Enclavament

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En geografia política, un enclavament és una part de territori d'un estat sobirà que està completament envoltat per un territori estranger. Si un altre país té sobirania sobre ell, pot ser anomenat exclavament.

Què es pot denominar Enclavament[modifica | modifica el codi]

Per extensió un enclavament és un territori administratiu que està envoltat o enclavat dintre d'un altre, que bé pot ser districte, municipi, província, comunitat autònoma, país, estat, etc.,[1] (per exemple: el municipi de Llívia pertany a Espanya i està enclavat a França; també a Espanya, el municipi de Petilla de Aragón pertany a la Comunitat Foral de Navarra i es troba envoltat per la Comunitat Autònoma d'Aragó). També per extensió un enclavament és un territori caracteritzat per un grup ètnic, polític o religiós que està envoltat o enclavat dintre d'altres grups més extensos i de característiques diferents als primers (per exemple: el Barri Xinès de Los Ángeles).

Països que són enclavaments[modifica | modifica el codi]

Certs països sobirans s'anomenen enclavats quan estan completament envoltats per un altre. Existeixen tres països d'aquest gènere:

En el passat existien molts països d'aquest tipus a Europa, per exemple el principat de Salm.

Països costaners[modifica | modifica el codi]

Certs països estan completament envoltats per un altre, llevat d'una petita secció costanera que els permet tenir accés a aigües internacionals. Aquest accés se sembla per altra banda més a un corredor:

  • El més típic dels països d'aquest tipus és Gàmbia, a la qual només una franja litoral de 50 km li impedeix estar totalment enclavada a Senegal.
  • El Soldanat de Brunei, dintre de Malàisia.
  • El Principat de Mònaco, al sud de França.

Encara que Canadà o Portugal, per exemple, estiguin vorejats només per un altre país, generalment es considera que tenen prou accés a les aigües internacionals com per a no trobar-se en aquesta categoria.

Fragments[modifica | modifica el codi]

National level[modifica | modifica el codi]

