenoll et al. 2006)

Loigolactobacillus rennini
Lactobacillus zhaoyuanensis

(Long and Gu, 2019)

Loigolactobacillus zhaoyuanensis
Dellaglioa
Lactobacillus algidus

(Kato et al. 2000)

Dellaglioa algida Bacils Gram positius immòbils, anaerobis facultatius, psicròfils i homofermentatius.
Liquorilactobacillus
Lactobacillus mali

(Kaneuchi et al. 1988)

Liquorilactobacillus mali Bacils Gram positius, majoritàriament mòbils excepte L. cacaonum, L. hordei i L. mali.

Contenen àcid meso-diamilopimelic. Moltes soques produeixen dextrans a partir de la sacarosa.

Lactobacillus aquaticus

(Mañes‐Lázaro et al. 2009)

Liquorilactobacillus aquaticus
Lactobacillus cacaonum

(De Bruyne et al. 2009)

Liquorilactobacillus cacaonum
Lactobacillus capillatus

(Chao et al. 2008)

Liquorilactobacillus capillatus
Lactobacillus ghanensis

(Nielsen et al. 2007)

Liquorilactobacillus ghanensis
Lactobacillus hordei

(Rouse et al. 2008)

Liquorilactobacillus hordei
Lactobacillus nagelii

(Edwards et al. 2000)

Liquorilactobacillus nagelii
Lactobacillus oeni

(Mañes‐Lázaro et al. 2009)

Liquorilactobacillus oeni
Lactobacillus satsumensis

(Endo and Okada 2005)

Liquorilactobacillus satsumensis
Lactobacillus sicerae

(Puertas et al. 2014)

Liquorilactobacillus sicerae
Lactobacillus sucicola

(Irisawa and Okada 2009)

Liquorilactobacillus sucicola
Lactobacillus uvarum

(Mañes‐Lázaro et al. 2008)

Liquorilactobacillus uvarum
Lactobacillus vini

(Rodas et al. 2006)

Liquorilactobacillus vini
Ligilactobacillus
Lactobacillus salivarius

(Li et al. 2006)

Ligilactobacillus salivarius Bacils Gram positius, majoritàriament mòbils i homofermentatius. Moltes soques expressen ureasa, la qual està associada a l'adaptació a l'estil de vida de l'hoste vertebrat. Es comercialitzen usualment com a cultius iniciadors i com a probiòtics.
Lactobacillus acidipiscis

(Tanasupawat et al. 2000)

Ligilactobacillus acidipiscis
Lactobacillus agilis

(Weiss et al. 1982)

Ligilactobacillus agilis
Lactobacillus animalis

(Dent and Williams 1983)

Ligilactobacillus animalis
Lactobacillus apodemi

(Osawa et al. 2006)

Ligilactobacillus apodemi
Lactobacillus aviarius (Fujisawa et al. 1985) Ligilactobacillus aviarius
Lactobacillus aviarius subsp. araffinosus

(Fujisawa et al. 1985)

Ligilactobacillus araffinosus
Lactobacillus ceti

(Vela et al. 2008)

Ligilactobacillus ceti
Lactobacillus equi

(Morotomi et al. 2002)

Ligilactobacillus equi
Lactobacillus faecis

(Endo et al. 2013)

Ligilactobacillus faecis
Lactobacillus hayakitensis

(Morita et al. 2007)

Ligilactobacillus hayakitensis
Lactobacillus murinus

(Hemme et al. 1982)

Ligilactobacillus murinus
Lactobacillus pobuzihii

(Chen et al. 2010)

Ligilactobacillus pobuzihii
Lactobacillus ruminis

(Sharpe et al. 1973)

Ligilactobacillus ruminis
Lactobacillus saerimneri

(Pedersen and Roos 2004)

Ligilactobacillus saerimneri
Lactobacillus salitolerans

(Tohno et al. 2019)

Ligilactobacillus salitolerans
Lactiplantibacillus
Lactobacillus plantarum

(Bergey et al. 1923)

Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Bacils Gram positius immòbils, no formadors d'espores i homofermentatius. Fermenten una gran diversitat de glúcids. Moltes espècies metabolitzen àcid fenòlic mitjançant activitats esterasa, descarboxilasa i reductasa.

