Agència Espacial Europea

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Infotaula d'organitzacióAgència Espacial Europea
ESA logo.png
Dades
Nom curt ESA, ASE i ESA
Tipus organització intergovernamental, Agència espacial i organització internacional
Idioma oficial anglès, francès i alemany
Forma jurídica societat cotitzada en borsa
Història
Creació 30 maig 1975
Fundador Bèlgica, Dinamarca, França, Alemanya, Itàlia, Països Baixos, Espanya, Suècia, Regne Unit i Suïssa
Organització i govern
Seu 
Xifres destacables
Ingressos totals 5.255.000.000 lliures esterlines (2016)

Lloc web Lloc web
Facebook: EuropeanSpaceAgency Twitter: esa Instagram: europeanspaceagency Youtube: UCIBaDdAbGlFDeS33shmlD0A Flickr: 37472264@N04
Modifica les dades a Wikidata

L'Agència Espacial Europea (European Space Agency, ESA escoltar escoltar (pàg.), francès: Agence spatiale européenne escoltar escoltar (pàg.), ASE;[1][2] alemany: Europäische Weltraumorganisation) és una organització intergovernamental de 22 estats participants dedicada a l'exploració de l'espai. Fundada el 1975 i amb seu a París,[3] l’ESA té un personal global d’uns 2.200 treballadors el 2018[4] i un pressupost anual d’uns 5,72 milions d’euros el 2019.[5][6][7]

El programa de vols espacials de l'ESA inclou el vol espacial tripulat (principalment mitjançant la participació al programa de l'Estació Espacial Internacional); el llançament i l’operació de missions d’exploració no tripulades cap a altres planetes i la Lluna; Observació de la terra, ciència i telecomunicacions; disseny de vehicles de llançament; i mantenir un important port espacial, el Port Espacial de Kourou, Guaiana Francesa. El principal vehicle de llançament europeu Ariane 5 és operat a través d'Arianespace amb la participació de l'ESA en els costos del llançament i el desenvolupament d'aquest vehicle de llançament. L’agència també treballa amb la NASA per fabricar el mòdul de servei de la nau espacial Orion, que serà transportada en el Space Launch System.[8][9] L'European Space Agency Science Programme és un programa a llarg termini de missions de ciència i exploració espacial.

Història i objectius[modifica]

Orígens[modifica]

Article principal: ESRO
Vegeu també: ELDO

El 14 de juny de 1962 es va crear l'Organització Europea de Recerca a l'Espai (European Space Research Organization, ESRO),[10] organisme orientat principalment al desenvolupament de satèl·lits. Quasi al mateix període alguns governs europeus volgueren iniciar activitats en el camp de la construcció de transportadors per a satèl·lits, Això va donar lloc a l'Organització Europea per al Desenvolupament i Llançament de Vehicles Espacials (European Space Vehicle Launcher Development Organization, ELDO), que tenia com a finalitat desenvolupar el projecte del gran transportador Europa. A principis del 1964 les dues organitzacions estaven operatives. La ELDO reunia als estats membres de la Unió Europea Occidental, Àustria i altres estats no membres aleshores de la Unió, com Espanya i Dinamarca, mentre que estaven exclosos països neutrals com Suïssa i Suècia. La ESRO agrupava tots els països de l'Europa occidental amb poques i insignificants excepcions. Com a fruit del programa d'inversions de la ESRO, sorgeixen el Centre Europeu de Recerca i Tecnologia Espacials (European Space Research and Technology Centre, ESTEC), encarregat del desenvolupament de satèl·lits i vehicles espacials, i el Centre Europeu d'Operacions Espacials (European Space Operations Centre, ESOC), responsable del control de les operacions dels satèl·lis en òrbita.

L'any 1973, amb l'acord global de tots els països membres, s'aproven tres projectes: l'Spacelab, l'Ariane i el Marots. També es pren una decisió fonamental, la creació de l'Agència Espacial Europea (ESA).

Els inicis de l'ESA[modifica]

La primera missió científica de l'ESA fou l'any 1975, el Cos-B, un programa de proves de monitoratge d'emissions de rajos gamma a l'univers.

El projecte estrella de l'ESA és el programa Ariane consistent en una sèrie de sistemes de llançament. Durant els anys 80, la ESA va desenvolupar diferents models del coet. La versió més usada fou l'Ariane 4, que fou operativa entre el 1988 i el 2003, i que consagrà l'ESA com la líder en llançaments comercials.

L'ESA actualment[modifica]

Actualment l'ESA opera amb l'Ariane 5, una nova versió del coet, que si bé tingué uns primers llançaments infructuosos (els anys 1996 i 1997), a hores d'ara és indiscutiblement un dels més exitosos del món. Tot i això, ja s'ha començat a dissenyar el futur Ariane 6.

Missió[modifica]

Els plans de l'ESA es poden dividir en tres categories:

  • L'ESA vol mantenir els seus projectes de recerca i desenvolupament de sistemes de propulsió, per reduir-ne els costos.
  • Observació espacial, amb el llançament de satèl·lits per l'estudi del cosmos. Aquí cal remarcar la seva participació en l'Estació Espacial Internacional, ISS.
  • Exploració i descoberta de planetes dins i fora del sistema solar. Exemples d'aquest objectiu són els exitosos llançaments i aterratges de sondes d'exploració de superfície a Mart, com els aterratges dels Rovers a Mart.