Name [2][3] Area (km2) Exclave of Enclaved by Coordinates Notes
Apipé Islands (4) ~320  Argentina (Corrientes ProvinceItuzaingó Department)  Paraguai (Misiones Department – Ayolas District) 27° 31′ S, 56° 51′ O / 27.517°S,56.850°O / -27.517; -56.850 Four adjacent islands (Isla Apipé Grande, Isla Apipé Chico, Isla Los Patos and Isla San Martín) with territorial water borders in the Río Paraná, 39 km east of Isla Entre Rios. Island areas are about 276, 23.8, 11.8 and 3.7 km², respectively.
Isla Entre Ríos ~36  Argentina (Corrientes ProvinceBerón de Astrada Department)  Paraguai (Ñeembucú Department – Cerrito District) 27° 25′ S, 57° 30′ O / 27.417°S,57.500°O / -27.417; -57.500 Uninhabited island with territorial water border in the Río Paraná, 39 km west of Isla Apipé.
Isla Martín García ~2  Argentina (Buenos Aires ProvinceLa Plata Partido)  Uruguai 34° 10′ 47″ S, 58° 15′ 0″ O / 34.17972°S,58.25000°O / -34.17972; -58.25000 Territorial water border on the Uruguay side of Río de la Plata. Designated as a nature reserve under the jurisdiction of Argentina in 1973.
Artchvašen (Bashkend) ~40  Armènia (Gegharkunik Province)  Azerbaidjan 40° 38′ N, 45° 30′ E / 40.633°N,45.500°E / 40.633; 45.500 Controlled by Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1992.
Torres Strait Islands (7) ~220 (land area)  Austràlia (QueenslandShire of Torres and Torres Strait Island Region)  Papua Nova Guinea 9° 25′ 23″ S, 142° 32′ 10″ E / 9.42306°S,142.53611°E / -9.42306; 142.53611 The islands of Anchor Cay, Aubusi Island, Black Rocks, Boigu Island (89.6 km²), Bramble Cay (0.036 km²), Dauan Island (4 km²), Deliverance Island, East Cay, Kaumag Island, Kerr Islet, Moimi Island, Saibai Island (107.9 km²), Turnagain Island (12 km²) and Turu Cay, along with their territorial seas, form seven enclaves within the maritime area of Papua New Guinea under a treaty effective in 1985. The territorial sea of each island does not extend beyond three miles.[4][5] The mainland of Papua New Guinea is only 6 km from Boigu.
Yukhari Askipara ~37  Azerbaidjan (Qazakh District)  Armènia (Tavush Province) 41° 03′ 58″ N, 45° 01′ 24″ E / 41.06611°N,45.02333°E / 41.06611; 45.02333 A destroyed village controlled by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992; west of the town of Qazax.
Barkhudarli ~22  Azerbaidjan (Qazakh District)  Armènia (Tavush Province) 40° 59′ 36″ N, 45° 13′ 31″ E / 40.99333°N,45.22528°E / 40.99333; 45.22528 Controlled by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992; west-southwest of the town of Qazax.
Karki ~10  Azerbaidjan (Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Sadarak District)  Armènia (Ararat Province) 39° 47.3′ N, 44° 57′ E / 39.7883°N,44.950°E / 39.7883; 44.950 Occupied by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992; north of Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan.
"Yaradullu" (north and south) 0.12 and 0.06  Azerbaidjan (Agstafa District)  Armènia (Tavush Province) 41° 00′ 51.8″ N, 45° 26′ 12.2″ E / 41.014389°N,45.436722°E / 41.014389; 45.436722 Two farmland enclaves just across the border from the village of Yaradullu[6][7] (55 m at the closest point). They are 750 m and 1500 m southwest of the municipality of Tatli on the west bank of the Akhum River; approximately 300x400 m and 300x200 m. The surrounding Armenian territory has been controlled by Azerbaijan since 1992, so that these two small pockets of land are de facto no longer an exclave.
Jungholz 7  Àustria (Tyrol state – Reutte District)  Germany (Bavaria state – Swabia administrative region) 47° 34.3′ N, 10° 27.3′ E / 47.5717°N,10.4550°E / 47.5717; 10.4550 Connected at a quadripoint at the summit of the mountain Sorgschrofen (1636 m); accessible only through Germany.
