Elops machnata

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Elops machnata
Exemplars a la venda en un mercat de les illes Filipines
Exemplars a la venda en un mercat de les illes Filipines
Classificació científica
Regne: Animalia
Fílum: Chordata
Classe: Actinopterygii
Superordre: Elopomorpha
Ordre: Elopiformes
Família: Elopidae
Gènere: Elops
(Linnaeus, 1766)[1][2]
Espècie: E. machnata
Nom binomial
Elops machnata
(Forsskål, 1775)[3]
Sinònims
  • Argentina machnata (Forsskål, 1775)
  • Elops capensis (Smith, 1849)
  • Elops indicus (Swainson, 1839)[4]

Elops machnata és una espècie de peix pertanyent a la família dels elòpids.[5]

Descripció[modifica | modifica el codi]

Reproducció[modifica | modifica el codi]

Fresa probablement al mar, tot i que les larves, transparents, migren a les zones costaneres i es troben sovint en aigües salabroses.[10][11][12]

Alimentació[modifica | modifica el codi]

Juvenils i adults es nodreixen de peixets i crustacis.[13]

Depredadors[modifica | modifica el codi]

A Sud-àfrica és depredat pel tauró de puntes negres (Carcharhinus limbatus)[14] i el pigarg africà (Haliaeetus vocifer).[15][16]

Hàbitat[modifica | modifica el codi]

És un peix d'aigua marina i salabrosa, bentopelàgic,[17] pelàgic-nerític, oceanòdrom i de clima tropical (38°N-37°S, 22°E-153°W), el qual viu a les aigües costaneres i entra a les llacunes i estuaris.[18][6]

Distribució geogràfica[modifica | modifica el codi]

Es troba des del mar Roig fins a Mossel Bay (Sud-àfrica),[19][20][21][22] l'Índia[18][23][24][25][26] i el Pacífic occidental.[27][6][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][9][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][10][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71]

Observacions[modifica | modifica el codi]

És inofensiu per als humans i comestible, encara que no és saborós i està ple d'ossos.[72][6]

Referències[modifica | modifica el codi]