Jean-Jacques Dordain – ESA's Director General (2003-2015) – outlined the European Space Agency's mission in a 2003 interview:[11]

« Today space activities have pursued the benefit of citizens, and citizens are asking for a better quality of life on Earth. They want greater security and economic wealth, but they also want to pursue their dreams, to increase their knowledge, and they want younger people to be attracted to the pursuit of science and technology.

I think that space can do all of this: it can produce a higher quality of life, better security, more economic wealth, and also fulfill our citizens' dreams and thirst for knowledge, and attract the young generation. This is the reason space exploration is an integral part of overall space activities. It has always been so, and it will be even more important in the future.

»

Activitats i programes[modifica]

ESA describes its work in two overlapping ways:

  • For the general public, the various fields of work are described as Activities.
  • Budgets are organized as Programmes (British spelling retained because it is a term of official documents). These are either Mandatory or Optional.

Activitats[modifica]

According to the ESA website, the activities are:

  • Observing the Earth
  • Human Spaceflight
  • Launchers
  • Navigation
  • Space Science
  • Space Engineering & Technology
  • Operations
  • Telecommunications & Integrated Applications
  • Preparing for the Future
  • Space for Climate

Programes[modifica]

Obligatori[modifica]

Every member country must contribute to these programmes:[15]

  • Technology Development Element Programme[16]
  • Science Core Technology Programme
  • General Study Programme
  • European Component Initiative

Opcional[modifica]

Depending on their individual choices the countries can contribute to the following programmes, listed according to:[17]

  • Launchers
  • Earth Observation
  • Human Spaceflight and Exploration
  • Telecommunications
  • Navigation
  • Space Situational Awareness
  • Technology

ESA_LAB@[modifica]

ESA has formed partnerships with universities. ESA_LAB@ refers to research laboratories at universities. Currently there are ESA_LAB@


Membres, finançament i pressupost[modifica]

Participació i contribució a l'ESA[modifica]

  • ESA member states
  • ESA associate members
  • ECS states
  • Signatories of the Cooperation Agreement
  • By 2015, ESA was an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states.[22] Member states participate to varying degrees in the mandatory (25% of total expenditures in 2008) and optional space programmes (75% of total expenditures in 2008).[23] The 2008 budget amounted to €3.0 billion the 2009 budget to €3.6 billion.[24] The total budget amounted to about €3.7 billion in 2010, €3.99 billion in 2011, €4.02 billion in 2012, €4.28 billion in 2013, €4.10 billion in 2014 and €4.33 billion in 2015.[25][26][27][28][29] English is the main language within ESA. Additionally, official documents are also provided in German and documents regarding the Spacelab are also provided in Italian. If found appropriate, the agency may conduct its correspondence in any language of a member state.

    The following table lists all the member states and adjunct members, their ESA convention ratification dates, and their contributions in 2019:[5]