L. plantarum és atípic a causa de la seva activitat pseudocatalasa i la seva capacitat per reduir el nitrat.

Lactobacillus daoliensis

(Liu and Gu 2019)

Lactiplantibacillus daoliensis
Lactobacillus daowaiensis

(Liu and Gu 2019)

Lactiplantibacillus daowaiensis
Lactobacillus dongliensis

(Liu and Gu 2019)

Lactiplantibacillus dongliensis
Lactobacillus fabifermentans

(De Bruyne et al. 2009)

Lactiplantibacillus fabifermentans
Lactobacillus herbarum

(Mao et al. 2015)

Lactiplantibacillus herbarum
Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans

(Miyashita et al. 2015)

Lactiplantibacillus modestisalitolerans
Lactobacillus mudanjiangensis

(Gu et al. 2013)

Lactiplantibacillus mudanjiangensis
Lactobacillus nangangensis

(Liu and Gu 2019)

Lactiplantibacillus nangangensis
Lactobacillus paraplantarum

(Curk et al. 1996)

Lactiplantibacillus paraplantarum
Lactobacillus pentosus

(Zanoni et al. 1987)

Lactiplantibacillus pentosus
Lactobacillus pingfangensis

(Liu and Gu 2019)

Lactiplantibacillus pingfangensis
Lactobacillus plajomi

(Miyashita et al. 2015)

Lactiplantibacillus plajomi
Lactobacillus songbeiensis

(Liu and Gu 2019)

Lactiplantibacillus songbeiensis
Lactobacillus xiangfangensis

(Gu et al. 2012)

Lactiplantibacillus xiangfangensis
Heterofermentatius
Furfurilactobacillus
Lactobacillus rossiae

(Corsetti et al. 2005)

Furfurilactobacillus rossiae Bacils Gram positius, heterofermentatius i aerotolerants. Creixen entre 15 i 37 ºC i no toleren temperatures superiors als 45 ºC.
Lactobacillus curtus

(Asakawa et al. 2017)

Furfurilactobacillus curtus
Lactobacillus siliginis

(Aslam et al. 2006)

Furfurilactobacillus siligini
Paucilactobacillus
Lactobacillus vaccinostercus

(Okada et al. 1979)

Paucilactobacillus vaccinostercus Bacils Gram positius, heterofermentatius, catalasa negatius i aerotolerants. Creixen entre 20 i 37 ºC. Moltes espècies són psicròtrofes, però el P. suebicus creix a 45 ºC. Metabolitzen pentoses i moltes soques no fermenten disacàrids.
Lactobacillus hokkaidonensis

(Tohno et al. 2013)

Paucilactobacillus hokkaidonensis
Lactobacillus kaifaensis

(Liu and Gu 2019)

Paucilactobacillus kaifaensis
Lactobacillus nenjiangensis

(Gu et al. 2013)

Paucilactobacillus nenjiangensis
Lactobacillus oligofermentans

(Koort et al. 2005)

Paucilactobacillus oligofermentans
Lactobacillus suebicus

(Kleynmans et al. 1989)

Paucilactobacillus suebicus
Lactobacillus wasatchensis

(Oberg et al. 2016)

Paucilactobacillus wasatchensis
Limosilactobacillus
Lactobacillus fermentum

(Beijerinck 1901)

Limosilactobacillus fermentum Poden ser cocs o bacils Gram positius, són heterofermentatius, catalasa negatius i anaerobis o aerotolerants. Creixen a 37 ºC i algunes d'elles a 45 ºC però no creixen a 15 ºC. Fermenten una gran diversitat de glúcids encara que moltes espècies no fermenten la glucosa. Algunes espècies com el L. reuteri produeixen exopolisacàrids a partir de la sacarosa per donar suport a la formació del biofilm que té lloc a la superfície epitelial del tracte intestinal.
Lactobacillus alvi