  1. Linnaeus C., 1766. Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae. 12th ed. Systema Nat. ed. 12 v. 1 (pt 1). 1-532.
  2. uBio (anglès)
  3. Forsskål, P., 1775. Descriptiones animalium avium, amphibiorum, piscium, insectorum, vermium; quae in itinere orientali observavit... Post mortem auctoris edidit Carsten Niebuhr. Hauniae. Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis terras per annos 1772, 1773 et 1774 suscepto, ...: 1-20 + i-xxxiv + 1-164, map.
  4. Catalogue of Life (anglès)
  5. The Taxonomicon (anglès)
  6. 6,0 6,1 6,2 6,3 FishBase (anglès)
  7. IGFA, 1991. World record game fishes. International Game Fish Association, Florida, els Estats Units.
  8. IGFA, 2001. Base de dades de registres de pesca IGFA fins al 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Estats Units.
  9. 9,0 9,1 Eccles, D.H., 1992. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of Tanzania. Prepared and published with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (project URT/87/016). FAO, Roma. 145 p.
  10. 10,0 10,1 Kottelat, M. i A.J. Whitten, 1996. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi: additions and corrections. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 8 p.
  11. Breder, C.M. i D.E. Rosen, 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, Nova Jersey, Estats Units. 941 p.
  12. Thresher, R.E., 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Inc. Ltd., Neptune City, Nova Jersey, Estats Units. 399 p.
  13. Fischer, W., I. Sousa, C. Silva, A. de Freitas, J.M. Poutiers, W. Schneider, T.C. Borges, J.P. Feral i A. Massinga, 1990. Fichas FAO de identificaçao de espécies para actividades de pesca. Guia de campo das espécies comerciais marinhas e de águas salobras de Moçambique. Publicaçao preparada em collaboraçao com o Instituto de Investigaçao Pesquiera de Moçambique, com financiamento do Projecto PNUD/FAO MOZ/86/030 e de NORAD. Roma, FAO. 1990. 424 p.
  14. Dudley, S.F.J. i G. Cliff, 1993. Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off Natal, South Africa. 7. The blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes). S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 13:237-254.
  15. Whitfield, A.K. i S.J.M. Blaber, 1978. Feeding ecology of piscivorous birds at Lake St. Lucia. Part 1. Diving birds. Ostrich, 49(4):185-198.
  16. FishBase (anglès)
  17. Mundy, B.C., 2005. Checklist of the fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletins in Zoology. Bishop Mus. Bull. Zool. (6):1-704.
  18. 18,0 18,1 Talwar, P.K. i A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 541 p.
  19. Van der Elst, R.P. i F. Adkin (eds.), 1991. Marine linefish: priority species and research objectives in southern Africa. Oceanogr. Res. Inst., Spec. Publ. Núm. 1. 132 p.
  20. Van der Elst, R., 1993. A guide to the common sea fishes of southern Africa. (3a. edició) Struik Publishers, Ciutat del Cap. 398 p.
  21. Van der Elst, R., 1981. A guide to the common sea fishes of southern Africa. C. Struik, Ciutat del Cap. 367 p.
  22. Marais, J.F.K., 1984. Feeding ecology of major carnivorous fish from four eastern Cape estuaries. S. Afr. J. Zool. 19(3):210-223.
  23. Talwar, P.K. i R.K. Kacker, 1984. Commercial sea fishes of India. Zoological Survey of India, Calcuta. 997 p.
  24. Shaji, C.P., P.S. Easa i A. Gopalakrishnan, 2000. Freshwater fish diversity of Western Ghats. p. 33-35. A: Ponniah, A.G. i A. Gopalakrishnan. (eds.). Endemic Fish Diversity of Western Ghats. NBFGR-NATP Publication. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, U.P., Índia. 1, 347 p.
  25. Rema Devi, K. i T.J. Indra, 2000. Freshwater ichthyofaunal resources of Tamil Nadu. p. 77-97. A: Ponniah, A.G. i A. Gopalakrishnan. Endemic Fish Diversity of Western Ghats. NBFGR-NATP Publication. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, U.P., l'Índia. 1, 347 p.
  26. Kapoor, D., R. Dayal i A.G. Ponniah, 2002. Fish biodiversity of India. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources Lucknow, Índia. 775 p.
  27. Thollot, P., 1996. Les poissons de mangrove du lagon sud-ouest de Nouvelle-Calédonie. ORSTOM Éditions, París.
  28. Bianchi, G., 1985. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine and brackish-water species of Tanzania. Prepared and published with the support of TCP/URT/4406 and FAO (FIRM) Regular Programme. FAO, Roma. 199 p.
  29. Blaber, S.J.M., J.W. Young i M.C. Dunning, 1985. Community structure and zoogeographic affinities of the coastal fishes of the Dampier region of north-western Australia. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 36: 247-266.
  30. Bouhlel, M., 1988. Poissons de Djibouti. Placerville (Califòrnia, els Estats Units): RDA International, Inc. 416 p.
  31. Conlu, P.V., 1986. Guide to Philippine flora and fauna. Fishes. Volum IX. Natural Resources Management Center, Quezon City. 495 p.
  32. Daget, J., 1984. Elopidae. P. 30-31. A: J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse i D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.). Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, París i MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1.
  33. De Bruin, G.H.P., B.C. Russell i A. Bogusch, 1995. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The marine fishery resources of Sri Lanka. Roma, FAO. 400 p.
  34. Dela Paz, R. i N. Aragones, 1985. Mangrove fishes of Pagbilao (Quezon Province, Luzon Island), with notes on their abundance and seasonality. Natural and Applied Sci. Bull. 37(2):171-190.
  35. Fouda, M.M. i G.V. Hermosa, Jr., 1993. A checklist of Oman fishes. Sultan Qaboos University Press, Oman. 42 p.
  36. Fricke, R., 1999. Fishes of the Mascarene Islands (Réunion, Mauritius, Rodriguez): an annotated checklist, with descriptions of new species. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, Theses Zoologicae, Vol. 31: 759 p.