    Member state/Source ESA convention National programme Contr.
    (mill. €)
    Contr.
    (%)
    Contr. per capita (€)[30]
    Àustria Àustria[note 1] 00030-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1986 de desembre de 30 FFG &000000000000005700000057,0 &00000000000000013999991,4% 5.37
     Belgium[note 2] 00003-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1978 d'octubre de 3 BELSPO &0000000000000191400000191,4 &00000000000000045999994,6% 17.82
    República Txeca República Txeca[note 3] 00012-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 2008 de novembre de 12 Ministry of Transport &000000000000003310000033,1 &00000000000000008000000,8% 3.06
    Dinamarca Dinamarca[note 2] 00015-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1977 de setembre de 15 DTU Space &000000000000003150000031,5 &00000000000000008000000,8% 5.47
    Estònia Estònia[note 3] 00004-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 2015 de febrer de 4 ESO &00000000000000027000002,7 &00000000000000001000000,1% 1.97
    Finlàndia Finlàndia[note 3] 00001-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1995 de gener de 1 Business Finland &000000000000001950000019,5 &00000000000000005000000,5% 3.52
    França França[note 2] 00030-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1980 d'octubre de 30 CNES &00000000000011744000001.174,4 &000000000000002810000028,1% 14.30
    Alemanya Alemanya[note 2] 00026-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1977 de juliol de 26 DLR &0000000000000927100000927,1 &000000000000002219999922,2% 11.11
    Grècia Grècia[note 3] 00009-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 2005 de març de 9 HSA &000000000000001050000010,5 &00000000000000003000000,3% 0.98
    Hongria Hongria[note 3] 00024-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 2015 de febrer de 24 HSO &00000000000000052000005,2 &00000000000000001000000,1% 0.63
    Irlanda Irlanda[note 1] 00010-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1980 de desembre de 10 EI &000000000000001950000019,5 &00000000000000005000000,5% 3.60
    Itàlia Itàlia[note 2] 00020-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1978 de febrer de 20 ASI &0000000000000420199999420,2 &000000000000001009999910,1% 7.77
    Luxemburg Luxemburg[note 3] 00030-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 2005 de juny de 30 Luxinnovation &000000000000002989999929,9 &00000000000000007000000,7% 44.19
    Països Baixos Països Baixos[note 2] 00006-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1979 de febrer de 6 NSO &000000000000007770000077,7 &00000000000000018999991,9% 5.32
    Noruega Noruega [note 1] 00030-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1986 de desembre de 30 NSA &000000000000006440000064,4 &00000000000000015000001,5% 12.09
    Polònia Polònia[note 3] 00019-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 2012 de novembre de 19 POLSA &000000000000003460000034,6 &00000000000000008000000,8% 0.91
    Portugal Portugal[note 3] 00014-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 2000 de novembre de 14 FCT &000000000000001800000018,0 &00000000000000004000000,4% 1.77
    Romania Romania[note 3] 00022-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 2011 de desembre de 22 ROSA &000000000000004539999945,4 &00000000000000011000001,1% 2.18
    Espanya Espanya[note 2] 00007-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1979 de febrer de 7 INTA &0000000000000201800000201,8 &00000000000000047999994,8% 4.39
    Suècia Suècia[note 2] 00006-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1976 d'abril de 6 SNSA &000000000000007440000074,4 &00000000000000018000001,8% 7.15
     Suïssa[note 2] 00019-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1976 de novembre de 19 SSO &0000000000000158400000158,4 &00000000000000037999993,8% 17.61
    Regne Unit Regne Unit[note 2] 00028-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1978 de març de 28 UKSA &0000000000000369600000369,6 &00000000000000088000008,8% 5.05
    Other &0000000000000199599999199,6 &00000000000000047999994,8%
    Non-full members
    Canadà Canadà[note 4] 00001-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 1979 de gener de 1[39] CSA &000000000000001180000011,8 &00000000000000003000000,3% 0.53
    Eslovènia Eslovènia 00005-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 2016 de juliol de 5[41] &00000000000000023999992,4 &00000000000000001000000,1% 1.31
    Total members and associates &Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut ","4.180,0 &0000000000000100000000100%
    Plantilla:EU[note 5] 00028-Plantilla:MONTH-Plantilla:0expr 2004 de maig de 28[42] ESP &00000000000012497000001.249,7 &000000000000008129999981,3% 2.56
    EUMETSAT &0000000000000187199999187,2 &000000000000001219999912,2%
    Other income Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{" Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{" &000000000000009950000099,5 &00000000000000065000006,5%
    Total other institutional partners &Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut ","1.540,0 &0000000000000100000000100%
    Total ESA &Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut ","5.720,0
    1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 These nations are considered initial signatories, but since they were members of neither ESRO nor ELDO (the precursor organisations to ESA) the Convention could only enter into force when the last of the other 10 founders ratified it.
    2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 2,7 2,8 2,9 Founding members and initial signatories drafted the ESA charter which entered into force on 30 October 1980. These nations were also members of either ELDO or ESRO.[31]
    3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4 3,5 3,6 3,7 3,8 Acceded members became ESA member states upon signing an accession agreement.[32][33][34][35][36][37][38]
    4. Canada is a Cooperating State of ESA.[39][40]
    5. Framework Agreement establishing the legal basis for cooperation between ESA and the European Union came into force in May 2004.

    Estats membres amb participació parcial[modifica]

    Eslovènia[modifica]

    Currently the only associated member state is Slovenia.[41] Previously associated members were Austria, Norway and Finland, all of which later joined ESA as full members.

    Canadà[modifica]

    Since 1 January 1979, Canada has had the special status of a Cooperating State within ESA. By virtue of this accord, the Canadian Space Agency takes part in ESA's deliberative bodies and decision-making and also in ESA's programmes and activities. Canadian firms can bid for and receive contracts to work on programmes. The accord has a provision ensuring a fair industrial return to Canada.[43] The most recent Cooperation Agreement was signed on 2010-12-15 with a term extending to 2020.[44][45] For 2014, Canada's annual assessed contribution to the ESA general budget was €6,059,449 (CAD$8,559,050).[46] For 2017, Canada has increased its annual contribution to €21,600,000 (CAD$30,000,000).[47]

    Apropiació i assignació pressupostària[modifica]

    European Space Agency 2016 budget by domain out of a total budget is 5250M€.

    ESA is funded from annual contributions by national governments as well as from an annual contribution by the European Union (EU).[48]

    The budget of ESA was €5.250 billion in 2016.[49] Every 3–4 years, ESA member states agree on a budget plan for several years at an ESA member states conference. This plan can be amended in future years, however provides the major guideline for ESA for several years. [cal citació] The 2016 budget allocations for major areas of ESA activity are shown in the chart on the right.[49]

    Countries typically have their own space programmes that differ in how they operate organisationally and financially with ESA. For example, the French space agency CNES has a total budget of €2015 million, of which €755 million is paid as direct financial contribution to ESA.[50] Several space-related projects are joint projects between national space agencies and ESA (e.g. COROT). Also, ESA is not the only European governmental space organisation (for example European Union Satellite Centre).