Indo-Bangladesh enclaves (92 parcels) 47.7  Bangladesh (Rangpur DivisionPanchagarh, Nilphamari, Lalmonirhat, and Kurigram districts)  Índia (West Bengal state – Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri districts) 26° 18′ N, 88° 57′ E / 26.300°N,88.950°E / 26.300; 88.950 (Dohogram-Angarpota) Twenty-one of the 92 Bangladeshi exclaves are within Indian exclaves.
Baarle-Hertog (22 parcels) 2.3448  Bèlgica (Antwerp province – Baarle-Hertog municipality)  Països Baixos (North Brabant province – Baarle-Nassau municipality) 51° 26′ 13″ N, 4° 55′ 43″ E / 51.43694°N,4.92861°E / 51.43694; 4.92861 (H1) A group of 22 Belgian enclaves in the southern Netherlands; enclaves H1 and H2 are connected at a quadripoint.
Sastavci 3.9584  Bòsnia i Hercegovina (Republika SrpskaRudo municipality)  Sèrbia (Zlatibor DistrictPriboj municipality) 43° 33′ 30″ N, 19° 25′ 30″ E / 43.55833°N,19.42500°E / 43.55833; 19.42500 Home land of Bosnia-Herzegovina is 1130 meters to the north.
Quitasueño 3577, including water area [8]  Colòmbia (San Andrés y Providencia Department)  Nicaragua 14° 24′ 1″ N, 81° 7′ 47″ O / 14.40028°N,81.12972°O / 14.40028; -81.12972 [9] (QS32)[8] On 19 November 2012, the International Court of Justice upheld Colombia's claim to Quitasueño, plus a 12-NM territorial zone, and re-defined Nicaragua's EEZ, thus surrounding the island bank.[10] It deemed one of the bank's 54 features to be an island at high tide (elevation 70 cm, area 1 m²)[11] and created enclaves as an equitable solution.[12] The area of the bank, excluding the 12-mile zone, is ~290 km².[13]
Serrana ~2500, including water area  Colòmbia (San Andrés y Providencia Department)  Nicaragua 14° 17′ 13″ N, 80° 21′ 48″ O / 14.28694°N,80.36333°O / 14.28694; -80.36333 (Southwest Cay) On 19 November 2012, ICJ upheld Colombia's claim to Serrana, plus a 12-NM territorial zone, and re-defined Nicaragua's EEZ, surrounding the island bank.[10] The land area is ~0.11 km², and the area of the bank, excluding the 12-mile zone, is ~322 km².[13] Colombia decried the loss of maritime areas and creation of "'enclaves' around Quitasueño and Serrana that could restrict" access.[10]
Brezovica Žumberačka 0.0183  Croàcia (Karlovac CountyOzalj town)  Eslovènia (Metlika municipality) 45° 41′ 22″ N, 15° 18′ 12″ E / 45.68944°N,15.30333°E / 45.68944; 15.30333 Contains four dwellings surrounded by agricultural land near the Slovenian village of Brezovica pri Metliki. About 437 m long and 60 m wide. Confirmed by both Croatian and Slovenian cadaster maps, although boundary lines slightly differ. About 100 meters away from the main border at the closest point.[6][7][14]
Ormidhia 1.694  Xipre (Larnaca District) Plantilla:Country data Akrotiri and Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area 34° 59′ 33″ N, 33° 46′ 49″ E / 34.99250°N,33.78028°E / 34.99250; 33.78028 One of four small exclaves surrounded by Dhekelia, a British Overseas Territory in southeastern Cyprus.
Xylotymbou 0.947  Xipre (Larnaca District) Plantilla:Country data Akrotiri and Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area 35° 01′ 03″ N, 33° 44′ 37″ E / 35.01750°N,33.74361°E / 35.01750; 33.74361 One of four small exclaves surrounded by Dhekelia, a British Overseas Territory.
"Electricity Authority of Cyprus" Refugee Settlement ~0.28  Xipre (Larnaca District) Plantilla:Country data Akrotiri and Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area 34° 59′ 04″ N, 33° 44′ 37″ E / 34.98444°N,33.74361°E / 34.98444; 33.74361 North of Dhekelia Power Station from which it is separated by a British road; the closest point between the two exclaves is 21 meters.
Dhekelia Power Station ~0.161  Xipre (Larnaca District) Plantilla:Country data Akrotiri and Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area 34° 58′ 49″ N, 33° 44′ 45″ E / 34.98028°N,33.74583°E / 34.98028; 33.74583 Partially borders the coast but enclosed by UK waters and UK land elsewhere; the power station is owned by the Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC); no permanent population.
