Rijeka (en croat Rijeka, Rika o Reka; Fiume en italià i hongarès, Reka en eslovè; Sankt Veit am Flaum o Pflaum en alemany; Folyómszentvít en hongarès antic, el seu nom significa riu) és una ciutat croata situada a la Badia de Kvarner a la Mar Adriàtica. En l'actualitat és la tercera ciutat del país després de la capital, Zagreb, i Split amb 128,624 habitants (cens del 2011). Comptant l'àrea metropolitana, que inclou els municipis adjacents a la ciutat, la població total arriba als 245,054 habitants (2011). El 82,529% de la població és croata (cens de 2011) tot i que hi ha minories de bosnis, italians i serbis. Rijeka a més és la capital del Comtat de Primorje-Gorski Kotar i a més capital episcopal de l'Arquebisbat de Rijeka. És el principal port de Croàcia i un dels més importants del Mar Adriàtic. La seva Universitat data del 1973 però les seves arrels es remunten al 1632. A més és seu del Teatre Nacional de Croàcia Ivan pl. Zajc, iniciualment construït el 1791, i de la Universitat de Rijeka fundada el 1973 però les seves arrels històriques es remunten a l'Escola de Teologia del 1632
L'economia de la ciutat depèn del transport marítim, de les drassanes i del turisme.
- 1 Història
- 2 Demografia
- 3 Clima i Geografia
- 4 Main sights
- 5 Transport 
- 6 Esport
- 7 International relations
- 8 Fills il·lustres
- 9 Referències
- 10 Notes
- 11 Enllaços externs
Història[modifica | modifica el codi]
Història Antiga i Medieval[modifica | modifica el codi]
Les primeres restes antigues trobades corresponen al Neolític. Així tenim el jaciment celtat de Tharstica situat en un turó (en l'actualitat, Trsat, part de Rijeka) i el d'una tribu de mariners, els Liburni, localitzat a la part baixa del port naturtal de la ciutat. Plini el Vell menciona Tarstica en la seva Història Natural (iii.140).
A l'època d'August, els romans varen reconstruir Tharstica com municipium al marge dret del petit riu de Rječinad (el nom del qual signfica "El gran riu") i li van plosasr el nom de Flumen Fins al segle VI d.C la ciutat formà part de la província romana de la Dalmàcia. Després del segle IV, també de la nostra era, Rijeka es dedicà a Sant Vitus, el patró de la ciutat i se la reanomenà Terra Fluminis sancti Sancti Viti o en alemnay, Sankt Veit am Pflaum. A partir de la caiguda de l'Imperi Rom à el segle V, la ciutat fou governada poels diferents pobles que d'ara en endavant ocuaparan Itàlia: prim er els ostrogots, despés els bizantins a partir del segle VI i posteriorment els llombards i els àvars. Un segle després hi arribaren els croates donant-li el nom de Rika svetoga Vida (que significa "el riu de Sant Vitus". Durant aquella època Rijeka fou un fortí feudal rodejat per una muralla.
El 799 Rijeka fou atacada pels francs de Carlemany i sotmesa a setge fins que finalment pogueren ocupar i devastar el castell. Des d'aleshores Rijeka formà part de l'Imperi Carolingi. A partir del segle X, amb la descomposició de l'antic Imperi de Carlemany, Rijeka passà a formar part del Regne de Croàcia i a partir del següent segle passarà a domini magiar amb la unió del Regne de Croàcia al d'Hongria, un domini que, a grans trets, perdurarà fins al 1918 ara ja sota el nom d'Imperi Austrohongarès, fora dels anys 1803-1813 en què sota el domini francès s'incorporà a les Províncies Il.líriques dins l'Imperi napoleònic, o Primer Imperi Francès.
Sota la sobirania dels Habsburg[modifica | modifica el codi]
Després de passar al domini dels Habsburg el 1466, la ciutat fou atacada i saquejada pels venecians el 1509. En canvi, els turcs otomans atacaren la ciutat diverses vegades però no l'arribaren a conquerir mai. Des del segle XVI endevant la ciutat serà reconstruïda en estil re naixentista i Barroc. El 1719 l'emperador Carles VI declarà Fiuyme (Rijeka) port lliure, al costat del de Trieste.