    Ampliació[modifica]

    After the decision of the ESA Council of 21/22 March 2001, the procedure for accession of the European states was detailed as described the document titled "The Plan for European Co-operating States (PECS)".[51] Nations that want to become a full member of ESA do so in 3 stages. First a Cooperation Agreement is signed between the country and ESA. In this stage, the country has very limited financial responsibilities. If a country wants to co-operate more fully with ESA, it signs a European Cooperating State (ECS) Agreement. The ECS Agreement makes companies based in the country eligible for participation in ESA procurements. The country can also participate in all ESA programmes, except for the Basic Technology Research Programme. While the financial contribution of the country concerned increases, it is still much lower than that of a full member state. The agreement is normally followed by a Plan For European Cooperating State (or PECS Charter). This is a 5-year programme of basic research and development activities aimed at improving the nation's space industry capacity. At the end of the 5-year period, the country can either begin negotiations to become a full member state or an associated state or sign a new PECS Charter.[52] Many countries, most of which joined the EU in both 2004 and 2007, have started to co-operate with ESA on various levels:

    Applicant state EU membership Cooperation Agreement ECS Agreement PECS Charter(s) National Programme
    Turquia Turquia No Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[53] TUSA
    Flag of Ukraine.svg Ucraïna No Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[54] SSAU
    Eslovènia Eslovènia 2004 Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[55] Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[56] Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[57] through MoHEST
    Letònia Letònia 2004 Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[58] Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[59] Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[60] through MoES
    Cyprus Xipre 2004 Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[61] Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[62] through MoCW
    Eslovàquia Eslovàquia 2004 Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[63] Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[64] through MoE
    Lituània Lituània 2004 Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[65] 10 October 2014[66] LSA[67][68]
    Israel Israel No Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[69] ISA
    Malta Malta 2004 Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[70] MCST[71]
    Bulgària Bulgària 2007 Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[72] Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"Error de l'expressió: Signe de puntuació no reconegut "{"[73] SRTI
    Country
    A aquestCroatia viquipedista li encanta el country.
    2013 19 February 2018[74] through MoSE

    During the Ministerial Meeting in December 2014, ESA ministers approved a resolution calling for discussions to begin with Israel, Australia and South Africa on future association agreements. The ministers noted that "concrete cooperation is at an advanced stage" with these nations and that "prospects for mutual benefits are existing".[75]

    A separate space exploration strategy resolution calls for further co-operation with the United States, Russia and China on "LEO exploration, including a continuation of ISS cooperation and the development of a robust plan for the coordinated use of space transportation vehicles and systems for exploration purposes, participation in robotic missions for the exploration of the Moon, the robotic exploration of Mars, leading to a broad Mars Sample Return mission in which Europe should be involved as a full partner, and human missions beyond LEO in the longer term."[75]

    La UE i l'Agència Espacial Europea[modifica]

    The political perspective of the European Union (EU) was to make ESA an agency of the EU by 2014,[76] although this date was not met. The EU is already the largest single donor to ESA's budget and non-ESA EU states are observers at ESA.


  • Membres de la ESA
  • ECS/PECS
  • Signants de l'Acord de Cooperació
  • La ESA està formada per les organitzacions espacials i altres entitats de 22 països: Alemanya, Àustria, Bèlgica, Dinamarca, Espanya, Estònia, Finlàndia, França, Grècia, Hongria, Irlanda, Itàlia, Luxemburg, Noruega, Països Baixos, Polònia, Portugal, Regne Unit, Romania, Suècia, Suïssa i Txèquia. Pròximament s'hi uniran països que recentment s'han unit a la Unió Europea.

    Comparació amb altres agències espacials[modifica]

    LA ESA té un pressupost de 4.020 milions d'euros (després s'han d'afegir els pressupostos de les agències espacials de cada país membre), cosa que la situa en segon lloc per darrere de la NASA, amb un pressupost de 13.000 milions d'euros. En tercer lloc està l'agència espacial japonesa JAXA amb un pressupost de 1.600 milions d'euros i l'agència xinesa, amb un pressupost de 1.000 milions d'euros. No obstant s'ha de tenir en compte que països com la Xina, tenen un poder adquisitiu més petit (sous més barats i materials més barats), i amb uns càlculs senzills es pot deduir que equitativament l'agència espacial xinesa és com si es gastés 9.000 milions d'euros, i l'agència Índia, 3.000 milions d'euros.

    L'Agència Espacial Russa, que abans fou pionera i primera potència mundial ha hagut de reduir dràsticament el pressupost i té actualment un pressupost al voltant de 900 milions d'euros.

    Flota de vehicles de llançament[modifica]

    ESA has a fleet of different launch vehicles in service with which it competes in all sectors of the launch market. ESA's fleet consists of three major rocket designs: Ariane 5, Soyuz-2 and Vega. Rocket launches are carried out by Arianespace, which has 23 shareholders representing the industry that manufactures the Ariane 5 as well as CNES, at ESA's Guiana Space Centre. Because many communication satellites have equatorial orbits, launches from French Guiana are able to take larger payloads into space than from spaceports at higher latitudes. In addition, equatorial launches give spacecraft an extra 'push' of nearly 500 m/s due to the higher rotational velocity of the Earth at the equator compared to near the Earth's poles where rotational velocity approaches zero.

