Oscar al millor documental

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Infotaula de premiOscar al millor documental
Tipus Oscar
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L'Oscar al millor documental (en anglès Academy Award for Documentary Feature) és un premi cinematogràfic estatunidenc atorgat cada any, des de 1942 per l'Acadèmia de les Arts i les Ciències Cinematogràfiques, la qual atorga igualment tots els altres Oscars.[1]

Guanyadors i nominats[modifica]

Seguint les normes de l'Acadèmia, les pel·lícules són a la llista sota l'any que han estat seleccionades. A la pràctica, degut a la naturalesa de la distribució dels documentals, una pel·lícula pot sortir en diferents anys, algunes vegades anys després de completar la producció. Els llorejats són indicats al capdavant de cada categoria i en negreta.

Dècada de 1940[modifica]

Any Pel·lícula Director/s
1942 The Battle of Midway John Ford
Kokoda Front Line Ken G. Hall
La derrota de les tropes feixistes alemanyes als afores de Moscou Leonid Varlàmov, Ilià Kopalin
Prelude to War Frank Capra, Anatole Litvak
Africa, Prelude to Victory
Combat Report
Conquer by the Clock
The Grain That Built a Hemisphere
Henry Browne, Farmer
High Over the Borders
High Stakes in the East
Inside Fighting China
It's Everybody's War
Listen to Britain
Little Belgium
Little Isles of Freedom
Mr. Blabbermouth!
Mister Gardenia Jones
The New Spirit
The Price of Victory
A Ship Is Born
Twenty-One Miles
We Refuse to Die
The White Eagle
Winning Your Wings
La categoria es va separar en dues per llargmetratges i curtmetratges. A continuació es relacionen només els llarmetratges.
1943 Desert Victory Roy Boulting
Baptism of Fire
The Battle of Russia Frank Capra, Anatole Litvak
Report from the Aleutians John Huston
War Department Report Oliver Lundquist
1944 The Fighting Lady Edward Steichen
Resisting Enemy Interrogation Bernard Vorhaus
1945 The True Glory Garson Kanin, Carol Reed
The Last Bomb Frank Lloyd
1946 Premi no atorgat
1947 Design for Death Richard Fleischer
Journey Into Medicine Willard Van Dyke
The World Is Rich Paul Rotha
1948 The Secret Land
The Quiet One Sidney Meyers
1949 Daybreak in Udi Terry Bishop
Kenji Comes Home Charles F. Schwep

Dècada de 1950[modifica]

Any Pel·lícula Director/s
1950 The Titan: Story of Michelangelo Robert J. Flaherty, Richard Lyford, Curt Oertel
With These Hands Jack Arnold
1951 Kon-Tiki Thor Heyerdahl
I Was a Communist for the FBI Gordon Douglas
1952 The Sea Around Us Irwin Allen
The Hoaxters Herman Hoffman, Dore Schary
Navajo Norman Foster
1953 The Living Desert James Algar
The Conquest of Everest George Lowe
A Queen Is Crowned Michael Waldman
1954 The Vanishing Prairie James Algar
The Stratford Adventure Morten Parker
1955 Helen Keller in Her Story Nancy Hamilton
Crèvecoeur Jacques Dupont
1956 The Silent World Jacques-Yves Cousteau, Louis Malle
Hvor bjergene sejler Bjarne Henning-Jensen
The Naked Eye Louis Clyde Stoumen
1957 Albert Schweitzer Jerome Hill
On the Bowery Lionel Rogosin
Torero arlos Velo
1958 White Wilderness James Algar
Antarctic Crossing George Lowe
The Hidden World Robert Snyder
Psychiatric Nursing Lee R. Bobker
1959 Serengeti Shall Not Die Bernhard Grzimek
The Race for Space David L. Wolper

Dècada de 1960[modifica]