Münsterbildchen 1.826  Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Roetgen municipality)  Bèlgica (Liège province – Raeren municipality) 50° 39′ 36″ N, 6° 11′ 24″ E / 50.66000°N,6.19000°E / 50.66000; 6.19000 West of Vennbahn trackbed; northernmost German enclave, mainly home to industrial and warehouse businesses.
Roetgener Wald 9.98  Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Roetgen and Simmerath municipalities)  Bèlgica (Liège province) 50° 38′ 12″ N, 6° 14′ 32″ E / 50.63667°N,6.24222°E / 50.63667; 6.24222 Western part of Lammersdorf, southern part of Roetgen, and intervening forest (Forst Rötgen); west and south of Vennbahn trackbed. From 1922 to 1958, the center portion (between Grenzweg and a boundary with three turning points west of the Schleebach stream) was Belgian territory. Until 1949, the east-west road that connected the two outer (German) portions was also German territory; therefore, the German land formed one oddly-shaped enclave (that also included the road to Konzen). In 1949, it was split into two enclaves when Germany ceded the roads to Belgium;[15] in 1958, Belgium returned the east-west road and also ceded the center section of the current enclave to Germany.
Rückschlag 0.016  Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Monschau town)  Bèlgica (Liège province – Eupen municipality) 50° 35′ 52″ N, 6° 14′ 53″ E / 50.59778°N,6.24806°E / 50.59778; 6.24806 Part of city of Monschau, west of Vennbahn trackbed; smallest German enclave, consisting of one inhabited house with a garden.
Mützenich 12.117  Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Monschau town)  Bèlgica (Liège province) 50° 33′ 54″ N, 6° 13′ 5″ E / 50.56500°N,6.21806°E / 50.56500; 6.21806 West of Belgium's Vennbahn trackbed.
Ruitzhof 0.937  Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Monschau town)  Bèlgica (Liège province) 50° 31′ 29″ N, 6° 11′ 39″ E / 50.52472°N,6.19417°E / 50.52472; 6.19417 Part of city of Monschau, west of Vennbahn trackbed; southernmost Vennbahn enclave after 1949 (when Belgium annexed the Hemmeres enclave).
Büsingen am Hochrhein 7.62  Germany (Baden-Württemberg state – Konstanz district)  Suïssa 47° 42′ N, 8° 42′ E / 47.700°N,8.700°E / 47.700; 8.700 At its closest, less than 700 meters from Germany proper (to the east).
Indo-Bangladesh enclaves (106 parcels) 69.5  Índia (West Bengal state – Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri districts)  Bangladesh (Rangpur DivisionPanchagarh, Nilphamari, Lalmonirhat, and Kurigram districts) 26° 9′ 0″ N, 88° 45′ 44″ E / 26.15000°N,88.76222°E / 26.15000; 88.76222 (third-order enclave) Four of the 106 Indian exclaves are within Bangladeshi exclaves. The largest Indian exclave, Balapara Khagrabari (formed by three contiguous Indian chhits), surrounds a Bangladeshi exclave, Upanchowki Bhajni 110, which itself surrounds an Indian exclave called Dahala Khagrabari #51, of less than one hectare.
Campione d'Italia 1.6  Itàlia (Lombardy region – Province of Como)  Suïssa (Canton TicinoLugano District) 45° 58′ 10″ N, 8° 58′ 25″ E / 45.96944°N,8.97361°E / 45.96944; 8.97361 Part of Swiss customs and uses the Swiss franc, but its inhabitants have to pay income tax to Italy, though in a reduced measure. Separated by less than 1 km, at the shortest distance, from the rest of Italy by Lake Lugano and mountains, but the terrain requires a 14 km road journey to reach the nearest Italian town, Lanzo d'Intelvi.