Per ordre de l'emperadriu Maria Teresa la ciutat és incorporada al Regne d'Hongria el 1776 però administrativament dins de Croàcia. A causa de diferents protestes provinents de la mateixa ciutat de Fiume (Rijeka), el 1779 la localitat passà a ser governada com a Corpus separatum direcament des de Budapest per un governador nomenat pel govern hongarès en tant que era l'únic port internacional magiar. A partir d'això el port de Fiume (Rijeka) fou rival directe del de Trieste, aleshores austríac. Entre els segles XVIII i XIX Rijeka forma part d'Hongria, d'Austria, de França fins que finalment el 1867 amb el Compromís austrohongarès la ciutat és anexionada de nou i per última vegada al Regne d'Hongria mantenint el seu status especial de corpus separatum. Durant aquesta centúria Fiume (Rijeka) fou una important base naval i a partir de mitjans del segle seu de l'Acadèmia Naval austrohongaresa on es formaven els oficials de la marina de guerra imperial.
Giovanni de Ciotta (mayor from 1872 to 1896) proved to be an authoritative local political leader. Under his leadership, an impressive phase of expansion of the city started, marked by major port development, fuelled by the general expansion of international trade and the city's connection (1873) to the Austro-Hungarian railway network. Modern industrial and commercial enterprises such as the Royal Hungarian Sea Navigation Company "Adria", and the paper mill, situated in the Rječina canyon, producing cigarette paper sold around the world, became trademarks of the city.
The second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century (up to World War I) was a period of rapid economic growth and technological dynamism for Rijeka. The industrial development of the city included the first industrial scale oil refinery in Europe in 1882 and the first torpedo factory in the world in 1866, after Robert Whitehead, manager of the "Stabilimento Tecnico Fiumano" (an Austrian engineering company engaged in providing engines for the Austro-Hungarian Navy), designed and successfully tested the world's first torpedo.
Rijeka also became a pioneering centre for high-speed photography. The Austrian physicist Peter Salcher working in Rijeka's Austro-Hungarian Marine Academy took the first photograph of a bullet flying at supersonic speed in 1886, devising a technique that was later used by Ernst Mach in his studies of supersonic motion.
Rijeka's port underwent tremendous development fuelled by generous Hungarian investments, becoming the main maritime outlet for Hungary and the eastern part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the fifth port in the Mediterranean, after Marseilles, Genoa, Naples and Trieste. The population grew rapidly from only 21,000 in 1880 to 50,000 in 1910. Major civic buildings constructed at this time include the Governor's Palace, designed by the Hungarian architect Alajos Hauszmann. There was an ongoing competition between Rijek and Trieste, the main maritime outlet for Austria - reflecting the rivalry between the two components of the Dual Monarchy. The Austro-Hungarian Navy sought to keep the balance by ordering new warships from the shipyards of both cities.
A més del ràpid creixemnet econòmic que experimenta la ciutat durant el segle XIX fins el 1914, Fiume (Rijeka) viu una alteració del seu component de població a causa de les mesures portades pel govern magiar afavorint la immigració de po blacions d'alygtres parts de l'Imperi. Així, en el cens del 1910 constaven 24.000 persones ítaloparlants, 13.000 de parla croata, a més de 6.500 ciutadans d'origen hongarès i diferents milers d'altres nacionalitats com eslovens, alemanys, txecs, eslovacs i grecs.
El conflicte ítaloiugoslau i l'Estat Lliure de Fume[modifica | modifica el codi]
At the time, Fiume had 22,488 (62% of the population) Italians in a total population of 35,839 inhabitants.
Habsburg-ruled Austria-Hungary's disintegration in the closing weeks of World War Iin the fall of 1918 led to the establishment of rival Croatian-Serbian and Italian administrations in the city; both Italy and the founders of the new Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) claimed sovereignty based on their "irredentist" ("unredeemed") ethnic populations.
After a brief military occupation by the Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes, followed by the unilateral annexation of the former Corpus Separatum by the Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes, an international force of British, Italian, French and American troops entered the city (November 1918), while its future was discussed at the Paris Peace Conference during the course of 1919.