Any Pel·lícula Director/s
1960 The Horse with the Flying Tail Larry Lansburgh
Rebel in Paradise Robert D. Fraser
1961 Le Ciel et la Boue Pierre-Dominique Gaisseau
La grande olimpiade Romolo Marcellini
1962 Black Fox: The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hitler Louis Clyde Stoumen
Alvorada Hugo Niebeling
1963 Robert Frost: A Lover's Quarrel With the World Shirley Clarke
Le Maillon et la Chaîne Jacques Ertaud, Bernard Gorki
The Yanks Are Coming Marshall Flaum
1964 Le Monde sans soleil Jacques-Yves Cousteau
14-18 Jean Aurel
Alleman Bert Haanstra
The Finest Hours Peter Baylis
Four Days in November Mel Stuart
1965 The Eleanor Roosevelt Story Richard Kaplan
The Battle of the Bulge... The Brave Rifles Laurence E. Mascott
The Forth Road Bridge Gordon Lang
Let My People Go: The Story of Israel Marshall Flaum
Mourir à Madrid Frédéric Rossif
1966 The War Game Peter Watkins
The Face of a Genius Alfred R. Kelman
Helicopter Canada Peter Jones, Tom Daly
The Really Big Family Alex Grasshoff
Le Volcan interdit Haroun Tazieff
1967 The Anderson Platoon Pierre Schoendoerffer
Festival Murray Lerner
Harvest Carroll Ballard
A King's Story Jack Le Vien
A Time for Burning William C. Jersey
1968 Journey into Self A Bill McGaw
A Few Notes on Our Food Problem James Blue
Legendary Champions William Cayton
Other Voices David H. Sawyer
1969 Arthur Rubinstein – The Love of Life Bernard Chevry
Before the Mountain Was Moved Robert K. Sharpe
In the Year of the Pig Emile de Antonio
The Olympics in Mexico Comité Organizador de los Juegos de la XIX Olimpiada
The Wolf Men Irwin Rosten

Dècada de 1970[modifica]

Any Pel·lícula Director/s
1970 Woodstock Michael Wadleigh
Erinnerungen an die Zukunft Harald Reinl
Jack Johnson Jimmy Jacobs
King: A Filmed Record... Montgomery to Memphis Sidney Lumet
Say Goodbye David H. Vowell
1971 The Hellstrom Chronicle Ed Spiegel, Walon Green
Alaska Wilderness Lake Alan Landsburg
Le Chagrin et la Pitié Marcel Ophüls
On Any Sunday Bruce Brown
Ra Lennart Ehrenborg, Thor Heyerdahl
1972 Marjoe Howard Smith, Sarah Kernochan
Bij de beesten af Bert Haanstra
Malcolm X Arnold Perl
Manson Robert Hendrickson, Laurence Merrick
The Silent Revolution Eckehard Munck
1973 The Great American Cowboy Kieth Merrill
Always a New Beginning John D. Goodell
Journey to the Outer Limits Alexander Grasshoff
Schlacht um Berlin Franz Baake, Jost von Morr
Walls of Fire Herbert Kline, Edmund Penney
1974 Hearts and Minds Peter Davis
Antonia: A Portrait of the Woman Judy Collins, Jill Godmilow
The Challenge... A Tribute to Modern Art Herbert Kline
The 81st Blow David Bergman, Jacques Ehrlich, Haim Gouri
The Wild and the Brave Eugene S. Jones
1975 The Man Who Skied Down Everest Bruce Nyznik, Lawrence Schiller
The California Reich Keith F. Critchlow, Walter F. Parkes
Fighting for Our Lives Glen Pearcy
Man: The Incredible Machine Irwin Rosten, Ed Spiegel
The Other Half of the Sky: A China Memoir Shirley MacLaine, Claudia Weill
1976 Harlan County, USA Barbara Kopple
Hollywood on Trial David Helpern
Off the Edge Michael Firth
People of the Wind Anthony Howarth, David Koff
Volcano: An Inquiry Into the Life and Death of Malcolm Lowry Donald Brittain, John Kramer
1977 Who Are the DeBolts? And Where Did They Get Nineteen Kids? John Korty
The Children of Theatre Street Robert Dornhelm, Earle Mack
High Grass Circus Torben Schioler, Tony Ianzelo
Homage to Chagall: The Colours of Love Harry Rasky
Union Maids Jim Klein, Miles Mogulescu, Julia Reichert
1978 Scared Straight! Arnold Shapiro
Mysterious Castles of Clay Joan Root, Alan Root
Raoni Jean-Pierre Dutilleux, Luiz Carlos Saldanha
Le vent des amoureux Albert Lamorisse
With Babies and Banners: Story of the Women's Emergency Brigade Lorraine Gray
1979 Best Boy Ira Wohl
Generation on the Wind David Vassar
Going the Distance Paul Cowan
The Killing Ground Steve Singer, Tom Priestley
The War at Home Glenn Silber

Dècada de 1980[modifica]