Barak (de facto) 0.21  Kirguizistan (Kara-Suu DistrictOsh Province)  Uzbekistan (Andijan Province) 40° 40′ N, 72° 46′ E / 40.667°N,72.767°E / 40.667; 72.767 Kyrgyzstan's 1991 pre-independence border is the de jure international border, but much of it is hotly disputed with its neighbors. In August 1999, the area around Barak was occupied by Uzbekistan, cutting it off from Kyrgyz territory. Uzbek forces dug up and blockaded the road to Ak-Tash[16] while also allegedly seizing large areas of Kyrgyz land that had been loaned in the Soviet era but never returned.[17] They entrenched themselves within much of Kyrgyz border territory and refused to leave.[18] Barak became a de facto enclave only 1.5 km from the shifted main border.[19] Four Uzbek enclaves and Barak are major sticking points in delimitation talks,[20] and disputes center on the areas of Barak, Sokh, Gava and Gavasay (stream).[21] (Map)
Likoma Island 130.0 (incl a territorial water area)  Malawi (Northern Region - Likoma District)  Moçambic (Niassa ProvinceLago District) 12° 04′ S, 34° 44′ E / 12.067°S,34.733°E / -12.067; 34.733 Lacustrine enclave, including smaller islets, with territorial water border in Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa); only ~5 kilometers from the Mozambique shore; combined land area of Likoma Is. and the smaller Chizumulu Is. is 18 km².
Chizumulu Island (incl Lundu Is., Papia Is., Ngkyvo Is.) 101.4 (incl 2-NM territorial water area)  Malawi (Northern Region - Likoma District)  Moçambic (Niassa ProvinceLago District) 12° 01′ 0″ S, 34° 37′ 14″ E / 12.01667°S,34.62056°E / -12.01667; 34.62056 Lacustrine enclave with territorial water border in Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa); Malawian mainland is 46 km away.
Baarle-Nassau (8 parcels) 0.150684  Països Baixos (North Brabant province – Baarle-Nassau municipality)  Bèlgica (Antwerp province – Baarle-Hertog municipality) 51° 24′ 43″ N, 4° 52′ 16″ E / 51.41194°N,4.87111°E / 51.41194; 4.87111 (N8) A group of 8 Dutch enclaves, one in the main body of Belgium (N8) and 7 counter-enclaves inside two of the Belgian enclaves (H1 and H8).
Madha ~75  Oman (Musandam Governorate)  Emirats Àrabs Units 25° 17′ N, 56° 17′ E / 25.283°N,56.283°E / 25.283; 56.283 Halfway between the Omani fragment on the Musandam Peninsula and the rest of Oman.
San'kovo-Medvezh'e 4.54  Rússia (Bryansk OblastZlynkovsky District)  Bielorússia (Gomel RegionDobrush Raion) 52° 28′ 48″ N, 31° 33′ 51″ E / 52.48000°N,31.56417°E / 52.48000; 31.56417 Contains two small villages which have been depopulated since the 1986 Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine.
Llívia 12.84  Espanya (Catalonia autonomous community – Province of Girona/​Cerdanya comarca)  França (Languedoc-Roussillon region – Pyrénées-Orientales department) 42° 28′ N, 1° 59′ E / 42.467°N,1.983°E / 42.467; 1.983 To the east of Andorra, separated from the rest of Spain by a corridor about 2 km wide containing the French communes of Ur and Bourg-Madame.
Vorukh ~96.7  Tadjikistan (Sughd ProvinceIsfara District)  Kirguizistan (Batken ProvinceBatken District) 39° 51′ 04″ N, 70° 38′ 00″ E / 39.85111°N,70.63333°E / 39.85111; 70.63333 South of the mountain Ak-Tash; population is 95% Tajik and the rest Kyrgyz.
"Kayragach" ~0.88  Tadjikistan (Sughd ProvinceIsfara District)  Kirguizistan (Batken ProvinceLeilek District) 40° 04′ 05″ N, 69° 32′ 41″ E / 40.06806°N,69.54472°E / 40.06806; 69.54472 Near the railway station of Stantsiya Kayragach, next to the Kyrgyz-Tajik border; also referred to as "Western Qal'acha" due to proximity to the Tajik town of Qal'acha; apparently there is no named settlement.
Sarvan (also Sarvaksoi, Sarvaki-bolo) 8.4  Tadjikistan (Sughd ProvinceAsht District)  Uzbekistan (Namangan Province – Pap district) 40° 58′ 00″ N, 70° 36′ 56″ E / 40.96667°N,70.61556°E / 40.96667; 70.61556 Long, narrow territory located in the Fergana and Isfara valleys region where Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan meet.
Nahwa ~5.2  Emirats Àrabs Units (Sharjah emirate)  Oman (Musandam Governorate) 25° 16′ N, 56° 16′ E / 25.267°N,56.267°E / 25.267; 56.267 A counter-enclave of Madha, reported to consist of around forty houses.[22]