(Kim et al. 2011)

Limosilactobacillus alvi
Lactobacillus antri

(Roos et al. 2005)

Limosilactobacillus antri
Lactobacillus caviae

(Killer et al. 2017)

Limosilactobacillus caviae
Lactobacillus coleohominis

(Nikolaitchouk et al. 2001)

Limosilactobacillus coleohominis
Lactobacillus equigenerosi

(Endo et al. 2008)

Limosilactobacillus equigenerosi
Lactobacillus frumenti

(Müller et al. 2000)

Limosilactobacillus frumenti
Lactobacillus gastricus

(Roos et al. 2005)

Limosilactobacillus gastricus
Lactobacillus gorillae

(Tsuchida et al. 2014)

Limosilactobacillus gorillae
Lactobacillus ingluviei

(Baele et al. 2003)

Limosilactobacillus ingluviei
Lactobacillus mucosae

(Roos et al. 2000)

Limosilactobacillus mucosae
Lactobacillus oris

(Farrow et al. 1988)

Limosilactobacillus oris
Lactobacillus panis

(Wiese et al. 1996)

Limosilactobacillus panis
Lactobacillus pontis

(Vogel et al. 1994)

Limosilactobacillus pontis
Lactobacillus reuteri

(Kandler et al. 1982)

Limosilactobacillus reuteri
Lactobacillus secaliphilus

(Ehrmann et al. 2007)

Limosilactobacillus secaliphilus
Lactobacillus vaginalis

(Embley et al. 1989)

Limosilactobacillus vaginalis
Secundilactobacillus
Lactobacillus malefermentans

(Farrow et al. 1989)

Secundilactobacillus malefermentans Bacils Gram positius, catalasa negatius i heterofermentatius. La majoria d'espècies creixen a 15 ºC i algunes a 45 ºC. L'interval de pH en el que són capaces de créixer és molt variable. El gènere s'ha adaptat a hàbitats pobres en hexosa. Tenen gens que codifiquen la transaldolasa i la transcetolasa, enzims que intervenen en el metabolisme de les pentoses a piruvat. Són capaces de metabolitzar els diols mitjançant la via diol-hidratasa i de convertir l'agmatina.
Lactobacillus collinoides

(Carr and Davies 1972)

Secundilactobacillus collinoides
Lactobacillus kimchicus

(Liang et al. 2011)

Secundilactobacillus kimchicus
Lactobacillus mixtipabuli

(Tohno et al. 2015)

Secundilactobacillus mixtipabuli
Lactobacillus odoratitofui

(Chao et al. 2010)

Secundilactobacillus odoratitofui
Lactobacillus oryzae

(Tohno et al. 2013)

Secundilactobacillus oryzae
Lactobacillus paracollinoides

(Suzuki et al. 2004)

Secundilactobacillus paracollinoides
Lactobacillus pentosiphilus

(Tohno et al. 2017)

Secundilactobacillus pentosiphilus
Lactobacillus silagei

(Tohno et al. 2013)

Secundilactobacillus silagei
Lactobacillus silangincola

(Tohno et al. 2017)

Secundilactobacillus silagincola
Lactobacillus similis

(Kitahara et al. 2010)

Secundilactobacillus similis
Levilactobacillus
Lactobacillus brevis

(Bergey et al. 1934)

Levilactobacillus brevis Són bacils Gram positius, catalasa negatius i heterofermentatius. Creixen a 15 ºC però no a 45 ºC, són àcid tolerats i normalment creixen entre pH 4 i 7. Produeixen àcid D- i L-làctic.

Tenen gens que codifiquen la transaldolasa i la transcetolasa, enzims que intervenen en el metabolisme de les pentoses a piruvat.