  37. Ganaden, S.R. i F. Lavapie-Gonzales, 1999. Common and local names of marine fishes of the Philippines. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Filipines. 385 p.
  38. Gloerfelt-Tarp, T. i P.J. Kailola, 1984. Trawled fishes of southern Indonesia and northwestern Australia. Australian Development Assistance Bureau, Austràlia, Directorate General of Fishes, Indonèsia i German Agency for Technical Cooperation, República Federal d'Alemanya. 407 p.
  39. Harrison, T.D., 2001. Length-weight relationships of fishes from South African estuaries. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 17(1):46-48.
  40. Hermes, R., 1993. Species composition of small-scale fish landings in Lae, Papua New Guinea. Naga ICLARM Q. 16(2&3):38.
  41. Herre, A.W.C.T. i A.F. Umali, 1948. English and local common names of Philippine fishes. U. S. Dept. of Interior and Fish and Wildl. Serv. Circular Núm. 14, U. S. Gov't Printing Office, Washington. 128 p.
  42. Hoese, D.F., D.J. Bray, J.R. Paxton i G.R. Allen, 2006. Fishes. A Beasley, O.L. i A. Wells (eds.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volum 35. ABRS & CSIRO Publishing: Australia Part 1, pp. xxiv 1-670; Part 2, pp. xxi 671-1472; Part 3, pp. xxi 1473-2178.
  43. Jeyaseelan, M.J.P., 1998. Manual of fish eggs and larvae from Asian mangrove waters. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. París. 193 p.
  44. Kailola, P.J., 1987. The fishes of Papua New Guinea. A revised and annotated checklist. Vol. 1. Myxinidae to Synbranchidae. Research Bulletin Núm. 41. Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Port Moresby, Papua Nova Guinea. 194 p.
  45. Kottelat, M., 2001. Freshwater fishes of northern Vietnam. A preliminary check-list of the fishes known or expected to occur in northern Vietnam with comments on systematics and nomenclature. Environment and Social Development Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region. El Banc Mundial. 123 p.
  46. Kulbicki, M., G. Mou Tham, P. Thollot i L. Wantiez, 1993. Length-weight relationships of fish from the lagoon of New Caledonia. Naga ICLARM Q. 16(2-3):26-29.
  47. Kulbicki, M., N. Guillemot i M. Amand, 2005. A general approach to length-weight relationships for New Caledonian lagoon fishes. Cybium 29(3):235-252.
  48. Kulbicki, M., Y.-M. Bozec, P. Labrosse, Y. Letourneur, G. Mou-Tham i L. Wantiez, 2005. Diet composition of carnivorous fishes from coral reef lagoons of New Caledonia. Aquat. Living Resour. 18:231-250.
  49. Kuo, S.-R. i K.-T. Shao, 1999. Species composition of fish in the coastal zones of the Tsengwen estuary, with descriptions of five new records from Taiwan. Zool. Stud. 38(4):391-404.
  50. Kuo, S.-R., H.-J. Lin i K.-T. Shao, 1999. Fish assemblages in the mangrove creeks of northern and southern Taiwan. Estuaries 22(4):1004-1015.
  51. Letourneur, Y., M. Kulbicki i P. Labrosse, 1998. Length-weight relationships of fish from coral reefs and lagoons of New Caledonia, southwestern Pacific Ocean: an update. Naga ICLARM Q. 21(4): 39-46.
  52. Letourneur, Y., P. Chabanet, P. Durville, M. Taquet, E. Teissier, M. Parmentier, J.-C. Quéro i K. Pothin, 2004. An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean. Cybium 28(3):199-216.
  53. Marais, J.F.K., 1981. Seasonal abundance, distribution, and catch per unit effort using gill-nets, of fishes in the Sundays estuary. S. Afr. J. Zool. 16(3):142-150.
  54. Marais, J.F.K. i D. Baird, 1980. Analysis of anglers catch data from the Swartkops estuary. S. Afr. J. Zool. 15(2):61-65.
  55. Marais, J.F.K. i D. Baird, 1980. Seasonal abundance, distribution and catch per unit effort of fishes in the Swartkops estuary. S. Afr. J. Zool. 15(2):66-71.
  56. Masuda, H., C. Araga i T. Yoshino, 1975. Coastal fishes of southern Japan. Tokai University Press, Tòquio, Japó. 382 p.
  57. Mohsin, A.K.M. i M.A. Ambak, 1996. Marine fishes and fisheries of Malaysia and neighbouring countries. University of Pertanian Malaysia Press, Serdang, Malàisia. 744 p.
  58. Mohsin, A.K.M., M.A. Ambak i M.N.A. Salam, 1993. Malay, English, and scientific names of the fishes of Malaysia. Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malàisia, Occasional Publication Núm. 11.
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  60. Ni, I.-H. i K.-Y. Kwok, 1999 Marine fish fauna in Hong Kong waters. Zool. Stud. 38(2):130-152.
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Bibliografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Anònim, 2000. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, Sud-àfrica. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, Sud-àfrica.
  • Anònim, 2002. Base de dades de la col·lecció de peixos del American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West, NY 10024-5192, Estats Units.
  • Eschmeyer, William N., 1990: Catalog of the Genera of Recent Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. iii + 697. ISBN 0-940228-23-8.
  • Kotlyar, A.N., 1984. Dictionary of names of marine fishes on the six languages. All Union Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, Moscou. 288 p.
  • Museu Suec d'Història Natural. Base de dades de la col·lecció d'ictiologia. Secció d'Ictiologia, Departament de Zoologia de Vertebrats. Estocolm, Suècia, 1999.
  • Ricker, W.E., 1973. Russian-English dictionary for students of fisheries and aquatic biology. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa.
  • Riede, K., 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Alemanya. 329 p.
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea i W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p.
  • Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao i C.F. Lai (eds.), 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]

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