Filomena Islands (5 islands) ~23  Uruguai (Río Negro Department)  Argentina (Entre Ríos ProvinceGualeguaychú and Uruguay departments) 32° 59′ S, 58° 6′ O / 32.983°S,58.100°O / -32.983; -58.100 Five adjacent islands (Isla Filomena Grande, Isla Filomena Chica, Isla Palma Chica, Isla Bassi, Isla Tres Cruces) with territorial water borders in the Uruguay River. Uninhabited islands that form part of the Esteros de Farrapos National Park.
Sokh ~234  Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Sokh district)  Kirguizistan (Batken Province) 40° 02′ 39″ N, 71° 05′ 39″ E / 40.04417°N,71.09417°E / 40.04417; 71.09417 Large enclave with 99% Tajik population, the rest Kyrgyz and almost no ethnic Uzbeks.
Shakhimardan ~38.2  Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Fergana district)  Kirguizistan (Batken ProvinceKadamjay District) 39° 58′ 59″ N, 71° 48′ 18″ E / 39.98306°N,71.80500°E / 39.98306; 71.80500 Located in a narrow valley in the Alay Mountains where the rivers Ok-su and Kok-su meet to form the Shakhimardan-sai.[6][7][23]
Chon-Qora or Qalacha (the 2 Uzbek villages in the enclave) ~3  Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Sokh district)  Kirguizistan (Batken Province) 40° 14′ 37″ N, 71° 02′ 14″ E / 40.24361°N,71.03722°E / 40.24361; 71.03722 Tiny enclave lying on the Sokh River, immediately north of Sokh; measures about 3 km long by 1 km wide, with the Uzbek villages of Chon-Qora (or Chongara 40° 15′ 03″ N, 71° 02′ 15″ E / 40.25083°N,71.03750°E / 40.25083; 71.03750) and Qalacha (40° 14′ 10″ N, 71° 02′ 12″ E / 40.23611°N,71.03667°E / 40.23611; 71.03667) at either end; the Kyrgyz village of Chong-Kara (or Chon-Kara 40° 15′ 37″ N, 71° 00′ 41″ E / 40.26028°N,71.01139°E / 40.26028; 71.01139) lies 2 km northwest.[6][7][23] [Note: The Kyrgyz Cyrillic alphabet contains three characters not present in the Uzbek alphabet. One of these characters is romanized from Kyrgyz as the digraph "ng," which is not present in romanized Uzbek words.][24]
Jani-Ayil (also Jangy-ayyl or Khalmion) ~0.8  Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Fergana district)  Kirguizistan (Batken ProvinceKadamjay District) 40° 12′ 01″ N, 71° 39′ 43″ E / 40.20028°N,71.66194°E / 40.20028; 71.66194 Tiny enclave north-northwest of the Shakhimardan enclave; within 1 km of the Uzbek main border; the Kyrgyz towns of Jani-Ayil (40° 10′ 56″ N, 71° 40′ 49″ E / 40.18222°N,71.68028°E / 40.18222; 71.68028) and Kalmion (40° 12′ 44″ N, 71° 37′ 58″ E / 40.21222°N,71.63278°E / 40.21222; 71.63278) lie outside opposite edges of this enclave.[6][7][23]
Peanut Hole,
High Seas[25]
~30,000 Plantilla:Country data United Nations  Rússia 55° 30′ N, 149° 30′ E / 55.500°N,149.500°E / 55.500; 149.500 Surrounded by Russia's EEZ in the Sea of Okhotsk; lies between the territorial zones of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Island. (Note: EEZs are not areas of sovereignty, but rather of sovereign rights and functional jurisdiction.)
High Seas ~170,000 Plantilla:Country data United Nations  Japó 26° 19′ N, 135° 52′ E / 26.317°N,135.867°E / 26.317; 135.867 Surrounded by Japan's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of Honshu, Shikoku, the Bonin Islands, Okino-tori-shima and Okinawa Island
High Seas ~1200 Plantilla:Country data United Nations  Nova Zelanda 44° 19′ S, 178° 12′ E / 44.317°S,178.200°E / -44.317; 178.200 Surrounded by New Zealand's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of the Chatham Islands, North Island and the Bounty Islands
High Seas ~20,000 Plantilla:Country data United Nations  Nova Zelanda 49° 32′ S, 173° 6′ E / 49.533°S,173.100°E / -49.533; 173.100 Surrounded by New Zealand's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of Campbell Island, South Island and the Antipodes Islands