    Ariane 5[modifica]

    Article principal: Ariane 5
    Ariane 5 ECA transported to the ELA-3 launch pad

    The Ariane 5 rocket is ESA's primary launcher. It has been in service since 1997 and replaced Ariane 4. Two different variants are currently in use. The heaviest and most used version, the Ariane 5 ECA, delivers two communications satellites of up to 10 tonnes into GTO. It failed during its first test flight in 2002, but has since made 82 consecutive successful flights until a partial failure in January 2018. The other version, Ariane 5 ES, was used to launch the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) to the International Space Station (ISS) and will be used to launch four Galileo navigational satellites at a time.[77][78]

    In November 2012, ESA agreed to build an upgraded variant called Ariane 5 ME (Mid-life Evolution) which would increase payload capacity to 11.5 tonnes to GTO and feature a restartable second stage to allow more complex missions. Ariane 5 ME was scheduled to fly in 2018,[79] but the whole project was scrapped in favor of Ariane 6, planned to replace Ariane 5 in the 2020s.

    ESA's Ariane 1, 2, 3 and 4 launchers (the last of which was ESA's long-time workhorse) have been retired.

    Soiuz[modifica]

    Soyuz-2 (also called the Soyuz-ST or Soyuz-STK) is a Russian medium payload launcher (ca. 3 metric tons to GTO) which was brought into ESA service in October 2011.[80][81] ESA entered into a €340 million joint venture with the Russian Federal Space Agency over the use of the Soyuz launcher.[82] Under the agreement, the Russian agency manufactures Soyuz rocket parts for ESA, which are then shipped to French Guiana for assembly.

    ESA benefits because it gains a medium payload launcher, complementing its fleet while saving on development costs. In addition, the Soyuz rocket—which has been the Russian's space launch workhorse for some 40 years—is proven technology with a very good safety record. Russia benefits in that it gets access to the Kourou launch site. Due to its proximity to the equator, launching from Kourou rather than Baikonur nearly doubles Soyuz's payload to GTO (3.0 tonnes vs. 1.7 tonnes).

    Soyuz first launched from Kourou on 21 October 2011, and successfully placed two Galileo satellites into orbit 23,222 kilometres above Earth.[80]

    Vega[modifica]

    Vega rocket
    Article principal: Vega (coet)

    Vega is ESA's carrier for small satellites. Developed by seven ESA members led by Italy, it is capable of carrying a payload with a mass of between 300 and 1500 kg to an altitude of 700 km, for low polar orbit. Its maiden launch from Kourou was on 13 February 2012.[83] Vega began full commercial exploitation in December 2015[84]

    The rocket has three solid propulsion stages and a liquid propulsion upper stage (the AVUM) for accurate orbital insertion and the ability to place multiple payloads into different orbits.[85][86]

    Finançament de vehicles de llançament Ariane[modifica]

    Historically, the Ariane family rockets have been funded primarily "with money contributed by ESA governments seeking to participate in the program rather than through competitive industry bids. This [has meant that] governments commit multiyear funding to the development with the expectation of a roughly 90% return on investment in the form of industrial workshare." ESA is proposing changes to this scheme by moving to competitive bids for the development of the Ariane 6.[87]

    Vol espacial tripulat[modifica]

    Història[modifica]

    Ulf Merbold became the first ESA astronaut to fly into space.

    At the time ESA was formed, its main goals did not encompass human space flight; rather it considered itself to be primarily a scientific research organisation for unmanned space exploration in contrast to its American and Soviet counterparts. It is therefore not surprising that the first non-Soviet European in space was not an ESA astronaut on a European space craft; it was Czechoslovak Vladimír Remek who in 1978 became the first non-Soviet or American in space (the first man in space being Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union) – on a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft, followed by the Pole Mirosław Hermaszewski and East German Sigmund Jähn in the same year. This Soviet co-operation programme, known as Intercosmos, primarily involved the participation of Eastern bloc countries. In 1982, however, Jean-Loup Chrétien became the first non-Communist Bloc astronaut on a flight to the Soviet Salyut 7 space station.

    Because Chrétien did not officially fly into space as an ESA astronaut, but rather as a member of the French CNES astronaut corps, the German Ulf Merbold is considered the first ESA astronaut to fly into space. He participated in the STS-9 Space Shuttle mission that included the first use of the European-built Spacelab in 1983. STS-9 marked the beginning of an extensive ESA/NASA joint partnership that included dozens of space flights of ESA astronauts in the following years. Some of these missions with Spacelab were fully funded and organizationally and scientifically controlled by ESA (such as two missions by Germany and one by Japan) with European astronauts as full crew members rather than guests on board. Beside paying for Spacelab flights and seats on the shuttles, ESA continued its human space flight co-operation with the Soviet Union and later Russia, including numerous visits to Mir.

    During the latter half of the 1980s, European human space flights changed from being the exception to routine and therefore, in 1990, the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany was established. It selects and trains prospective astronauts and is responsible for the co-ordination with international partners, especially with regard to the International Space Station. As of 2006, the ESA astronaut corps officially included twelve members, including nationals from most large European countries except the United Kingdom.

