Llobarro atlàntic ratllat

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Llobarro atlàntic ratllat
Striped bass, Boston Aquarium.JPG
Striped bass FWS 1.jpg
Classificació científica
Regne: Animalia
Fílum: Chordata
Classe: Actinopterygii
Superordre: Acanthopterygii
Ordre: Perciformes
Subordre: Percoidei
Família: Moronidae
Gènere: Morone
(Mitchill, 1814)[1][2]
Espècie: M. saxatilis
Nom binomial
Morone saxatilis
(Walbaum, 1792)[3]
Sinònims
  • Morone lineatus (Bloch, 1792)
  • Morone saxitilis (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Perca mitchilli alternata (Mitchill, 1815)
  • Perca saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Roccus lineatus (Bloch, 1792)
  • Roccus saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Sciaena lineata (Bloch, 1792)[4]
Exemplar capturat a Nova Jersey
Llobarros atlàntics a l'aquàrium de Baltimore
Exemplar capturat a la badia de Chesapeake.
Llobarro atlàntic comparat amb una llauna
Exemplar del riu Coosa (Alabama, els Estats Units)

El llobarro atlàntic ratllat (Morone saxatilis) és una espècie de peix pertanyent a la família dels morònids.[5]

Descripció[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Pot arribar a fer 200 cm de llargària màxima[6] (normalment, en fa 120)[7] i 57 kg de pes.[8]
  • Cos comprimit lateralment.
  • Pot ésser de color verd clar, oliva, blau acerat, negre o marró al dors. Ventre blanc iridescent.
  • Boca terminal i grossa.
  • Dues aletes dorsals separades.
  • 9-11 espines i 10-13 radis tous a l'aleta dorsal i 3 espines i 7-13 radis tous a l'anal.
  • Té entre sis i nou franges contínues laterals a ambdós flancs.
  • La tercera espina de l'aleta anal és més llarga i prima que la segona.[9][10]

Reproducció[modifica | modifica el codi]

Té lloc quan la temperatura arriba als 18 °C als rius o estuaris on es realitzarà l'aparellament (com ara, el rius Hudson[11] i Roanoke o la badia de Chesapeake). La femella pot arribar a dipositar entre 500.000 i 3 milions de ous però menys d'1% dels embrions arribaran a sobreviure més d'un parell de mesos després de l'eclosió.[12] Els pares no protegeixen ni els ous ni les larves i els embrions van a la deriva durant 1,5-3 dies. La maduresa sexual és assolida pels mascles en arribar als 2-4 anys d'edat i per les femelles entre els 5 i els 8.[10][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]

Alimentació[modifica | modifica el codi]

Les larves mengen zooplàncton; els juvenils gambetes i d'altres crustacis, anèl·lids i insectes,[21][22] mentre que els adults es nodreixen d'una gran varietat de peixos[23] i invertebrats (calamars, crancs, cucs de mar i amfípodes), amb la particularitat que deixen d'alimentar-se poc abans de la fresa.[9][24][25][26][27][28]

Depredadors[modifica | modifica el codi]

És depredat per taurons,[29] pinnípedes, gàdids (Microgadus tomcod i Gadus morhua), el lluç platejat (Merluccius bilinearis), Morone saxatilis (el canibalisme hi és present), el tallahams (Pomatomus saltator), Cyclops bicuspidatus[30] i la llampresa de mar (Petromyzon marinus).[31][32][10]

Paràsits[modifica | modifica el codi]

Els seus paràsits inclouen Ergasilus labracid, Scolex pleuronectis, larves de cestodes, Colponema, Trichodina, Glossatella, Myxosoma morone, Philometra rubra i Pomphorhynchus rocci, entre d'altres.[10]

Hàbitat[modifica | modifica el codi]

És un peix d'aigua dolça (entra als rius a la primavera per fresar), salabrosa i marina, anàdrom,[33] demersal i de clima temperat (8 °C-25 °C;[34] 51°N-24°N, 94°W-44°W), el qual viu a les aigües costaneres i les badies. N'hi ha poblacions mancades de sortida al mar.[35][9][36]

Distribució geogràfica[modifica | modifica el codi]

És originari de l'Atlàntic occidental: des del riu Sant Llorenç[37] (el Canadà)[38][39] fins al riu St. John's River (el nord de Florida) i el nord del golf de Mèxic,[40] i, també, des de l'oest de Florida fins a Louisiana. Ha estat introduït a altres països i territoris[41] (com ara, l'Argentina,[42] l'Equador, les illes Hawaii,[43][44] l'Iran,[45] Mèxic,[46] Rússia, Sud-àfrica, Turquia[47] i Letònia).[48][9][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64]

Observacions[modifica | modifica el codi]

És inofensiu per als humans i la seua esperança de vida és de 30 anys.[65][66][9][67]