Certs territoris no poden pertànyer al país que té la sobirania de les aigües internacionals. Se'ls considera fragments separats més que enclavaments veritables:

  • Les ciutats espanyoles de Ceuta i Melilla en la costa nord d'Àfrica.
  • La vila catalana de Llívia (província de Girona, a Espanya), en la frontera amb França.
  • L'enclavament de Treviño a Euskadi
  • La colònia anglesa de Gibraltar, en la costa meridional d'Espanya.
  • Oecussi-Ambeno, un fragment de Timor Oriental, dintre de l'illa indonèsia de Timor.
  • Cabinda, un territori que pertany a Angola envoltat per la Zaire i la República del Congo.
  • El territori rus de Kaliningrad, entre Polònia i Lituània, que, abans de la Segona Guerra Mundial era la ciutat alemanya de Königsberg, la capital de Prússia Oriental, un exclavament alemany.
  • El territori de Nakhtxivan, pres per Azerbaidjan i envoltat per Armènia, Turquia i Iran.
  • El municipi alemany de Büsingen am Hochrhein, envoltat de territori suís

Nombrosos països posseeixen de fet fragments solts que no poden ser arribats a peu sense trepitjar altre país. Alaska, separada dels Estats Units d'Amèrica, és un exemple extrem però, almenys hi ha altres dos fragments dels EUA als quals no es pot arribar fins a ells a peu sense penetrar al Canadà: Point Roberts en el nord-oest de l'estat de Washington i Northwest Angle a Minnesota. La costa meridional de Croàcia està separada del país pel petit corredor de Neum, que pertany a Bòsnia i Hercegovina.