Any Pel·lícula Director/s
1980 From Mao to Mozart: Isaac Stern in China Murray Lerner
Agee Ross Spears
The Day After Trinity Jon H. Else
Front Line David Bradbury
Der gelbe Stern – Die Judenverfolgung 1933–1945 Dieter Hildebrandt
1981 Genocide Arnold Schwartzman
Against Wind and Tide: A Cuban Odyssey John Brousek
Brooklyn Bridge Ken Burns
Eight Minutes to Midnight: A Portrait of Dr. Helen Caldicott Mary Benjamin
El Salvador: Another Vietnam Glenn Silber, Teté Vasconcellos
1982 Just Another Missing Kid John Zaritsky
A Portrait of Giselle Muriel Balash
After the Axe Sturla Gunnarsson
Ben's Mill Michel Chalufour, John Karol
In Our Water Meg Switzgable
1983 He Makes Me Feel Like Dancin' Emile Ardolino
Children of Darkness Ara Chekmayan, Richard Kotuk
First Contact Robin Anderson, Bob Connolly
The Profession of Arms Michael Bryans, Tina Viljoen
Seeing Red Jim Klein, Julia Reichert
1984 The Times of Harvey Milk Robert Epstein, Richard Schmiechen
High Schools Charles Guggenheim
In the Name of the People Frank Christopher
Marlene Maximilian Schell
Streetwise Martin Bell
1985 Broken Rainbow Maria Florio, Victoria Mudd
Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo Susana Blaustein Muñoz, Lourdes Portillo
Soldiers in Hiding Malcolm Clarke
The Statue of Liberty Ken Burns
Unfinished Business Steven Okazaki
1986 Artie Shaw: Time Is All You've Got Brigitte Berman
Down and Out in America Lee Grant
Chile: Hasta Cuando? David Bradbury
Isaac in America: A Journey with Isaac Bashevis Singer Amram Nowak
Witness to Apartheid Sharon I. Sopher
1987 The Ten-Year Lunch: The Wit and Legend of the Algonquin Round Table Aviva Slesin
Eyes on the Prize: America's Civil Rights Years/Bridge to Freedom 1965 Henry Hampton
Hellfire: A Journey from Hiroshima Michael Camerini, John Junkerman, James MacDonald
Radio Bikini Robert Stone
A Stitch for Time Nigel Noble
1988 Hôtel Terminus: The Life and Times of Klaus Barbie Marcel Ophüls
The Cry of Reason: Beyers Naude – An Afrikaner Speaks Out Robert Bilheimer
Let's Get Lost Bruce Weber
Promises to Keep Ginny Durrin
Who Killed Vincent Chin? Christine Choy, Renee Tajima-Peña
1989 Common Threads: Stories from the Quilt Rob Epstein, Jeffrey Friedman
Adam Clayton Powell Richard Kilberg
Crack USA: County Under Siege Vince DiPersio, Bill Guttentag
For All Mankind Al Reinert
Super Chief: The Life and Legacy of Earl Warren Bill Jersey, Judith Leonard

Dècada de 1990[modifica]

Any Pel·lícula Director/s
1990 American Dream Barbara Kopple
Berkeley in the Sixties Mark Kitchell
Building Bombs Mark Mori, Susan J. Robinson
Forever Activists: Stories from the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade Connie Field, Judith Montell
Waldo Salt: A Screenwriter's Journey Eugene Corr, Robert Hillmann
1991 In the Shadow of the Stars Allie Light, Irving Saraf
Death on the Job Vince DiPersio, Bill Guttentag
Doing Time: Life Inside the Big House Alan Raymond
The Restless Conscience: Resistance to Hitler Within Germany 1933–1945 Hava Kohav Beller
Wild by Law Lawrence Hott, Diane Garey
1992 The Panama Deception Barbara Trent
Changing Our Minds: The Story of Dr. Evelyn Hooker Richard Schmiechen
Fires of Kuwait David Douglas
Liberators: Fighting on Two Fronts in World War II William Miles, Nina Rosenblum
Music for the Movies: Bernard Herrmann Joshua Waletzky
1993 I Am a Promise: The Children of Stanton Elementary School Susan Raymond
The Broadcast Tapes of Dr. Peter Arthur Ginsberg, David Paperny
Children of Fate Andrew Young, Susan Todd
For Better or For Worse David Collier, Betsy Thompson
The War Room Chris Hegedus, D. A. Pennebaker
1994 Maya Lin: A Strong Clear Vision Freida Lee Mock
Complaints of a Dutiful Daughter Deborah Hoffmann
D-Day Remembered Charles Guggenheim
Freedom on My Mind Connie Field, Marilyn Mulford
A Great Day in Harlem Jean Bach
1995 Anne Frank Remembered Jon Blair
The Battle Over Citizen Kane Michael Epstein, Thomas Lennon
Hank Aaron: Chasing the Dream Michael Tollin
Small Wonders Allan Miller
Troublesome Creek: A Midwestern Steven Ascher, Jeanne Jordan
1996 When We Were Kings Leon Gast
The Line King: The Al Hirschfeld Story Susan Warms Dryfoos
Mandela Angus Gibson, Jo Menell
Suzanne Farrell: Elusive Muse Anne Belle, Deborah Dickson
Tell the Truth and Run: George Seldes and the American Press Rick Goldsmith
1997 The Long Way Home Mark Jonathan Harris
Ayn Rand: A Sense of Life Michael Paxton
Colors Straight Up Michèle Ohayon
4 Little Girls Spike Lee
Waco: The Rules of Engagement William Gazecki
1998 The Last Days James Moll
The Dancemaker Matthew Diamond
The Farm: Angola, U.S.A. Liz Garbus, Wilbert Rideau, Jonathan Stack
Lenny Bruce: Swear to Tell the Truth Robert B. Weide
Regret to Inform Barbara Sonneborn
1999 One Day in September Kevin Macdonald
Buena Vista Social Club Wim Wenders
Genghis Blues Roko Belic
On the Ropes Nanette Burstein, Brett Morgen
Speaking in Strings Paola di Florio