Italy based its claim on the fact that Italians were the largest single nationality within the city (65% of the total population). Croats made up most of the remainder and were also a majority in the surrounding area, including the neighbouring town ofSušak. Andrea Ossoinack, who had been the last delegate from Fiume to the Hungarian Parliament, was admitted to the conference as a representative of Fiume, and essentially supported the Italian claims. Despite these claims, in the city there was a strong and very active autonomist party, which also had its delegates at the Paris conference.
On 10 September 1919, the Treaty of Saint-Germain was signed declaring the Austro-Hungarian monarchy dissolved. Negotiations over the future of the city were interrupted two days later when a force of Italian nationalist irregulars led by the poetGabriele d'Annunzio seized control of the city by force; d'Annunzio eventually established a state, the Italian Regency of Carnaro.
The resumption of Italy's premiership by the liberal Giovanni Giolitti in June 1920 signalled a hardening of official attitudes to d'Annunzio's coup. On 12 November, Italy and Yugoslavia concluded the Treaty of Rapallo, under which Rijeka was to be an independent state, the Free State of Fiume, under a government acceptable to both. d'Annunzio's response was characteristically flamboyant and of doubtful judgment: his declaration of war against Italy invited the bombardment by Italian royal forces which led to his surrender of the city at the end of the year, after five days' resistance (known as Bloody Christmas). Italian troops freed the city from d'Annunzio's militias in January 1921.
The subsequent democratic election brought the overwhelming victory of the autonomist party and the election of Rijeka's first president Riccardo Zanella, officially recognized and greeted by all major powers. The creation of a constituent assembly for the new country did not put an end to strife within the city: a brief Italian nationalist seizure of power was ended by the intervention of an Italian royal commissioner, and a short-lived local Fascist takeover in March 1922 ended in a third Italian intervention. Seven months later Italy herself fell under Fascist rule and the fate of Rijeka was set, the fascist party being among the strongest proponents of the annexation of Rijeka to Italy.
A period of diplomatic acrimony closed with the Treaty of Rome (27 January 1924), signed by Italy and Yugoslavia but unrecognized by all other powers, which assigned Rijeka to Italy and Sušak to Yugoslavia, with joint port administration. Formal Italian annexation (16 March 1924) inaugurated twenty years of Italian government.
Rijeka durant la II Guerra Mundial[modifica | modifica el codi]
At the beginning of World War II Rijeka immediately found itself in an awkward position. The city was overwhelmingly Italian, but its immediate surroundings and the city of Sušak, just across the Rječina river (today a suburb of Rijeka proper) were inhabited almost exclusively by Croatians and part of a potentially hostile power – Yugoslavia. Once the Axis powers invaded Yugoslavia in April 1941, the Croatian areas surrounding the city were occupied by the Italian military, setting the stage for an intense and bloody insurgency which would last until the end of the war. Partisanactivity included guerrilla-style attacks on isolated positions or supply columns, sabotage and killings of civilians believed to be connected to the Italian and (later) German authorities. This, in turn, was met by stiff reprisals from the Italian and German military. On 14 July 1942, in reprisal for the killing of 4 civilians of Italian origin by the Partisans, the Italian military killed 100 men from the suburban village of Podhum, resettling the remaining 800 people to concentration camps.
After the surrender of Italy to the Allies in September 1943, Rijeka and the surrounding territories were annexed by Germany, becoming part of the Adriatic Littoral Zone. The partisan activity continued and intensified. On 30 April 1944, in the nearby village of Lipa, German troops killed 263 civilians in reprisal for the killing of several soldiers during a partisan attack.
Because of its industries (oil refinery, torpedo factory, shipyards) and its port facilities, the city was also a target of frequent (more than 30) Anglo-American air attacks, which caused widespread destruction and hundreds of civilian deaths. Some of the worst bombardments happened on 12 January 1944 (attack on the refinery, part of the Oil Campaign), on 3–6 November 1944, when a series of attacks resulted in at least 125 deaths and between 15 and 25 February 1945 (200 dead, 300 wounded).