Lactobacillus acidifarinae

(Vancanneyt et al. 2005)

Levilactobacillus acidifarinae
Lactobacillus bambusae

(Guu et al. 2018)

Levilactobacillus bambusae
Lactobacillus cerevisiae

(Koob et al. 2017)

Levilactobacillus cerevisiae
Lactobacillus fujinensis

(Long and Gu 2019)

Levilactobacillus fujinensis
Lactobacillus fuyuanensis

(Long and Gu 2019)

Levilactobacillus fuyuanensis
Lactobacillus hammesii

(Valcheva et al. 2005)

Levilactobacillus hammesii
Lactobacillus huananensis

(Long and Gu 2019)

Levilactobacillus huananensis
Lactobacillus koreensis

(Naam Bui et al. 2011)

Levilactobacillus koreensis
Lactobacillus lindianensis

(Long and Gu, 2019)

Levilactobacillus lindianensis
Lactobacillus mulengensis

(Long and Gu 2019)

Levilactobacillus mulengensis
Lactobacillus namurensis

(Scheirlinck et al. 2007)

Levilactobacillus namurensis
Lactobacillus parabrevis

(Vancanneyt et al. 2006)

Levilactobacillus parabrevis
Lactobacillus paucivorans (Ehrmann et al. 2010) Levilactobacillus paucivorans
Lactobacillus senmaizukei

(Hiraga et al. 2008)

Levilactobacillus senmaizukei
Lactobacillus spicheri

(Meroth et al. 2004)

Levilactobacillus spicheri
Lactobacillus suantsaii

(Liou et al. 2019)

Levilactobacillus suantsaii
Lactobacillus suantsaiihabitans

(Lin et al. 2019)

Levilactobacillus suantsaiihabitans
Lactobacillus tangyuanensis

(Long and Gu 2019)

Levilactobacillus tangyuanensis
Lactobacillus tongjianensis

(Long and Gu 2019)

Levilactobacillus tongjiangensi
Lactobacillus yonginensis

(Yi et al. 2013)

Levilactobacillus yonginensis
Lactobacillus zymae

(Vancanneyt et al. 2005)

Levilactobacillus zymae
Fructilactobacillus
Lactobacillus fructivorans

(Charlton et al. 1934)

Fructilactobacillus fructivorans Són bacils Gram positius, heterofermentatius, catalasa negatius i aerotolerants. Creixen a 15 ºC, però no a partir de 37 ºC. Fermenten pocs glúcids i algunes soques només la maltosa i la sacarosa. La majoria de soques de les diferents espècies són fructofíliques i utilitzen la fructosa com a últim acceptor d'electrons en lloc d'una font de carboni.
Lactobacillus florum

(Endo et al. 2010)

Fructilactobacillus florum
Lactobacillus ixorae

(Techo et al. 2016)

Fructilactobacillus ixorae
Lactobacillus lindneri

(Back et al. 1997)

Fructilactobacillus lindneri
Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis

(Weiss and Schillinger 1984)

Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis
Lactobacillus vespulae

(Hoang et al. 2015)

Fructilactobacillus vespulae
Acetilactobacillus
Lactobacillus jinshani

(Yu et al. 2020)

Acetilactobacillus jinshanensis Bacils Gram positius, catalasa negatius i heterofermentatius. Mesòfils, creixen entre els 20-40 ºC, i són àcid tolerants, amb un pH òptim de 4. Fermenten polialcohols i disacàrids per obtenir àcid làctic i exclouen la majoria d'hexoses i pentoses.
Apilactobacillus
Lactobacillus kunkeei

(Edwards et al. 1998)

Apilactobacillus kunkeei Bacils Gram positius, catalasa negatius i heterofermentatius. Creixen entre 15 i 37 ºC. Moltes soques poden créixer en condicions de pH àcides, per sota de 3. Totes les soques metabolitzen la fructosa per obtenir mannitol. Només són capaces de fermentar un petit espectre de glúcids, entre ells, fructosa, glucosa i la sacarosa. No són capaces de fermentar la maltosa ni pentoses.
Lactobacillus apinorum

(Olofsson et al. 2014)