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. Mitchill S. L., 1814. Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill, M. D., ... on the fishes of New-York. Nova York. Rept. Fish N. Y. 1-28.
  2. uBio (anglès)
  3. Walbaum, J. J., 1792. Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium. In quibus systema totum ichthyologiae proponitur cum classibus, ordinibus, generum characteribus, specierum differentiis, observationibus plurimis. Redactis speciebus 242 ad genera 52. Ichthyologiae pars III. Ant. Ferdin. Rose, Grypeswaldiae (Greifswald). Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium. In quibus systema totum ichthyologiae proponitur cum classibus, ordinibus, generum characteribus, specierum differentiis, observationibus plurimis. Redactis speciebus 242 ad genera 52. Pt. 3: [i-viii] + 1-723, Pls. 1-3.
  4. Catalogue of Life (anglès)
  5. The Taxonomicon (anglès)
  6. Page, L.M. i B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Estats Units. 432 p.
  7. Frimodt, C., 1995. Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, Anglaterra. 215 p.
  8. Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald i H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Estats Units. 336 p.
  9. 9,0 9,1 9,2 9,3 9,4 FishBase (anglès)
  10. 10,0 10,1 10,2 10,3 Animal Diversity Web (anglès)
  11. Dey, W.P., 1981. Mortality and growth of young-of-the-year striped bass in the Hudson River estuary. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 110(1):151-157.
  12. Bailey, K.M. i E.D. Houde, 1989. Predation on eggs and larvae of marine fishes and the recruitment problem. Adv. Mar. Biol. 25:1-83.
  13. Breder, C.M. i D.E. Rosen, 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, Nova Jersey, Estats Units. 941 p.
  14. Carmichael, J.T., S.L. Haeseker i J.E. Hightower, 1998. Spawning migration of telemetered striped bass in the Roanoke River, North Carolina. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 127(2):286-297.
  15. Chesney, E.J., 1986. Multiple environmental factors as determinants of survival and growth in larval striped bass, Morone saxatilis. ICES C.M. 1986/M:26. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhaguen.
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  28. Walter, J.F. III i H.M. Austin, 2003. Diet composition of large striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Chesapeake Bay. Fish Bull. 101(2):414-423.
  29. Ebert, D.A., 1991. Observations on the predatory behavior of the sevengill shark Notorhynchus cepedianus. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 11:455-465.
  30. Smith, R.E. i R.J. Kernehan, 1981. Predation by the free-living copepod, Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi on larvae of the striped bass and white perch. Estuaries 1981 21(4):32-38.
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  33. Riede, K., 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Alemanya. 329 p.
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  37. Robichaud-LeBlanc, K.A., S.C. Courtenay i T.J. Benfey, 1998. Distribution and growth of young-of-the-year striped bass in the Miramichi River Estuary, Gulf of St. Lawrence. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 127(1):56-69.
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Bibliografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Anònim, 2001. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution - Division of Fishes.
  • Anònim, 2002. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West, NY 10024-5192, Estats Units.
  • Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 1998. Catalog of fishes. Publicació especial de la California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 3 vols. 2905 p.
  • Freadman, M.A., 1979. Swimming energetics of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and bluefish (Pomatomous saltatrix): gill ventilation and swimming metabolism. J. Exp. Biol. 83:217-230.
  • Freadman, M.A., 1981. Swimming energetics of stiped bass (Morone saxatilis) and bluefish (Pomatomous saltatrix): hydrodynamic correlates of locomotion and gill ventilation. J. Exp. Biol. 90:253-265.
  • Garibaldi, L., 1996. List of animal species used in aquaculture. FAO Fish. Circ. 914. 38 p.
  • Gray, I.E., 1954. Comparative study of the gill area of marine fishes. Biol. Bull. Mar. Biol. Lab. Woods Hole 107:219-225.
  • Hinegardner, R. i D.E. Rosen, 1972. Cellular DNA content and the evolution of teleostean fishes. Am. Nat. 106(951): 621-644.
  • Jelks, H.L., S.J. Walsh, N.M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D.A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N.E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J.S. Nelson, S.P> Platania, B.A. Porter, C.B. Renaud, J.J. Schmitter-Soto, E.B. Taylor i M.L. Warren, Jr., 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8): 372-407.
  • Kruger, R.L. i R.W. Brocksen, 1978. Respiratory metabolism of striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), in relation to temperature. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 31:55-66.
  • Laughlin, T.F. i B.J. Turner, 1996. Hypervariable DNA markers reveal high genetic variability within striped bass populations of the lower Chesapeake Bay. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 125(1):49-55.
  • Nelson, J.S., E.J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L.T. Findley, C.R. Gilbert, R.N. Lea i J.D. Williams, 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland, Estats Units.
  • Neumann, D.A., J.M. O'Connor i J.A. Sherk, Jr., 1981. Oxygen consumption of white perch (Morone americana), striped bass (M. saxatilis) and spot (Leiostomus xanthurus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 69A:467-478.
  • Pauly, D., 1978. A preliminary compilation of fish length growth parameters. Ber. Inst. Meereskd. Christian-Albrechts-Univ. Kiel (55):1-200.
  • Rachlin, J.W., A.P. Beck i J.M. O'Connor, 1978. Karyotypic analysis of Hudson river striped bass, Morone saxatilis. Copeia (2):343-345.
  • Raney, E.C., 1952. The life history of the striped bass, Roccus saxatilis (Walbaum). Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. 14(1):5-97.
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea i W.B. Scott, 1980. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (12)1-174.
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea i W.B. Scott, 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Pub. (20):183 p.
  • Setler, E.M., W.R. Boynton, K.V. Wood, H.H. Zion, L. Lubbers, N.K. Mountford, P. Frere, L. Tucker i J.A. Mihursky, 1980. Synopsis of biological data on striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum). NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circular 433, FAO Synopsis Núm. 121.
  • Wirgin, I.I. i L. Maceda, 1991. Development and use of striped bass-specific RFLP probes. J. Fish Biol. 39 (Suppl. A):159-167.
  • Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao i C.F. Lai (eds.), 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]

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