    In the summer of 2008, ESA started to recruit new astronauts so that final selection would be due in spring 2009. Almost 10,000 people registered as astronaut candidates before registration ended in June 2008. 8,413 fulfilled the initial application criteria. Of the applicants, 918 were chosen to take part in the first stage of psychological testing, which narrowed down the field to 192. After two-stage psychological tests and medical evaluation in early 2009, as well as formal interviews, six new members of the European Astronaut Corps were selected - five men and one woman.[88]

    Astronautes[modifica]

    Vegeu també: European Astronaut Corps

    The astronauts of the European Space Agency are:

    1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 have visited Mir
    2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 2009 selection
    3. 3,00 3,01 3,02 3,03 3,04 3,05 3,06 3,07 3,08 3,09 3,10 3,11 3,12 3,13 3,14 have visited the International Space Station
    4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 4,3 4,4 now retired

    Vehicles tripulants[modifica]

    In the 1980s, France pressed for an independent European crew launch vehicle. Around 1978 it was decided to pursue a reusable spacecraft model and starting in November 1987 a project to create a mini-shuttle by the name of Hermes was introduced. The craft was comparable to early proposals for the Space Shuttle and consisted of a small reusable spaceship that would carry 3 to 5 astronauts and 3 to 4 metric tons of payload for scientific experiments. With a total maximum weight of 21 metric tons it would have been launched on the Ariane 5 rocket, which was being developed at that time. It was planned solely for use in low Earth orbit space flights. The planning and pre-development phase concluded in 1991; the production phase was never fully implemented because at that time the political landscape had changed significantly. With the fall of the Soviet Union ESA looked forward to co-operation with Russia to build a next-generation space vehicle. Thus the Hermes programme was cancelled in 1995 after about 3 billion dollars had been spent. The Columbus space station programme had a similar fate.

    In the 21st century, ESA started new programmes in order to create its own crew vehicles, most notable among its various projects and proposals is Hopper, whose prototype by EADS, called Phoenix, has already been tested. While projects such as Hopper are neither concrete nor to be realised within the next decade, other possibilities for human spaceflight in co-operation with the Russian Space Agency have emerged. Following talks with the Russian Space Agency in 2004 and June 2005,[93] a co-operation between ESA and the Russian Space Agency was announced to jointly work on the Russian-designed Kliper, a reusable spacecraft that would be available for space travel beyond LEO (e.g. the moon or even Mars). It was speculated that Europe would finance part of it. A €50 million participation study for Kliper, which was expected to be approved in December 2005, was finally not approved by the ESA member states. The Russian state tender for the project was subsequently cancelled in 2006.

    In June 2006, ESA member states granted 15 million to the Crew Space Transportation System (CSTS) study, a two-year study to design a spacecraft capable of going beyond Low-Earth orbit based on the current Soyuz design. This project was pursued with Roskosmos instead of the cancelled Kliper proposal. A decision on the actual implementation and construction of the CSTS spacecraft was contemplated for 2008. In mid-2009 EADS Astrium was awarded a €21 million study into designing a crew vehicle based on the European ATV which is believed to now be the basis of the Advanced Crew Transportation System design.[94]

    In November 2012, ESA decided to join NASA's Orion programme. The ATV would form the basis of a propulsion unit for NASA's new manned spacecraft. ESA may also seek to work with NASA on Orion's launch system as well in order to secure a seat on the spacecraft for its own astronauts.[95]

    In September 2014, ESA signed an agreement with Sierra Nevada Corporation for co-operation in Dream Chaser project. Further studies on the Dream Chaser for European Utilization or DC4EU project were funded, including the feasibility of launching a Europeanized Dream Chaser onboard Ariane 5.[96][97]

    Cooperació amb altres països i organitzacions[modifica]

    ESA has signed co-operation agreements with the following states that currently neither plan to integrate as tightly with ESA institutions as Canada, nor envision future membership of ESA: Argentina,[98] Brazil,[99] China,[100] India[101] (for the Chandrayan mission), Russia[102] and Turkey.[103]

    Additionally, ESA has joint projects with the European Union, NASA of the United States and is participating in the International Space Station together with the United States (NASA), Russia and Japan (JAXA).

    Unió Europea[modifica]

  • ESA and EU member states
  • ESA-only members
  • EU-only members
  • ESA is not an agency or body of the European Union (EU), and has non-EU countries (Norway, and Switzerland) as members. There are however ties between the two, with various agreements in place and being worked on, to define the legal status of ESA with regard to the EU.[104]

    There are common goals between ESA and the EU. ESA has an EU liaison office in Brussels. On certain projects, the EU and ESA co-operate, such as the upcoming Galileo satellite navigation system. Space policy has since December 2009 been an area for voting in the European Council. Under the European Space Policy of 2007, the EU, ESA and its Member States committed themselves to increasing co-ordination of their activities and programmes and to organising their respective roles relating to space.[105]

    The Lisbon Treaty of 2009 reinforces the case for space in Europe and strengthens the role of ESA as an R&D space agency. Article 189 of the Treaty gives the EU a mandate to elaborate a European space policy and take related measures, and provides that the EU should establish appropriate relations with ESA.