Dècada de 2000[modifica]

Any Pel·lícula Director/s
2000 Into the Arms of Strangers: Stories of the Kindertransport Mark Jonathan Harris, Deborah Oppenheimer
Legacy Tod Lending
Long Night's Journey into Day Deborah Hoffmann, Frances Reid
Scottsboro: An American Tragedy Daniel Anker, Barak Goodman
Sound and Fury Josh Aronson, Roger Weisberg
2001 Un coupable idéal Jean-Xavier de Lestrade, Denis Poncet
Children Underground Edet Belzberg
LaLee's Kin: The Legacy of Cotton Deborah Dickson, Susan Frömke
Promises B.Z. Goldberg, Justine Shapiro
War Photographer Christian Frei
2002 Bowling for Columbine Michael Donovan, Michael Moore
Daughter from Danang Gail Dolgin, Vicente Franco
Prisoner of Paradise Malcolm Clarke, Stuart Sender
Spellbound Jeffrey Blitz, Sean Welch
Le Peuple migrateur Jacques Perrin
2003 The Fog of War Errol Morris, Michael Williams
Balseros Carlos Bosch, Josep Maria Domenech
Capturant els Friedman Andrew Jarecki, Marc Smerling
My Architect Nathaniel Kahn, Susan R. Behr
The Weather Underground Sam Green, Bill Siegel
2004 Born into Brothels Ross Kauffman, Zana Briski
La història del camell que plora Byambasuren Davaa, Luigi Falorni
Super Size Me Morgan Spurlock
Tupac: Resurrection Karolyn Ali, Lauren Lazin
Twist of Faith Kirby Dick, Eddie Schmidt
2005 El viatge de l'emperador Luc Jacquet
El malson de Darwin Hubert Sauper
Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room Alex Gibney, Jason Kliot
Murderball Henry Alex Rubin, Dana Adam Shapiro
Street Fight Marshall Curry
2006 An Inconvenient Truth Davis Guggenheim
Deliver Us from Evil Amy Berg, Frank Donner
Iraq in Fragments James Longley, Yahya Sinno
Jesus Camp Heidi Ewing, Rachel Grady
My Country, My Country Jocelyn Glatzer, Laura Poitras
2007 Taxi to the Dark Side Alex Gibney, Eva Orner
No End in Sight Charles Ferguson, Audrey Marrs
Operation Homecoming: Writing the Wartime Experience Richard Robbins
SiCKO Michael Moore, Meghan O'Hara
War/Dance Sean Fine, Andrea Nix
2008 Man on Wire Simon Chinn, James Marsh
Nerakhoon (The Betrayal) Ellen Kuras, Thavisouk Phrasavath
Encounters at the End of the World Werner Herzog, Henry Kaiser
The Garden Scott Hamilton Kennedy
Trouble the Water Carl Deal, Tia Lessin
2009 The Cove Louie Psihoyos, Fisher Stevens
Burma VJ Anders Østergaard, Lise Lense-Møller
Food, Inc. Robert Kenner, Elise Pearlstein
The Most Dangerous Man in America: Daniel Ellsberg and the Pentagon Papers Judith Ehrlich, Rick Goldsmith
Which Way Home Rebecca Cammisa

Dècada de 2010[modifica]