The area of Rijeka was heavily fortified even before World War II (the remains of these fortifications can be seen today on the city outskirts). This was the fortified border between Italy and Yugoslavia which, at that time, cut across the city area and its surroundings. As Yugoslav troops approached the city in April 1945, one of the fiercest and largest battles in this area of Europe ensued. The 27,000 German and additional Italian troops fought tenaciously from behind these fortifications (renamed "Ingridstellung" – Ingrid Line – by the Germans). Under the command of the German general Ludwig Kübler they inflicted thousands of casualties on the attacking Yugoslav partisans, which were forced to charge uphill against well-fortified positions to the north and east of the city. Ultimately the Germans were forced to retreat. Before leaving the city, in an act of wanton destruction (World War II was almost over), the German troops destroyed the harbour area and other infrastructure with a number of huge explosive charges. However, the German attempt to break out of the partisan encirclement north-west of the city was unsuccessful. Of the approximately 27,000 German and other troops retreating from the city, 11,000 were killed (many were executed after surrendering), while the remaining 16,000 were taken prisoner. Yugoslav troops entered Rijeka on 3 May 1945. The city had suffered extensive damage in the war. The economic infrastructure was almost completely destroyed, and of the 5400 buildings in the city at the time, 2890 (53%) were either completely destroyed or heavily damaged.
Després de la II Guerra MundialI [modifica | modifica el codi]
The city's fate was again resolved by a combination of force and diplomacy. This time the city of Rijeka became part of Yugoslavia (within the federal state of Croatia), a situation formalized by the Paris peace treaty between Italy and the wartime Allies on 10 February 1947. Once the change in sovereignty was formalized, 58,000 of the 66,000 Italian speakers were gradually constrained to emigrate (they became known in Italian as esuli istriani or the exiles from Istria) or endure a harsh oppression by the new Yugoslav communist regime during the first decade of its existence, when the communist party adopted a Stalinist approach to the local ethnic question.
The discrimination and persecution many inhabitants experienced at the hands of the Yugoslav populace and officials in the last days of World War II and the first years of peace still remain painful memories for the exiled ones and somewhat of a taboo for Rijeka's political elites which still deny the events. Summary executions of alleged fascists (often proven anti-fascists or apolitical), aimed at hitting the intellectual class, Italian public servants, military officials and even ordinary civilians (at least 650 executions of Italians took place immediately after the war), and forced most ethnic Italians to leave Rijeka in order to avoid being a victim of harsher forms of ethnic cleansing. The removal was a meticulously-organized operation, aimed at convincing the hardly assimilable Italians to leave the country, as testified decades later by representatives' of the Yugoslav leadership.
Only one third of the original population (mostly Croats) remained in the city, and subsequently the city was resettled by many immigrants from various parts of Yugoslavia, changing the city demographics once again. A period of reconstruction began. During the period of the Yugoslav communist administration in the 1950s–1980s the city grew both demographically and economically, based on its traditional manufacturing industries, its maritime economy and its port, then the largest inYugoslavia. However, many of these industries were mostly a product of a socialist planned economy and could not be sustained once the economy transitioned to a more market-oriented model in the early 1990s.
In 1991 Yugoslavia broke apart, and the federal state of Croatia became independent during the Croatian War of Independence. Since then, the city has somewhat stagnated both economically as well as demographically, with some of its largest industries and employers either going out of business (the Jugolinija shipping company, the torpedo factory, the paper mill and many other medium or small manufacturing and commercial companies) or struggling to stay economically viable (the city's landmark 3. Maj shipyards). A difficult and uncertain transition of the city's economy away from manufacturing and towards the service industry and tourism is still in progress.
Demografia[modifica | modifica el codi]
|Dades històriquywes de població de Rijeka|
|Font: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005|
In the census of 2011, city proper had a population of 128,624, which include:
- Croats: 106,136 (82.52%)
- Serbs: 8,446 (6.57%)
- Bosniaks: 2,650 (2.06%)
- Italians: 2,445 (1.90%)
Other groups, including Slovenians and Hungarians, formed less than 1% each.
The following table lists the city's population, along with the population of ex-municipality (disbanded in 1995), the urban and the metropolitan area. The ex-municipality includes the cities/municipalities of Rijeka, Kastav, Viškovo, Klana, Kostrena, Čavle, Jelenje, Bakar and Kraljevica. The urban area includes the ex-municipality along with adjacent cities/municipalities of Opatija, Lovran, Mošćenička Draga, and Matulji, which form urban agglomeration. The metro area, which also includes cities/municipalities of Crikvenica, Novi Vinodolski, Vinodolska, Lokve, Fužine, Delnice and Omišalj, which all gravitate to the City and are within 30 km of down town, has a population of 245,054.