Apilactobacillus apinorum
Lactobacillus kosoi

(Chiou et al. 2018)

Apilactobacillus kosoi
Lactobacillus micheneri

(McFrederick et al. 2018)

Apilactobacillus micheneri
Lactobacillus ozensis

(Kawasaki et al. 2011)

Apilactobacillus ozensis
Lactobacillus quenuiae

(Frederick et al. 2018)

Apilactobacillus quenuiae
Lactobacillus timberlakei

(McFrederick et al. 2018)

Apilactobacillus timberlakei
Lentilactobacillus
Lactobacillus buchneri

(Bergey et al. 1923)

Lentilactobacillus buchneri Bacils Gram positius, catalasa negatius i heterofermentatius. La majoria creixen a 15 ºC i algunes a 45 ºC. L'interval de pH per créixer és molt variable, però l'òptim és per sota de 6. La majoria metabolitzen el lactat a 1,2-propandiol i/o l'1,2-propandiol a propanol i propionat. Per via agmatina deiminasa, converteixen l'agmatina, un producte de l'arginina mitjançant l'acció de l'enzim arginina descarboxilasa, en N-carbamoylputrescina i NH3.
Lactobacillus curieae

(Lei et al. 2013)

Lentilactobacillus curieae
Lactobacillus diolivorans

(Kroonemen et al. 2001)

Lentilactobacillus diolivorans
Lactobacillus farraginis

(Endo and Okada 2007)

Lentilactobacillus farraginis
Lactobacillus hilgardii

(Douglas and Cruess 1936)

Lentilactobacillus hilgardi
Lactobacillus kefir

(Kandler and Kunath 1983)

Lentilactobacillus kefir
Lactobacillus kisonensis

(Watanabe et al. 2009)

Lentilactobacillus kisonensis
Lactobacillus otakiensis

(Watanabe et al. 2009)

Lentilactobacillus otakiensis
Lactobacillus parabuchneri

(Farrow et al. 1988)

Lentilactobacillus parabuchneri
Lactobacillus parafarraginis

(Endo and Okada 2007)

Lentilactobacillus parafarraginis
Lactobacillus parakefiri

(Takizawa et al. 1994)

Lentilactobacillus parakefiri
No es va arribar a publicar com Lactobacillus raoultii

(Nicaise et al. 2019)

Lentilactobacillus raoultii
Lactobacillus rapi

(Watanabe et al. 2009)

Lentilactobacillus rapi
Lactobacillus senioris

(Oki et al. 2012)

Lentilactobacillus senioris
Lactobacillus sunkii

(Watanabe et al. 2009)

Lentilactobacillus sunkii

Referències[modifica]

  1. «Lactic Acid Bacteria» (en anglès). Wiley Online Library, 30-04-2014. DOI: 10.1002/9781118655252.
  2. 2,0 2,1 Zhang, Heping; Cai, Yimin «Lactic Acid Bacteria: Fundamentals and Practice» (en anglès). Springer, Dordrecht, 2014. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-8841-0.
  3. Gray, Nathan. «Lactobacillus taxonomy changes: What implications for your activities?» (en anglès americà), 21-04-2020. [Consulta: 19 gener 2021].
  4. 4,0 4,1 Zheng, Jinshui; Wittouck, Stijn; Salvetti, Elisa; Franz, Charles M.A.P.; Harris, Hugh M.B. «A taxonomic note on the genus Lactobacillus: Description of 23 novel genera, emended description of the genus Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901, and union of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae». International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology,, 70, 4, 2020, pàg. 2782–2858. DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.004107. ISSN: 1466-5026.
  5. Parte, Aidan C.; Sardà Carbasse, Joaquim; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Reimer, Lorenz C.; Göker, Markus «List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) moves to the DSMZ» (en anglès). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 70, 11, 01-11-2020, pàg. 5607–5612. DOI: 10.1099/ijsem.0.004332. ISSN: 1466-5026. PMC: PMC7723251. PMID: 32701423.