Any Pel·lícula Director/s
2010 Inside Job Charles H. Ferguson, Audrey Marrs
Exit Through the Gift Shop Banksy, Jaimie D'Cruz
Gasland Josh Fox, Trish Adlesic
Restrepo Tim Hetherington, Sebastian Junger
Waste Land Lucy Walker, Angus Aynsley
2011 Undefeated T. J. Martin, Daniel Lindsay, Rich Middlemas
Hell and Back Again Danfung Dennis, Mike Lerner
If a Tree Falls: A Story of the Earth Liberation Front Marshall Curry, Sam Cullman
Paradise Lost 3: Purgatory Joe Berlinger, Bruce Sinofsky
Pina Wim Wenders, Gian-Piero Ringel
2012 Searching for Sugar Man Malik Bendjelloul, Simon Chinn
5 Broken Cameras Emad Burnat, Guy Davidi
The Gatekeepers Dror Moreh, Philippa Kowarsky, Estelle Fialon
How to Survive a Plague David France, Howard Gertler
The Invisible War Kirby Dick, Amy Ziering
2013 20 Feet from Stardom Morgan Neville, Gil Friesen, Caitrin Rogers
The Act of Killing Joshua Oppenheimer, Signe Byrge Sørensen
Cutie and the Boxer Zachary Heinzerling, Lydia Dean Pilcher
Dirty Wars Richard Rowley, Jeremy Scahill
The Square Jehane Noujaim, Karim Amer
2014 Citizenfour Laura Poitras, Mathilde Bonnefoy, Dirk Wilutzky
Finding Vivian Maier John Maloof, Charlie Siskel
Last Days in Vietnam Rory Kennedy, Kevin McAlester
La sal de la terra Wim Wenders, Juliano Ribeiro Salgado, David Rosier
Virunga Orlando von Einsiedel, Joanna Natasegara
2015 Amy Asif Kapadia, James Gay-Rees
Cartel Land Matthew Heineman, Tom Yellin
The Look of Silence Joshua Oppenheimer, Signe Byrge Sørensen
What Happened, Miss Simone? Liz Garbus, Amy Hobby, Justin Wilkes
Winter on Fire: Ukraine's Fight for Freedom Evgeny Afineevsky, Den Tolmor
2016 O.J.: Made in America Ezra Edelman, Caroline Waterlow
Fire at Sea Gianfranco Rosi, Donatella Palermo
I Am Not Your Negro Raoul Peck, Rémi Grellety, Hébert Peck
Life, Animated Roger Ross Williams, Julie Goldman
13th Ava DuVernay, Spencer Averick, Howard Barish
2017 Icarus Bryan Fogel, Dan Cogan
Abacus: Small Enough to Jail Steve James, Mark Mitten, Julie Goldman
Faces Places Agnès Varda, JR, Rosalie Varda
Last Men in Aleppo Feras Fayyad, Kareem Abeed, Søren Steen Jespersen
Strong Island Yance Ford, Joslyn Barnes

Notes[modifica]

  • Nota A: El documental Young Americans, produït per Robert Cohn i Alex Grasshoff, fou anunciat com el guanyador d'aquesta categoria el 14 d'abril de 1969, però el 7 de maig següent va ser declarada no elegible perquè es va revelar que havia estat rodada durant l'any 1967, de manera que se li va retirar el guardó i la nominació. Com a resultat, el primer finalista, Journey into Self, fou declarat guanyar d'aquesta edició en aquesta categoria.

Controvèrsies[modifica]

Es podria dir que l'Oscar al millor documental és el més controvertit dels Premis de l'Acadèmia. No es nominen gaires documentals aclamats per la crítica. Els exemples inclouen The Thin Blue Line, Roger & Me, Hoop Dreams, i Fahrenheit 9/11 (vegeu més avall). La controvèrsia sobre Hoop Dreams va ser suficient per forçar els Premis d'Acadèmia a canviar el seu sistema de votació als documentals.[2]

Les noves normes es debaten des del 2005, amb Grizzly Man, un documental que sortia en el top ten de molts crítics,[3] i que no es nominava, ni tan sols sortia a la llista interna de quinze títols distribuïda internament per l'Acadèmia. L'exclusió de Grizzly Man es revelava més tard com a resultat d'una norma de l'Acadèmia que desqualificava pel·lícules documentals per seqüències d'arxiu. Tanmateix, Grizzly Man incloïa noves entrevistes i altres seqüències filmades exclusivament per a la pel·lícula.

Hi ha debat pel paper que la distribució per televisió hauria de jugar en el procés de selecció. Fahrenheit 9/11, de Michael Moore, en el seu moment era inelegible perquè Moore havia optat per distribuir-la per televisió abans dels votacions del 2004. Al contrari el guanyador de 1982, Just Another Missing Kid, dirigida per John Zaritsky, es va crear editant juntes seqüències que originalment va filmar per a l'espectacle periodístic d'investigació de la TV canadenca The Fifth Estate.

Referències[modifica]