    Former Italian astronaut Umberto Guidoni, during his tenure as a Member of the European Parliament from 2004 to 2009, stressed the importance of the European Union as a driving force for space exploration, "since other players are coming up such as India and China it is becoming ever more important that Europeans can have an independent access to space. We have to invest more into space research and technology in order to have an industry capable of competing with other international players."[106]

    The first EU-ESA International Conference on Human Space Exploration took place in Prague on 22 and 23 October 2009.[107] A road map which would lead to a common vision and strategic planning in the area of space exploration was discussed. Ministers from all 29 EU and ESA members as well as members of parliament were in attendance.[108]

    Organitzacions espacials nacionals dels estats membres[modifica]

    • The Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES) (National Centre for Space Study) is the French government space agency (administratively, a "public establishment of industrial and commercial character"). Its headquarters are in central Paris. CNES is the main participant on the Ariane project. Indeed, CNES designed and tested all Ariane family rockets (mainly from its centre in Évry near Paris)
    • The UK Space Agency is a partnership of the UK government departments which are active in space. Through the UK Space Agency, the partners provide delegates to represent the UK on the various ESA governing bodies. Each partner funds its own programme.
    • The Italian Space Agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana or ASI) was founded in 1988 to promote, co-ordinate and conduct space activities in Italy. Operating under the Ministry of the Universities and of Scientific and Technological Research, the agency cooperates with numerous entities active in space technology and with the president of the Council of Ministers. Internationally, the ASI provides Italy's delegation to the Council of the European Space Agency and to its subordinate bodies.
    • The German Aerospace Center (DLR) (German: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V.) is the national research centre for aviation and space flight of the Federal Republic of Germany and of other member states in the Helmholtz Association. Its extensive research and development projects are included in national and international cooperative programmes. In addition to its research projects, the centre is the assigned space agency of Germany bestowing headquarters of German space flight activities and its associates.
    • The Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA) (National Institute for Aerospace Technique) is a Public Research Organization specialised in aerospace research and technology development in Spain. Among other functions, it serves as a platform for space research and acts as a significant testing facility for the aeronautic and space sector in the country.

    NASA[modifica]

    ESA has a long history of collaboration with NASA. Since ESA's astronaut corps was formed, the Space Shuttle has been the primary launch vehicle used by ESA's astronauts to get into space through partnership programmes with NASA. In the 1980s and 1990s, the Spacelab programme was an ESA-NASA joint research programme that had ESA develop and manufacture orbital labs for the Space Shuttle for several flights on which ESA participate with astronauts in experiments.

    In robotic science mission and exploration missions, NASA has been ESA's main partner. Cassini–Huygens was a joint NASA-ESA mission, along with the Infrared Space Observatory, INTEGRAL, SOHO, and others. Also, the Hubble Space Telescope is a joint project of NASA and ESA. Future ESA-NASA joint projects include the James Webb Space Telescope and the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.[cal citació] NASA has committed to provide support to ESA's proposed MarcoPolo-R mission to return an asteroid sample to Earth for further analysis.[cal citació] NASA and ESA will also likely join together for a Mars Sample Return Mission.[109]

    Cooperació amb altres agències espacials[modifica]

    Since China has started to invest more money into space activities, the Chinese Space Agency has sought international partnerships. ESA is, beside the Russian Space Agency, one of its most important partners. Two space agencies cooperated in the development of the Double Star Mission.[110] In 2017, ESA sent two astronauts to China for two weeks sea survival training with Chinese astronauts in Yantai, Shandong.[111]

    ESA entered into a major joint venture with Russia in the form of the CSTS, the preparation of French Guiana spaceport for launches of Soyuz-2 rockets and other projects. With India, ESA agreed to send instruments into space aboard the ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 in 2008.[112] ESA is also co-operating with Japan, the most notable current project in collaboration with JAXA is the BepiColombo mission to Mercury.

    Speaking to reporters at an air show near Moscow in August 2011, ESA head Jean-Jacques Dordain said ESA and Russia's Roskosmos space agency would "carry out the first flight to Mars together."[113]

    Estació Espacial Internacional[modifica]

    Vegeu també: Contribució europea a l'Estació Espacial Internacional

    With regard to the International Space Station (ISS) ESA is not represented by all of its member states:[114] 10 of the 21 ESA member states currently participate in the project: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Austria, Finland and Ireland chose not to participate, because of lack of interest or concerns about the expense of the project. The United Kingdom withdrew from the preliminary agreement because of concerns about the expense of the project. Portugal, Luxembourg, Greece, the Czech Republic, Romania and Poland joined ESA after the agreement had been signed. ESA is taking part in the construction and operation of the ISS with contributions such as Columbus, a science laboratory module that was brought into orbit by NASA's STS-122 Space Shuttle mission and the Cupola observatory module that was completed in July 2005 by Alenia Spazio for ESA. The current estimates for the ISS are approaching €100 billion in total (development, construction and 10 years of maintaining the station) of which ESA has committed to paying €8 billion.[115] About 90% of the costs of ESA's ISS share will be contributed by Germany (41%), France (28%) and Italy (20%). German ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter was the first long-term ISS crew member.