Regions enclavades dintre de països[modifica | modifica el codi]

Des del punt de vista ètnic diverses regions d'Amèrica del Sud en diferents països es consideren enclavaments econòmics i es distingeixen d'altres regions dels seus respectius països pel predomini de població dispersa pertanyent a ètnies negres o indígenes. Entre aquestes es poden esmentar:

  • Les regions litorals del sud occident de Panamà (Darién), occident deColòmbia (Chocó i faixa occidental de Valle del Cauca, Cauca i Nariño) i nord-occident de l'Equador (Esmeraldas).
  • Les terres baixes amazòniques a Veneçuela, Colòmbia, Equador, Perú i Bolívia, habitades per població indígena dispersa.

Hi ha un altre exemple d'enclavament ètnic a Àsia, com és el de Nagorno-Karabaj a l'Azerbaidjan amb població armènia.

Enclavaments provincials a Espanya[modifica | modifica el codi]

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. «Enclavament». L'Enciclopèdia.cat. Barcelona: Grup Enciclopèdia Catalana.
  2. Whyte, Brendan. "En Territoire Belge et à Quarante Centimètres de la Frontière" An historical and documentary study of the Belgian and Dutch enclaves of Baarle-Hertog and Baarle-Nassau. The University of Melbourne, School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies, 2004. ISBN 0-7340-3032-0. 
  3. Krogh, Jan. «Jan S. Krogh's Geosite: Enclaves and Exclaves». [Consulta: 2013-02-21].
  4. «Treaty between Australia and the Independent State of Papua New Guinea concerning Sovereignty and Maritime Boundaries in the area between the two Countries, including the area known as Torres Strait, and Related Matters». Australian Government Publishing Service. Canberra, 1985. [Consulta: 2013-08-20].
  5. «Australian Enclaves off Papua, New Guinea (map)». Association of Canada Lands Surveyors. [Consulta: 2013-08-20].
  6. 6,0 6,1 6,2 6,3 6,4 «Complete Files of Geographic Names for Geopolitical Areas from GNS». Toponymic information is based on the Geographic Names Database, containing official standard names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. More information is available at the Maps and Geodata link at http://www.nga.mil. The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency name, initials, and seal are protected by 10 United States Code Section 425. [Consulta: 2013-02-20].
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 7,3 7,4 National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. «GeoNames WMS Viewer». [Consulta: 2013-02-20].
  8. 8,0 8,1 «Territorial and Maritime Dispute (Nicaragua v. Colombia), Rejoinder, Republic of Colombia» p. 99–102. International Court of Justice, 18 June 2010. [Consulta: 2013-08-16].
  9. Official Nautical Chart: Cayo Quitasueño
  10. 10,0 10,1 10,2 Kraul, Chris. «Disputed islands belong to Colombia, court rules». , 20 November 2012 [Consulta: 12 agost 2013].
  11. «Territorial and Maritime Dispute (Nicaragua v. Colombia). Judgment.». International Court of Justice. (para. 37, 202)., 19 November 2012. [Consulta: 2013-08-16].
  12. Bekker, Pieter. «The World Court Awards Sovereignty Over Several Islands in the Caribbean Sea to Colombia and Fixes a Single Maritime Boundary between Colombia and Nicaragua». Insight (American Society of International Law), vol. 17, 3, 15 January 2013 [Consulta: 12 agost 2013].
  13. 13,0 13,1 Cortes, Jorge. Latin American Coral Reefs. Gulf Professional Publishing, 2003, p. 283. ISBN 978-0444540256 [Consulta: 16 agost 2013]. 
  14. Krogh, Jan. «Jan S. Krogh's Geosite: Enclave/exclave of Brezovica». [Consulta: 2013-03-12].
  15. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston London. The Times Atlas of the World. Belgium, Plate 61, V. III [mapa]. (1955) Consultat el 2013-05-04.
  16. Megoran, Nick Solly. «To Survive, Villagers Buck Uzbek Border Controls». EurasiaNet, 24 May 2004. [Consulta: 2014-03-15].
  17. Megoran, Nick. «Bad neighbors, bad fences». Asia Times Online, 15 Mar 2000. [Consulta: 2014-03-15].
  18. Gavrilis, George. The Dynamics of Interstate Boundaries (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics). 1. Cambridge University Press, 22 Sep 2008, p. 120-121. ISBN 978-0521898997. 
  19. «Kyrgyz In Exclave In Uzbekistan Want To Relocate To Kyrgyzstan». EurasiaNet, 12 May 2011. [Consulta: 2014-03-15].
  20. Azizov, Demir. «Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan intensify work on delimitation and demarcation of state border», 18 Feb 2014. [Consulta: 2014-03-15].
  21. Борис ГОЛОВАНОВ. «Продолжаются споры по линии прохождения узбеко-кыргызской границы. Неделимы Сох, Барак и Гавасай». Вечерний Бишкек, 22 Feb 2002. [Consulta: 2014-02-15].
  22. Krogh, Jan. «Jan S. Krogh's Geosite: United Arab Emirates». [Consulta: 2013-03-12].
  23. 23,0 23,1 23,2 «GeoHack - Batken Province». [Consulta: 2013-02-20].
  24. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. «Romanization Systems and Policies». [Consulta: 2013-03-02].
  25. «The 'Peanut Hole' in the Sea of Okhotsk». Government of Canada. [Consulta: 2013-11-24].

Vegeu també[modifica | modifica el codi]

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