Llengües atapascanes

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Atapascà
Athabascan, Athapascan, Athapaskan
Distribució
geogràfica:
Amèrica del Nord occidental
Classificació
genètica
:
Na-Dené
 Na-Dené
  Athabaskan-Eyak
   Atapascà
Subdivisions:
Distribució de les llengües atapascanes

Les llengües atapascanes o dené són un grup d'idiomes de la família Na-dené parlats a Amèrica del Nord. El nom, donat per Albert Gallatin, prové del llac Atapasca.

Característiques[modifica | modifica el codi]

La seva divisió se sol fer per àrees geogràfiques (Nord, Pacífic i Sud), malgrat les discrepàncies entre llengües de cada grup (especialment al grup del nord). Els idiomes d'aquesta subfamília deriven d'una llengua perduda, el protoatapascà.

La majoria d'idiomes del grup presenten tonalitat i una gran complexitat verbal, amb afixos que indiquen quantitat, situació del parlant, cas gramatical, marca de transitivitat i conjugació.

El grup inclou prop de 50 idiomes de què s'han conservat evidències, entre els quals destaquen el chipewyan, el sarsi, el deg hit'an, el tanana, el navaho i l'apatxe.

Etimologia[modifica | modifica el codi]

El nom "atapasca" no correspon a cap gentilici del grup, ni exònim ni endònim; el mot ni tan sols és d'origen atapascà. És el nom d'un llac dins de l'extensió original de les llengües atapascanes, però el nom del llac prové de la llengua Cree (de la família àlgica), amb el significant "on hi ha plantes, l'una rere l'altra" (aðapaskāw). Segons Albert Gallatin, l'investigador qui va anomenar el grup de llengües, la designació fou arbitrària.

Bibliografia[modifica | modifica el codi]