    ESA has developed the Automated Transfer Vehicle for ISS resupply. Each ATV has a cargo capacity of 7.667 quilograms (16.903 lb).[116] The first ATV, Jules Verne, was launched on 9 March 2008 and on 3 April 2008 successfully docked with the ISS. This manoeuvre, considered a major technical feat, involved using automated systems to allow the ATV to track the ISS, moving at 27,000 km/h, and attach itself with an accuracy of 2 cm.

    As of 2013, the spacecraft establishing supply links to the ISS are the Russian Progress and Soyuz, European ATV, Japanese Kounotori (HTV), and the USA COTS program vehicles Dragon and Cygnus.

    European Life and Physical Sciences research on board the International Space Station (ISS) is mainly based on the European Programme for Life and Physical Sciences in Space programme that was initiated in 2001.

    Llengües[modifica]

    According to Annex 1, Resolution No. 8 of the ESA Convention and Council Rules of Procedure,[1] English, French and German may be used in all meetings of the Agency, with interpretation provided into these three languages. All official documents are available in English and French with all documents concerning the ESA Council being available in German as well.

    Instal·lacions[modifica]

    ESA Mission Control at ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany

    ESA i les institucions de la UE[modifica]

    The Flag of Europe is the one to be flown in space during missions (for example it was flown by ESA's Andre Kuipers during Delta mission)

    The Commission is increasingly working together towards common objectives. Some 20 per cent of the funds managed by ESA now originate from the supranational budget of the European Union.

    However, in recent years the ties between ESA and the European institutions have been reinforced by the increasing role that space plays in supporting Europe's social, political and economic policies.

    The legal basis for the EU/ESA co-operation is provided by a Framework Agreement which entered into force in May 2004. According to this agreement, the European Commission and ESA co-ordinate their actions through the Joint Secretariat, a small team of EC's administrators and ESA executive. The Member States of the two organisations meet at ministerial level in the Space Council, which is a concomitant meeting of the EU and ESA Councils, prepared by Member States representatives in the High-level Space Policy Group (HSPG).

    ESA maintains a liaison office in Brussels to facilitate relations with the European institutions.

    Garantir l’accés europeu a l’espai[modifica]

    In May 2007, the 29 European countries expressed their support for the European Space Policy in a resolution of the Space Council, unifying the approach of ESA with those of the European Union and their member states.

    Prepared jointly by the European Commission and ESA's Director General, the European Space Policy sets out a basic vision and strategy for the space sector and addresses issues such as security and defence, access to space and exploration.

    Through this resolution, the EU, ESA and their Member States all commit to increasing co-ordination of their activities and programmes and their respective roles relating to space.[119]

    Incidents[modifica]

    On 3 August 1984 ESA's Paris headquarters were severely damaged and six people were hurt when a bomb exploded, planted by the far-left armed Action Directe group.[120]

    On 14 December 2015, hackers from Anonymous breached ESA's subdomains and leaked thousands of login credentials.[121]

    Televisió[modifica]

    Zones a les quals al satèl·lit Eutelsat transmet ESA Television

    ESA Television és la cadena de televisió que emet l'AEE. Es transmet tan sols per mitjà d'una xarxa de Televisió per satèl·lit, i periòdicament emet programació per l'Eutelsat, en concret, pel satèl·lit Eutelsat 9A, que permet la recepció de l'informació a Europa, Africa del Nord i Orient Mitjà. A més a més, de tant en tant, emet esdeveniments en directe, també a través dels diferents satèl·lits d'Eutelsat a tot el continent europeu.[122] El satèl·lit propietat de l'Agencia Espacial Europea difon les emissions, livestreams i programes a tot Europa gràcies al EUTELSAT 9A, a 9º est de banda K, amb el transponder 59 (11900.1 MHz, de polarització horitzontal). Utilitza el DVB-S2.[123]

    ESA Television emet Retransmissió en directe de llançaments de satèl·lits i missions espacials, Informació i notícies actualitzades via EBS i Dos magazines al mes de 4 minuts cada un, que es retransmet fins a 21 vegades en set idiomes diferents. Tot això es pot trobar al catàleg online de la web.[124] D'inici, l'ESA Television no s'emetia simultàniament a través d'internet, així doncs, la programació era descarregable gràcies a un lloc web de FTP. Aquest requeria que els usuaris iniciessin sessió; es podia accedir al nom d'usuari i la contrasenya registrant-se al Servei de Notificació de la Televisió d'ESA. Un cop registrats, els usuaris que accedissin al canal, hi podien trobar tot el material penjat. Des del 2008, a part del que ja hem explicat, l'ESA ja transmet alguns events i activitats en directe, utilitzant la plataforma Livestream.com. Entre aquestes activitats, hi podem trobar exploracions espacials llançaments i fins i tot algunes transmissions periòdiques. També s'informa de les pròximes transmissions, de manera que a la pàgina web s'indica el dia, l'hora d'inici i fi de la transmissió i el tipus i format.[125]

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    A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Agència Espacial Europea
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