Clima i Geografia[modifica | modifica el codi]
Rijeka's position overlooking the Kvarner Bay with its islands (Cres, Krk) on the south, the Učka mountain on the west, the mountains of Gorski Kotar to the north and the Velebit range to the east offers an impressive natural setting.
The terrain configuration, with mountains rising steeply just a few miles inland from the shores of the Adriatic, provides for some striking climatic and landscape contrasts within a small geographic area. Beaches can be enjoyed throughout summer in a typically Mediterranean setting along the coastal areas of the city to the east (Pećine, Kostrena) and west (Kantrida,Preluk). At the same time, the ski resort of Platak, located only about 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) from the city, offers alpine skiingand abundant snow during winter months (at times until early May). The Kvarner Bay and its islands are visible from the ski slopes.
Rijeka has a Humid subtropical climate with warm summers and relatively mild and rainy winters. Snow is rare (usually 3 days per year, almost always occurring in patches). There are 22 days a year with a maximum of 30 °C (86 °F) or higher, while on one day a year the temperature does not exceed 0 °C (32 °F). Fog appears in about 4 days per year, mainly in winter. The climate is also characterized by frequent rainfall. Cold (bora) winds are common in wintertime.
|Dades climàtiques de Rijeka|
|Record high °C (°F)||20.0
|Average high °C (°F)||9.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.6
|Average low °C (°F)||3.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−11.4
|Average precipitation days(≥ 1 mm)||8.6||7.0||7.7||9.6||9.2||9.4||5.9||7.0||8.6||9.7||9.6||8.8||101.1|
|Average snowy days(≥ 1 cm)||1||1||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||4|
|Mean monthlysunshine hours||108.9||124.5||149.9||176.3||235.4||252.3||298.4||274.6||204.2||163.9||102.8||96.9||2,188.1|
|Font #1: World Meteorological Organisation (UN)|
|Font #2: National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (Croatia) |
|75 km (47 mi) to Trieste||114 km (71 mi) to Ljubljana||167 km (104 mi) to Zagreb|
|14 km (9 mi) to Opatija||580 km (360 mi) toBelgrade|
|106 km (66 mi) to Pula||75 km (47 mi) to Cres||35 km (22 mi) to Crikvenica|
Main sights[modifica | modifica el codi]
- Tvornica "Torpedo" (the Torpedo factory). The first European prototypes of a self-propelled torpedo, created byGiovanni Luppis, a retired naval engineer from Rijeka. The remains of this factory still exist, including a well-preserved launch ramp used for testing self-propelled torpedoes on which in 1866 the first torpedo was tested.
Inside the Sanctuary of the Madonna of Trsat
- Svetište Majke Božje Trsatske – the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Trsat. Built 135 m (443 ft) above sea level on the Trsat hill during the late Middle Ages, it represents the Guardian of Travellers, especially seamen, who bring offerings to her so she will guard them or help them in time of trouble or illness. It is home to the Gothic sculpture of the Madonna of Slunj and to works by the Baroque painter C. Tasce.
- Old gate or Roman arch. At first it was thought that this was a Roman Triumphal Arch built by the Roman Emperor Claudius Gothicus but later it was discovered to be just a portal to the pretorium, the army command in late antiquity.
- Rijeka Cathedral, dedicated to St. Vitus.
Transport [modifica | modifica el codi]
The Port of Rijeka is the largest port in Croatia, with a cargo throughput in 2013 of over 9 million tonnes, most of which was oil, general cargo and bulk cargo and 131,310 TEUs. In 2008 the Port of Rijeka recorded 4376 ship arrivals. The port is managed by the Port of Rijeka Authority. The first record of a port in Rijeka date back to 1281, and in 1719, the Port of Rijeka was granted a charter as a free port. Good ferry connections with the surrounding islands and cities within Croatia exist in Rijeka, but no direct foreign passenger ship connections. There are coastal lines toSplit and onwards to Dubrovnik operated twice a week, which has international connections. Pula offers more direct southward connections from northwestern Croatia.