  • Boas, Franz. 1917. Grammatical notes on the language of the Tlingit Indians. (University Museum Anthropological Publications 8.1). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
  • Campbell, Lyle. 1997. American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Cook, Eung-Do. 1981. Athabaskan linguistics: Proto-Athapaskan phonology. Annual Review of Anthropology 10. 253–273.
  • Cook, Eung-Do. 1992. Athabaskan languages. In William Bright (ed.), International encyclopedia of linguistics, 122–128. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505196-3.
  • Cook, Eung-Do & Keren Rice. 1989. Introduction. In Eung-Do Cook & Keren Rice (eds.), Athapaskan linguistics: Current perspectives on a language family, 1–61. (Trends in Linguistics, State-of-the-art Reports 15). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 0-89925-282-6.
  • Hoijer, Harry. 1938. The southern Athapaskan languages. American Anthropologist 40(1). 75–87.
  • Hoijer, Harry. 1956. The Chronology of the Athapaskan languages. International Journal of American Linguistics 22(4). 219–232.
  • Hoijer, Harry. 1963. The Athapaskan languages. In Harry Hoijer (ed.), Studies in the Athapaskan languages, 1–29. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Hoijer, Harry (ed.). 1963. Studies in the Athapaskan languages. (University of California publications in linguistics 29). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Hoijer, Harry. 1971. The position of the Apachean languages in the Athpaskan stock. In Keith H. Basso & M. E. Opler (eds.), Apachean culture history and ethnology, 3–6. (Anthropological papers of the University of Arizona 21). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  • Hymes, Dell H. 1957. A note on Athapaskan glottochronology. International Journal of American Linguistics 23(4). 291–297.
  • Kari, Jim, James A. Fall, & Shem Pete. 2003. Shem Pete’s Alaska: The territory of the Upper Cook Inlet Denaʼina. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press. ISBN 1-889963-56-9 (cloth); ISBN 1-889963-57-7 (pbk.).
  • Kibrik, Andrej A. 1993. Transitivity increase in Athabaskan languages. In Bernard Comrie & Maria Polinsky (eds.), Causatives and Transitivity, 47–68. (Studies in Language Comparison Series 23). Philadelphia: John Benjamins. ISBN 978-1-55619-375-0 (hbk).
  • Kibrik, Andrej A. 1996. Transitivity decrease in Navajo and Athabaskan: Actor-affecting propositional derivations. In Eloise Jelinek, Sally Midgette, Keren Rice, & Leslie Saxon (eds.) Athabaskan language studies: Essays in honor of Robert W. Young, 259–304. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico. ISBN 0-8263-1705-7 (cloth).
  • Kibrik, Andrej A. 2001. A typologically oriented portrait of the Athabaskan language family. Presented at ALT-IV, Santa Barbara, CA.
  • Krauss, Michael E. 1964. The proto-Athapaskan-Eyak and the problem of Na-Dene, I: The phonology. International Journal of American Linguistics 30(2). 118–131.
  • Krauss, Michael E. 1965. The proto-Athapaskan-Eyak and the problem of Na-Dene, II: The morphology. International Journal of American Linguistics 31(1). 18–28.
  • Krauss, Michael E. 1968. Noun-classification systems in the Athapaskan, Eyak, Tlingit and Haida verbs. International Journal of American Linguistics 34(3). 194–203.
  • Krauss, Michael E. 1969. On the classification in the Athapascan, Eyak, and the Tlingit verb. Baltimore: Waverly Press, Indiana University.
  • Krauss, Michael E. 1973. Na-Dene. In Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.), Linguistics in North America, 903–978. (Current trends in linguistics 10). The Hague: Mouton. (Reprinted as Krauss 1976).
  • Krauss, Michael E. 1976a. Na-Dene. In Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.), Native languages of the Americas, 283–358. New York: Plenum. Reprint of Krauss 1973.
  • Krauss, Michael E. 1976b. Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak fricatives and the first person singular. Unpublished manuscript.
  • Krauss, Michael E. 1979. Na-Dene and Eskimo. In Lyle Campbell & Marianne Mithun (eds.), The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Krauss, Michael E. 1979. Athabaskan tone. Unpublished manuscript. Published with revisions as Krauss 2005.
  • Krauss, Michael E. 1981. On the history and use of comparative Athapaskan linguistics. Unpublished manuscript.
  • Krauss, Michael E. 1986. Edward Sapir and Athabaskan linguistics. In W. Cowan, M. Foster, & K. Koerner (eds.), New perspectives in language, culture, and personality, 147–190. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
  • Krauss, Michael E. 1987. The name Athabaskan. In Peter L. Corey (ed.), Faces, Voices & Dreams: A celebration of the centennial of the Sheldon Jackson Museum, Sitka, Alaska, 1888-1988, 105-08. Sitka, AK: Division of Alaska State Museums and the Friends of the Alaska State Museum. PDF version available from the Alaska Native Language Center.
  • Krauss, Michael E. 2005. Athabaskan tone. In Sharon Hargus & Keren Rice (eds.), Athabaskan Prosody, 51–136. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Revision of unpublished manuscript dated 1979.
  • Krauss, Michael E. & Victor Golla. 1981. Northern Athapaskan languages. In J. Helm (ed.), Subarctic, 67–85. (Handbook of North American Indians 6). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Krauss, Michael E. & Jeff Leer. 1981. Athabaskan, Eyak, and Tlingit sonorants. (Alaska Native Language Center research papers 5). Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska, Alaska Native Language Center.
  • Leer, Jeff. 1979. Proto-Athabaskan verb stem variation I: Phonology. (Alaska Native Language Center research papers 1). Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Language Center.
  • Leer, Jeff. 1982. Navajo and comparative Athabaskan stem list. Unpublished manuscript.
  • Leer, Jeff. 1990. Tlingit: A portmanteau language family? In Philip Baldi (ed.), Linguistic change and reconstruction methodology, 73–98. (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and monographs 45). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-011908-4.
  • Leer, Jeff. 2005. How stress shapes the stem-suffix complex in Athabaskan. In Sharon Hargus & Keren Rice (eds.), Athabaskan Prosody, 278–318. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Leer, Jeff. 2008. Recent advances in AET comparison. Unpublished manuscript.
  • Mithun, Marianne. 1999. The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X (pbk).
  • Naish, Constance & Gillian Story. 1973. Tlingit verb dictionary. Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Language Center. ISBN 0-933769-25-3.
  • Rice, Keren. 1997. A reexamination of Proto-Athabaskan y. Anthropological Linguistics 39(3). 423–426.
  • Rice, Keren. 2000. Morpheme order and semantic scope: Word formation in the Athapaskan verb. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-58354-1 (hbk); ISBN 978-0-521-02450-1 (pbk).
  • Sapir, Edward. 1915. The Na-Dene languages, a preliminary report. American Anthropologist 17(3). 534–558.
  • Sapir, Edward. 1916. Time perspective in aboriginal American culture: A study in method. (Anthropology series 13; Memoirs of the Canadian Geological Survey 90). Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau.
  • Sapir, Edward. 1931. The concept of phonetic law as tested in primitive languages by Leonard Bloomfield. In S. A. Rice (ed.), Methods in social science: A case book, 297–306. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Sapir, Edward. 1936. Linguistic evidence suggestive of the northern origin of the Navaho. American Anthropologist 38(2). 224–235.
  • Saville-Troike, Muriel. 1985. On variable data and phonetic law: A case from Sapir's Athabaskan correspondences. International Journal of American Linguistics 51(4). 572–574.
  • Sturtevant, William C. (ed.). 1978–present. Handbook of North American Indians, vols. 1-20. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. Vols. 1–3, 16, 18–20 not yet published.
  • Vajda, Edward. 2009. A Siberian link with Na-Dene languages. Unpublished manuscript.

Enllaços externs[modifica | modifica el codi]