Rijeka has efficient road connections to other parts of Croatia and neighbouring countries. The A6 motorway connects Rijeka to Zagreb via the A1, while the A7 motorway, completed in 2004, links Rijeka with Ljubljana, Slovenia via Ilirska Bistricaand Italy. The A7 acts as the Rijeka bypass motorway and facilitates access to theA8 motorway of the Istrian Y network starting with the Učka Tunnel, and linking Rijeka with Istria. As of August 2011, the bypass is being extended eastwards to theKrk Bridge area and new feeder roads are under construction.
The city is difficult to get to by air; the city's own international airport, Rijeka Airportis located on the nearby island of Krk across the tolled Krk Bridge. Handling only 140,000 passengers in 2013, the facility is more of a charter airport than a serioustransport hub, although various scheduled airlines have begun to serve it.
Rijeka is integrated into the Croatian railway network and international rail lines. A fully electrified railway connects Rijeka to Zagreb and beyond towards Koprivnica and the Hungarian border as part of Pan-European corridor Vb. Rijeka is also connected to Trieste and Ljubljana by a separate electrified line that extends northwards from the city. Rijeka is has direct connections by daily trains to Vienna, Munich, and Salzburg, and night trains running through Rijeka. Construction of a new high performance railway between Rijeka and Zagreb, extending to Budapest is planned, as well as rail links connecting Rijeka to the island of Krk and between Rijeka and Pula.
Esport[modifica | modifica el codi]
Rijeka was host to the 2008 European Short Course Swimming Championships. In its more than 80 years of history, LEN had never seen so many records set as the number of them set at the Kantrida Swimming Complex. A total of 14 European Records were set of which 10 World Records and even 7 World Best Times. This championship also presented a record in the number of participating countries. There were more than 600 top athletes, from some 50 European countries. Swimmers from 21 nations won medals and 40 of the 51 national member Federations of LEN were present in Rijeka.
HNK Rijeka is Rijeka's main football team, currently playing in the first Croatian division. Rijeka's other important sports clubs are RK Zamet (handball), VK Primorje EB (waterpolo), KK Kvarner (basketball) and ŽOK Rijeka (women's volleyball).
International relations[modifica | modifica el codi]
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Croatia
Ciutats agermanades[modifica | modifica el codi]
Rijeka està agermanada amb les següents ciutats:
Fills il·lustres[modifica | modifica el codi]
- Mihaly Csikszentmihályi (1934-),professor de psi cologia a la Universitat de Claremont (Califòrnia)
- Diana Haller (1986-), cantant d'Òpera
- János Kádár (1912-1989), secretari general del partit comunista hongarès
- Ödön von Horváth (1901-1938), dramaturg i novelista austrohongarès en llengua alemanya
- Leo Valiani (1909-1999), historiador italià, polític i periodista
- Ivan Zajc (1832-1914), compositor croata
- Robert Ludvigovich Bartini (1897-1974), i ngenier aeronàuhtic i científic italià
- Giovanni Luppis (1813-1875), oficial de Marina de l'Imperi Austrohongarès, inventor del torpede
- Ezio Loik (1919-1939), futbolista italià
- Petar Radaković (1937-1966), jugador de futbol croata
- Ulderico Sergo (1913-1967), boxejador italià professional, medalla d'or als Jocs Olímpics d'Estiu de Berlin del 1936
- Paul Felix Nemenyi , matemàtic i físIc hongarès
- Janko Polić Kamov (1886-1910), escriptor i poeta croata
- Abdon Pamich (1933-), atleta italià, medalla de bronze als Jocs Olímpics de Roma del 1960 i d'or als de Tokyo del 1964
- Josip Bozanić (1949.) , cardenal croata
- Dino Ciani (1941-1974) pianista italià
Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]
Notes[modifica | modifica el codi]
: "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Rijeka". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012, a http://www.dzs.hr/default_e.htm
: Manca la font. Dades extretes de la pàgina de la Wipedia anglesa dedicada a la ciutat.
: «Rijeka». L'Enciclopèdia.cat. Barcelona: Grup Enciclopèdia Catalana
: A.J.P. Taylor: The Habsburg Monarchy, 1809–1918, University of Chicago Press, Paperback edition, 1976,ISBN 0-226-79145-9, page 269
Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]
- Pàgina oficial de Rijeka (croat) (anglès) (italià)